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Zhi Zhou, Shuimiao Zhao, Junyi Ni, Yilu Su, Lingui Wang, Yanlai Xu
C-type lectin is a superfamily of Ca2+ -dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins that play significant roles in nonself-recognition and pathogen clearance. In the present study, a C-type lectin (PdC-Lectin) was chosen from stony coral Pocillopora damicornis to understand its recognition characteristics to zooxanthellae. PdC-Lectin protein contained a signal peptide and a carbohydrate-recognition domain with EPN motif in Ca2+ -binding site 2. The PdC-Lectin recombinant protein was expressed and purified in vitro...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xingtong Zhu, Yuqing Tian, Wei Xu, Yuxiang Bai, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu
In this study, a novel recombinant amylosucrase from Truepera radiovictrix DSM 17093 was characterized and found to produce α-glucans from sucrose. The enzyme showed maximum total and transglucosylation activities at pH 7.5 and maximum hydrolysis activity at pH 5.5. The optimum temperature for total, transglucosylation, and hydrolysis activities were determined to be 45, 45, and 50 °C, respectively. When the conversion of 100 mM sucrose was catalyzed at 35, 45, and 55 °C for 24 h, TR-ASase produced α-(1,4) glucans with average DPs of 59, 45, and 37, respectively...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chao Han, Weiguang Li, Chengyao Hua, Fengqing Sun, Pengsheng Bi, Qunqing Wang
Enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass is increasingly applied in agricultural and industrial applications. Nevertheless, low performance in the extreme environment severely prevents the utilization of commercial enzyme preparations. To obtain cellobiohydrolases with improved catalytic activity and thermostability, structure-based rational design was performed based on a thermostable cellobiohydrolase CtCel6 from Chaetomium thermophilum. In the present study, four conserved and noncatalytic residue substitutions were generated via site-directed mutagenesis...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Anu Singh, P K Dutta, Hridyesh Kumar, Amit Kumar Kureel, Ambak Kumar Rai
In the present study, we have synthesized chitin-glucan-aldehyde-quercetin (chi-glu-ald-que) conjugate via condensation reaction. Synthesis of chitin-glucan-aldehyde (chi-glu-ald) complex was facilitated by the oxidation of chitin-glucan (chi-glu) complex. Formation of conjugate was confirmed by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Morphological studies showed that after grafting of quercetin, several changes on surface were depicted and a more crystalline nature was observed...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jing-Kun Yan, Zhi-Chao Ding, Xianli Gao, Yao-Yao Wang, Yan Yang, Di Wu, He-Nan Zhang
In this study, hot water, 0.9% NaCl, citric acid, and 1.25 M NaOH/0.05% NaBH4 were separately used for the extraction of water-soluble H. erinaceus polysaccharides (HEPs; HEP-W, HEP-S, HEP-C, and HEP-A) from the fruit body of Hericium erinaceus. The physicochemical properties and biological activities were then investigated and compared. Results showed that the extraction solvents exhibited significant effects on the extraction yields, molecular weights, monosaccharide compositions, preliminary structural characteristics, microstructures of HEPs and on their contents, such as neutral sugar, uronic acid, protein, and β-(1 → 3)-glucan...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kengo Hayashi, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Akira Ogita, Toshio Tanaka, Isao Kubo, Ken-Ichi Fujita
Nagilactones are norditerpene dilactones isolated from the root bark of Podocarpus nagi. Although nagilactone E has been reported to show antifungal activities, its activity is weaker than that of antifungals on the market. Nagilactone E enhances the antifungal activity of phenylpropanoids such as anethole and isosafrole against nonpathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae and pathogenic Candida albicans. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the antifungal activity of nagilactone E itself have not yet been elucidated...
