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Cultural competence in mental health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870795/achieving-equity-in-physical-activity-participation-acsm-experience-and-next-steps
#1
Rebecca E Hasson, David R Brown, Joan Dorn, Lisa Barkley, Carol Torgan, Melicia Whitt-Glover, Barbara Ainsworth, NiCole Keith
There is clear and consistent evidence that regular physical activity is an important component of healthy lifestyles, and fundamental to promoting health and preventing disease. Despite the known benefits of physical activity participation, many people in the United States (US) remain inactive. More specifically, physical activity behavior is socially patterned with lower participation rates among women, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual minority youth, individuals with less education, persons with physical, mental and cognitive disabilities, individuals > 65 years of age, and those living in the southeast region of the US...
November 19, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868261/mental-health-of-transgender-veterans-of-the-iraq-and-afghanistan-conflicts-who-experienced-military-sexual-trauma
#2
Jan A Lindsay, Colt Keo-Meier, Sonora Hudson, Annette Walder, Lindsey A Martin, Michael R Kauth
Little is known about military sexual trauma (MST) in transgender veterans. To address this gap, we examined archival data regarding transgender veterans from the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. There were 332 transgender veterans treated at the Veterans Health Administration between 2000 and 2013 (78 men, 254 women; mean age 33.86 years), with most being non-Hispanic White. Transgender status and mental health conditions were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision (ICD-9; World Health Organization, 1980) codes and chart review...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863498/factors-affecting-implementation-of-perinatal-mental-health-screening-in-women-of-refugee-background
#3
Nishani Nithianandan, Melanie Gibson-Helm, Jacquie McBride, Amanda Binny, Kylie M Gray, Christine East, Jacqueline A Boyle
BACKGROUND: For women of refugee background, the increased risk of mental illness associated with pregnancy is compounded by pre- and post-settlement stressors. In Australia, antenatal screening for depression and anxiety symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is recommended for all women. Despite this, screening is not routinely implemented and little is known about barriers and enablers to implementation for women of refugee background. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of health professionals (n = 28: midwives, obstetricians, perinatal mental health and refugee health experts, interpreters) and women of refugee background (n = 9)...
November 18, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805714/development-of-veteran-centric-competency-domains-for-psychiatric-mental-health-nurse-practitioner-residents
#4
Janet York, Lisa Marie Sternke, Donald Hugh Myrick, Joy Lauerer, Carole Hair
The mental health needs of military service members, Veterans, and their families are a designated national priority; however, there has been little emphasis on the inclusion of Veteran-centric domains in competency-based nursing education for psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs). The current article describes the identification and application of Veteran-centric domains in an innovative pilot residency program for PMHNPs, funded by the Veterans Health Administration Office of Academic Affiliations...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763463/ideological-vs-instrumental-barriers-to-accessing-formal-mental-health-care-in-the-developing-world-focus-on-south-eastern-nigeria
#5
Ugo Ikwuka, Niall Galbraith, Ken Manktelow, Josephine Chen-Wilson, Femi Oyebode, Rosemary C Muomah, Anuli Igboaka
The striking gaps in formal mental health care in the developing world are largely traceable to Instrumental and Ideological Barriers. Focusing on south-eastern Nigeria, the study aimed to establish the relative weight, significance and determinants of these barriers for prioritised policy interventions. Multistage sampling method was used to select participants (n = 706) to whom questionnaires were administered. Ideological Barriers (cultural and mental health literacy constraints) were more significantly perceived (84...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759707/can-academic-medicine-lead-the-way-in-the-refugee-crisis
#6
Amir A Afkhami
The world is currently in the midst of the largest refugee crisis since World War II, with the highest interval of mass displacement in recorded history according to the United Nations. The United States has pledged to maintain its position as one of the world's top resettlement countries in response to this crisis. These new immigrants will arrive with exceptional chronic and acute medical needs, including higher rates of behavioral health disorders. The author describes the health care challenges experienced by refugees seeking asylum in the United States and outlines the ways in which our health care system is currently deficient in helping refugee patients to overcome these challenges...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694299/developing-and-testing-the-short-form-knowledge-efficacy-and-practices-instrument-for-assessing-cultural-competence
#7
Gerard J Garvan, Cynthia W Garvan, Linda S Behar-Horenstein
The importance of educating dental students in cultural competence has been widely emphasized, but there is a need to assess cultural competence in a consistent and reliable way. The aims of this study were to determine latent constructs for the initial measure of cultural competence for oral health providers, the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument (KEPI), and to determine how well these factors related to previously identified latent constructs. Data were collected in surveys of dental students and from dental hygiene, dental assisting, and dental faculty members in 44 academic dental institutions from 2012 to 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618459/peer-supported-economic-empowerment-a-financial-wellness-intervention-framework-for-people-with-psychiatric-disabilities
#8
Oscar G Jiménez-Solomon, Pablo Méndez-Bustos, Margaret Swarbrick, Samantha Díaz, Sissy Silva, Maura Kelley, Steve Duke, Roberto Lewis-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: People with psychiatric disabilities experience substantial economic exclusion, which hinders their ability to achieve recovery and wellness. The purpose of this article is to describe a framework for a peer-supported economic empowerment intervention grounded in empirical literature and designed to enhance financial wellness. METHOD: The authors followed a 3-step process, including (a) an environmental scan of scientific literature, (b) a critical review of relevant conceptual frameworks, and (c) the design of an intervention logic framework based on (a) and (b), the programmatic experience of the authors, and input from peer providers...
