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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321008/effects-of-a-culturally-specific-tobacco-cessation-intervention-among-african-american-quitline-enrollees-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Monica Webb Hooper, Kelly Carpenter, Michael Payne, Ken Resnicow
BACKGROUND: African Americans suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illness and have more difficulty quitting smoking than other racial/ethnic groups. Previous research indicates that African American treatment-seekers are high utilizers of tobacco quitlines, yet cessation rates via quitlines are lower relative to whites. The goal of the present study is to test the effectiveness of adding a culturally specific, video-based, adjunct to standard quitline care. It is hypothesized that the integration of an evidence-based intervention (Pathways to Freedom: Leading the Way to a Smoke-Free Community©; PTF) into quitline services will increase cessation and treatment engagement compared to control conditions, and that effects will be moderated by sociocultural factors (e...
January 10, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314446/effects-of-an-immune-stimulant-inactivated-mycobacterium-phlei-on-the-growth-performance-as-well-as-meat-quality-of-fattening-pigs
#2
Jin-Feng Zhong, Wei-Gao Wu, Aseyinjan Tastan, Xiao-Qing Zhang, Bin Wang, Xiao-Peng Tang, Re-Jun Fang
Inactivated mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei) is well known for its immune-stimulatory functions in humans and livestock, but less information is available about the influence on meat quality of pigs when used as a feed additive. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of inactivated M. phlei on growth performance as well as meat quality of fattening pigs. A total of 240 cross-bred pigs ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) with initial body weight of 80.14 ± 0.29 kg were randomly allocated to five treatments, each of which consisted of eight replicates with 6six pigs per replicate...
January 3, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307090/enemies-with-benefits-mutualistic-interactions-of-viruses-with-lower-eukaryotes
#3
REVIEW
Shounak S Jagdale, Rakesh S Joshi
Viruses represent some of the deadliest pathogens known to science. Recently they have been reported to have mutualistic interactions with their hosts, providing them direct or indirect benefits. The mutualism and symbiogenesis of such viruses with lower eukaryotic partners such as fungi, yeast, and insects have been reported but the full mechanism of interaction often remains an enigma. In many instances, these viral interactions provide resistance against several biotic and abiotic stresses, which could be the prime reason for the ecological success and positive selection of the hosts...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297709/utilization-and-budget-impact-of-tolvaptan-in-the-inpatient-setting-among-patients-with-heart-failure-and-hyponatremia
#4
Alpesh N Amin, Jesse D Ortendahl, Amanda L Harmon, Siddhesh A Kamat, Robert A Stellhorn, Sandra L Chase, Shirin V Sundar
OBJECTIVE: Assess characteristics of patients with heart failure (HF) and hyponatremia (HN) using tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, for sodium correction, and estimate the budget impact of tolvaptan use in a hospital. METHODS: The Premier Hospital Database was analyzed to assess the utilization of tolvaptan, characteristics of users and non-users, and hospitalization costs among patients with HF and HN. Using these findings, a model was developed to estimate tolvaptan costs in proportion to total medical costs of managing patients with HF and HN, and the budget impact of tolvaptan use...
January 3, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297335/mining-significant-high-utility-gene-regulation-sequential-patterns
#5
Morteza Zihayat, Heidar Davoudi, Aijun An
BACKGROUND: Mining frequent gene regulation sequential patterns in time course microarray datasets is an important mining task in bioinformatics. Although finding such patterns are of paramount important for studying a disease, most existing work do not consider gene-disease association during gene regulation sequential pattern discovery. Moreover, they consider more absent/existence effects of genes during the mining process than taking the degrees of genes expression into account. Consequently, such techniques discover too many patterns which may not represent important information to biologists to investigate the relationships between the disease and underlying reasons hidden in gene regulation sequences...
December 14, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284525/disease-specific-health-related-quality-of-life-patient-reported-outcome-measures-in-genodermatoses-a-systematic-review-and-critical-evaluation
#6
REVIEW
John W Frew, Mark Davidson, Dedee F Murrell
BACKGROUND: Health Related Quality of Life (HR-QoL) Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) have high utility in evaluation of new interventions in genodermatoses, however inconsistent standards of development and validation have hampered widespread acceptance and adoption. OBJECTIVES: To identify all published HR-QoL PROMs in genodermatoses and critically evaluate their development and measurement properties. METHODS: This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016053301)...
December 29, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278393/uv-enhanced-ethanol-sensing-properties-of-rf-magnetron-sputtered-zno-film
#7
Jinyu Huang, Yu Du, Quan Wang, Hao Zhang, Youfu Geng, Xuejin Li, Xiaoqing Tian
ZnO film was deposited by the magnetron sputtering method. The thickness of ZnO film is approximately 2 μm. The influence of UV light illumination on C₂H₅OH sensing properties of ZnO film was investigated. Gas sensing results revealed that the UV-illuminated ZnO film displays excellent C₂H₅OH characteristics in terms of high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, rapid response/recovery, and low detection limit down to 0.1 ppm. The excellent sensing performance of the sensor with UV activation could be attributed to the photocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the ZnO film, the planar film structure with high utilizing efficiency of UV light, high electron mobility, and a good surface/volume ratio of of ZnO film with a relatively rough and porous surface...