September 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607095/simulation-for-operational-readiness-in-a-new-freestanding-emergency-department-strategy-and-tactics
#9
Robert L Kerner, Kathleen Gallo, Michael Cassara, John DʼAngelo, Anthony Egan, John Galbraith Simmons
Simulation in multiple contexts over the course of a 10-week period served as a core learning strategy to orient experienced clinicians before opening a large new urban freestanding emergency department. To ensure technical and procedural skills of all team members, who would provide care without on-site recourse to specialty backup, we designed a comprehensive interprofessional curriculum to verify and regularize a wide range of competencies and best practices for all clinicians. Formulated under the rubric of systems integration, simulation activities aimed to instill a shared culture of patient safety among the entire cohort of 43 experienced emergency physicians, physician assistants, nurses, and patient technicians, most newly hired to the health system, who had never before worked together...
October 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603041/acquired-and-participatory-competencies-in-health-professions-education-definition-and-assessment-in-global-health
#10
Quentin Eichbaum
Many health professions education programs in high-income countries (HICs) have adopted a competency-based approach to learning. Although global health programs have followed this trend, defining and assessing competencies has proven problematic, particularly in resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HIC students and trainees perform elective work. In part, this is due to programs failing to take sufficient account of local learning, cultural, and health contexts.A major divide between HIC and LMIC settings is that the learning contexts of HICs are predominantly individualist, whereas those of LMICs are generally collectivist...
September 6, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544380/parental-depression-and-associations-with-parenting-and-children-s-physical-and-mental-health-in-a-sub-saharan-african-setting
#11
Keng-Yen Huang, Gloria Abura, Rachelle Theise, Janet Nakigudde
Depression is one of the most prevalent mental health challenges in low- and middle-income countries. However, the mechanisms of parental depression on children's development are understudied in these countries. This study examined the prevalence of parental depression, contextual predictors of parental depression, and the associations between parental depression, parenting and children's development in one of the Sub-Saharan African countries-Uganda. Three hundred and three Ugandan parents of young children were recruited and interviewed...
August 20, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484391/sub-saharan-african-migrant-youths-help-seeking-barriers-and-facilitators-for-mental-health-and-substance-use-problems-a-qualitative-study
#12
Terence V McCann, Janette Mugavin, Andre Renzaho, Dan I Lubman
BACKGROUND: Many young migrants and their parents are reluctant to seek help for mental health and substance use problems. Help-seeking delays can result in longer duration of untreated problems and poorer outcomes. In this study, we aimed to identify the help-seeking barriers and facilitators for anxiety, depression and alcohol and drug use problems in young people from recently established sub-Saharan African migrant communities. METHODS: A qualitative study, incorporating individual, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, was undertaken in Melbourne, Australia...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460986/pathways-to-mental-healthcare-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#13
Ugo Ikwuka, Niall Galbraith, Ken Manktelow, Josephine Chen-Wilson, Femi Oyebode, Rosemary Chizobam Muomah, Anulika Igboaka
In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional and faith healers provide competing services alongside biomedical professionals. This may be associated with delays in reaching specialised mental health services, and hence with longer duration of untreated illness. As first line care constitutes a crucial stage in accessing of psychiatric care, investigating pathways to mental healthcare can highlight help-seeking choices. This study explored the pathways to care for mental illness preferred by a non-clinical sample of the population in south-eastern Nigeria...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402909/is-underage-abortion-associated-with-adverse-outcomes-in-early-adulthood-a-longitudinal-birth-cohort-study-up-to-25-years-of-age
#14
Suvi Leppälahti, Oskari Heikinheimo, Ilkka Kalliala, Päivi Santalahti, Mika Gissler
STUDY QUESTION: Is underage abortion associated with adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes in early adulthood when compared with underage delivery? SUMMARY ANSWER: Underage abortion was not found to be associated with mental health problems in early adulthood, and socioeconomic outcomes were better among those who experienced abortion compared with those who gave birth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Teenage motherhood has been linked with numerous adverse outcomes in later life, including low educational levels and poor physical and mental health...
September 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394385/rationale-and-study-protocol-for-a-multi-component-health-information-technology-hit-screening-tool-for-depression-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-primary-care-setting
#15
Kelly Biegler, Richard Mollica, Susan Elliott Sim, Elisa Nicholas, Maria Chandler, Quyen Ngo-Metzger, Kittya Paigne, Sompia Paigne, Danh V Nguyen, Dara H Sorkin
The prevalence rate of depression in primary care is high. Primary care providers serve as the initial point of contact for the majority of patients with depression, yet, approximately 50% of cases remain unrecognized. The under-diagnosis of depression may be further exacerbated in limited English-language proficient (LEP) populations. Language barriers may result in less discussion of patients' mental health needs and fewer referrals to mental health services, particularly given competing priorities of other medical conditions and providers' time pressures...
September 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390206/-major-obstacles-in-the-development-of-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-in-hungary
#16
Sandor Kalmar
The author ascertains that healthy personality development faces increasingly serious obstacles and consequently the number of children in need of mental healthcare is on the rise. Child and adolescent psychiatry has drawn increasing appreciation, however, it is only formal and deficient in Hungary today and cannot assure optimal mental care according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The author emphasizes that 75% of the first manifestation of the psychiatric disorders occurs during adolescence and young adulthood...
June 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380149/culturally-competent-evidence-based-behavioral-health-services-for-the-transgender-community-progress-and-challenges
#17
Debra A Hope, Richard Mocarski, Chandra L Bautista, Natalie R Holt
The presence of individuals who identify as transgender has emerged into public awareness in the United States in recent years. Celebrities who publicly transition have expanded the national conversation about gender variation beyond gender and women's studies classrooms and certain specialty health and mental health services. This increased public visibility has been accompanied by increased visibility in the mental health literature, including the publishing of competencies or guidelines for working with clients who identify as transgender by various professional organizations...
2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369374/-it-s-for-us-newcomers-lgbtq-persons-and-hiv-positive-persons-you-feel-free-to-be-a-qualitative-study-exploring-social-support-group-participation-among-african-and-caribbean-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-newcomers-and-refugees-in-toronto-canada
#18
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Nakia Lee-Foon, Shannon Ryan, Hope Ramsay
BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and refugees often face marginalization and struggles meeting the social determinants of health (SDOH) following immigration to countries such as Canada. Social isolation is a key social determinant of health that may play a significant role in shaping health disparities among LGBT newcomers and refugees...
2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301761/correlates-of-co-occurring-diabetes-and-obesity-among-community-mental-health-program-members-with-serious-mental-illnesses
#19
Judith A Cook, Lisa Razzano, Jessica A Jonikas, Margaret A Swarbrick, Pamela J Steigman, Marie M Hamilton, Tina M Carter, Alberto B Santos
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of co-occurring obesity and diabetes among community mental health program members. METHODS: Medical screenings of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists in four U.S. states. Body mass index was measured directly. Diabetes was assessed via glycosylated hemoglobin and interview self-report. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined associations with known predictors...
June 15, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294764/racial-and-ethnic-disparity-in-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Zhili Shao, William D Richie, Rahn Kennedy Bailey
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common and disabling psychiatric disorders in the USA. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are extremely important to prevent disability and improve quality of life. Recent studies have demonstrated racial and ethnic disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of MDD. African Americans (AA), Hispanics, and Asian Americans were significantly less likely to receive a depression diagnosis from a health-care provider than were non-Hispanic whites. The underdiagnosis of MDD in minority groups may be due to differences in socioeconomic status (SES), care affordability, cultural beliefs about depression, help-seeking patterns, access to culturally and linguistically appropriate care, patient-physician relationship, clinical presentation of depression, etc...
December 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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