December 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261590/use-of-open-and-endovascular-surgical-techniques-to-manage-vascular-injuries-in-the-trauma-setting-a-review-of-the-aast-proovit-registry
#8
Edwin R Faulconer, Bernardino C Branco, Melissa N Loja, Kevin Grayson, James Sampson, Timothy C Fabian, John B Holcomb, Thomas Scalea, David Skarupa, Kenji Inaba, Nathaniel Poulin, Todd E Rasmussen, Joseph J Dubose
INTRODUCTION: Vascular trauma data have been submitted to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma PROspective Observational Vascular Injury Trial (PROOVIT) database since 2013. We present data to describe current use of endovascular surgery in vascular trauma. METHODS: Registry data from March 2013 to December 2016 were reviewed. All trauma patients who had an injury to a named artery, except the forearm and lower leg, were included. Arteries were grouped into anatomic regions and by compressible and non-compressible region for analysis...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238738/sociodemographic-characteristics-health-literacy-and-care-compliance-in-families-with-spina-bifida
#9
Jennifer Cooper, Deena Chisolm, Daryl J McLeod
Children with spina bifida experience varying rates of disease complications and health system overutilization. Data on sociodemographics, urinary tract infection, clean intermittent catheterization, and health system utilization were collected from caregiver-patient dyads. Newest Vital Sign (NVS) and Brief Health Literacy Screen (BRIEF) were administered to evaluate health literacy (HL). In total, 105 dyads completed enrolment with 24.8% versus 12.4% of caregivers scoring poor/marginal on the NVS and BRIEF, respectively...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237289/safely-converting-an-entire-academic-medical-center-from-sliding-scale-to-basal-bolus-insulin-via-implementation-of-the-eglycemic-management-system
#10
Rosalina Newsom, Christopher Patty, Emma Camarena, Regina Sawyer, Raymie McFarland, Thomas Gray, Melanie Mabrey
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia is common in the inpatient setting and providers frequently rely on sliding scale insulin. This case study reviews the experience of one hospital moving from high utilization of sliding scale to basal bolus insulin therapy. METHOD: This Retrospective Quality Improvement Study describes the journey of clinicians at a 580-bed hospital to convert from high usage of SSI to BBI. Hyperglycemic adult patients prescribed insulin, with/without a diagnosis of diabetes, were included...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220589/first-year-internal-medicine-residents-reflections-on-nonmedical-home-visits-to-high-risk-patients
#11
Stephanie K Nothelle, Colleen Christmas, Laura A Hanyok
PROBLEM: Patients who are high utilizers of care often experience health-related challenges that are not readily visible in an office setting but paramount for residents to learn. A nonmedical home visit performed at the beginning of residency training may help residents better understand social underpinnings related to their patient's health and place subsequent care within the context of the patient's life. INTERVENTION: First-year internal medicine residents completed a nonmedical home visit to an at-risk patient prior to seeing the patient in the office for his or her first medical visit...
December 8, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217389/competencies-for-engaging-high-needs-patients-in-primary-care
#12
Michael J Yedidia
BACKGROUND: Patients who heavily utilize hospitals and emergency departments frequently have complex needs requiring services spanning medical, behavioral, and social service sectors. This study identifies essential competencies for caring for high-needs patients and highlights their importance to primary care delivery. METHODS: Transcripts of in-depth interviews with 30 clinical and administrative staff at 23 complex care programs across the United States were analyzed using standard qualitative techniques...
December 4, 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204728/variation-in-outpatient-emergency-department-utilization-in-texas-medicaid-a-state-level-framework-for-finding-superutilizers
#13
Chris Delcher, Chengliang Yang, Sanjay Ranka, Joseph Adrian Tyndall, Bruce Vogel, Elizabeth Shenkman
BACKGROUND: Very frequent outpatient emergency department (ED) use-so called "superutilization"-at the state level is not well-studied. To address this gap, we examined frequent ED utilization in the largest state Medicaid population to date. METHODS: Using Texas Medicaid (the third largest in the USA) claims data, we examined the variability in expenditures, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and persistence across seven levels of ED utilization/year (i.e., 1, 2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-9, 10-14, and ≥ 15 visits)...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203263/use-of-shoulder-imaging-in-the-outpatient-setting-a-pilot-study
#14
Elisabeth R Garwood, Gregory S Mittl, Michael J Alaia, James Babb, Soterios Gyftopoulos
PURPOSE: Characterize the clinical utility of diagnostic shoulder imaging modalities commonly used in the outpatient workup of shoulder pain. MATERIALS/METHODS: Retrospective review of adults imaged for outpatient shoulder pain from 1/1/2013 to 9/1/2015. To be categorized as "useful", a study had to meet one of the following criteria: change the clinical diagnosis or treatment plan, provide a final diagnosis, or guide definitive treatment. A utility score was assigned to each study based on the number of utility criteria met (range 0-4)...
November 4, 2017: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202796/discharge-service-as-a-determinant-of-30-day-readmission-in-a-cohort-of-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Ladan Golestaneh, Eran Bellin, William Southern, Michal L Melamed
BACKGROUND: End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on maintenance hemodialysis, are high utilizers of inpatient services. Because of data showing improved outcomes in medical patients admitted to hospitalist-run, non-teaching services, we hypothesized that discharge from a hospitalist-run, non-teaching service is associated with lower risk of 30-day re-hospitalization in a cohort of patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: One thousand and 84 consecutive patients with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis who were admitted to Montefiore, a tertiary care center, in 2014 were analyzed using the electronic medical records...
December 4, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202144/best-uses-of-osteopathic-manipulation
#16
REVIEW
Andrew H Slattengren, Tanner Nissly, Jodi Blustin, Andrew Bader, Erin Westfall
With the growing number of DOs and the high utilization of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT), it is important for all physicians to understand the role OMT can play in the treatment of conditions ranging from low back pain to irritable bowel syndrome so that patients may be offered, or referred for, the treatment when appropriate.
December 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187391/implicit-gender-bias-and-the-use-of-cardiovascular-tests-among-cardiologists
#17
Stacie L Daugherty, Irene V Blair, Edward P Havranek, Anna Furniss, L Miriam Dickinson, Elhum Karimkhani, Deborah S Main, Frederick A Masoudi
BACKGROUND: Physicians' gender bias may contribute to gender disparities in cardiovascular testing. We used the Implicit Association Test to examine the association of implicit gender biases with decisions to use cardiovascular tests. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 2014, cardiologists completed Implicit Association Tests and a clinical vignette with patient gender randomly assigned. The Implicit Association Tests measured implicit gender bias for the characteristics of strength and risk taking...
November 29, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183310/reasons-for-encounters-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-an-urban-bavarian-primary-care-out-of-hour-service-results-of-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Constanze Storr, Lucia Marieke Gahbler, Klaus Linde, Antonius Schneider
BACKGROUND: International studies have shown a contribution of psychiatric comorbidity to high utilization rates in out-of-hour primary care (OOHC). Up to now, the impact of psychiatric comorbidity in German OOHC remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate reasons for encounter (RFE), possible psychiatric comorbidity, utilization rates, and a possible association between utilization rate and psychiatric comorbidity among patients of an urban OOHC unit. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, prospective, naturalistic study five hundred self-referred patients completed a self-designed questionnaire addressing RFE, past office visits and personal information...
November 28, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160854/biomass-derived-oxygen-and-nitrogen-co-doped-porous-carbon-with-hierarchical-architecture-as-sulfur-hosts-for-high-performance-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#19
Yan Zhao, Li Wang, Lanyan Huang, Maxim Yu Maximov, Mingliang Jin, Yongguang Zhang, Xin Wang, Guofu Zhou
In this work, a facile strategy to synthesize oxygen and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (ONPC) is reported by one-step pyrolysis of waste coffee grounds. As-prepared ONPC possesses highly rich micro/mesopores as well as abundant oxygen and nitrogen co-doping, which is applied to sulfur hosts as lithium/sulfur batteries' appropriate cathodes. In battery testing, the sulfur/oxygen and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (S/ONPC) composite materials reveal a high initial capacity of 1150 mAh·g(-1) as well as a reversible capacity of 613 mAh·g(-1) after the 100th cycle at 0...
November 21, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150316/low-threshold-extended-release-naltrexone-for-high-utilizers-of-public-services-with-severe-alcohol-use-disorder-a-pilot-study
#20
Shannon Smith-Bernardin, Chris Rowe, Emily Behar, Michelle Geier, Stuart Washington, Glenn-Milo Santos, Jason Euren, Judith Martin, Alice Gleghorn, Phillip O Coffin
Extended-release naltrexone (XRNTX) is an effective treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). We sought to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of XRNTX delivered as a stand-alone service to persons with severe AUD who are high utilizers of multiple urgent and emergency medical services (HUMS). Of 15 HUMS persons with severe AUD selected based on chart review, 11 agreed to participate. Participants received a mean of 4.5 injections (range 2-7). Modest benefits from XRNTX were observed in terms of patients' Urge-to-Drink Score and the costs of emergency medical services utilized...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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