May 14, 2018: Fitoterapia
Long Chen, Wei Gu, Hai-Yan Xu, Gui-Lian Yang, Xiao-Feng Shan, Guang Chen, Yuan-Huan Kang, Chun-Feng Wang, Ai-Dong Qian
Genomes of 24 sequenced Bacillus velezensis strains were characterized to identity shared and unique genes of lignocellulolytic enzymes and predict potential to degrade lignocellulose. All 24 strains had genes that encoded lignocellulolytic enzymes, with potential to degrade cellulose and hemicelluloses. Several lignocellulosic genes related to cellulose degradation were universally present, including one GH5 (endo-1,4-β-glucanase), one GH30 (glucan endo-1,6-β-glucosidase), two GH4 (6-phospho-β-glucosidase, 6-phospho-α-glucosidase), one GH1 (6-phospho-β-galactosidase), one GH16 (β-glucanase) and three GH32 (two sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase and levanase)...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
Mark Joseph Desamero, Shigeru Kakuta, James Kenn Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Satoshi Hachimura, Masaya Takamoto, Jun Nakayama, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Shigeru Kyuwa
β-Glucan refers to a heterogeneous group of chemically defined storage polysaccharides containing β-(1,3)-d-linked glucose polymers with branches connected by either β-(1,4) or β-(1,6) glycosidic linkage. To date, an extensive amount of scientific evidence supports their multifunctional biological activities, but their potential involvement in the progression of premalignant lesions remains to be clarified. A4gnt KO mice that lack α1,4-N-acetylglucosamine-capped O-glycans in gastric gland mucin are a unique animal model for gastric cancer because the mutant mice spontaneously develop gastric cancer through hyperplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence...
May 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Noé Medina-Córdova, Martha Reyes-Becerril, Felipe Ascencio, Thelma Castellanos, Angel I Campa-Córdova, Carlos Angulo
Debaryomyces hansenii has been described to be effective probiotic and immunostimulatory marine yeast in fish. Nonetheless, to the best of our knowledge, it has been not assayed in ruminants. This study attempts to describe the immunostimulatory effects of its β-glucan content through in vitro assays using goat peripheral blood leukocytes at 24 h of stimulation. The structural characterization of yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ching-Fu Chen, Chun-Han Su, Ming-Nan Lai, Lean-Teik Ng
Polysaccharides including β-glucans are important bioactive components of mushroom. Xylaria nigripes is a popular medicinal fungus that has been used for treating trauma, insomnia and mental illness. This study examined the physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activities of water soluble non-digestible polysaccharides (TXNP and CXNP) from fruiting bodies of two cultivated X. nigripes strains (TXN and CXN). Results showed that both TXNP and CXNP possessed relatively similar FT-IR spectra. TXNP had a triple helix conformation and molecular weight of 853...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hisaka Shimizu, Masahiro Nakajima, Akimasa Miyanaga, Yuta Takahashi, Nobukiyo Tanaka, Kaito Kobayashi, Naohisa Sugimoto, Hiroyuki Nakai, Hayao Taguchi
β-1,2-Glucan is a polysaccharide produced mainly by some Gram-negative bacteria as a symbiosis and infectious factor. We recently identified endo-β-1,2-glucanase from Chitinophaga pinensis ( CpSGL) as an enzyme comprising a new family. Here, we report the characteristics and crystal structure of a CpSGL homolog from Parabacteroides distasonis, an intestinal bacterium (BDI_3064 protein), which exhibits distinctive properties of known β-1,2-glucan-degrading enzymes. BDI_3064 hydrolyzed linear β-1,2-glucan and β-1,2-glucooligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 4 or more to produce sophorose specifically, but did not hydrolyze cyclic β-1,2-glucan...
May 15, 2018: Biochemistry
Amy Hui-Mei Lin
Starch is the major source of dietary glucose for rapid development of children. Starches from various crops naturally differ in molecular structures and properties. Cooking, processing, and storage may change their molecular properties and affect their digestibility and functionality. Starch digestion is affected by its susceptibility to α-amylase and α-glucosidase (maltase), and the susceptibility is determined by starch granule architecture and glucan structures, as well as the interaction between starch and other food components...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Martina Závorková, Vaclav Vetvicka, Josef Richter, Vlastimil Kral, Ivana Liehnova, Dobiasova L Rajnohova
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease manifested by an increase of blood glucose. Objective: To evaluate the effects of glucan and vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Method: We evaluated the effects of 3-month supplementation with glucan and vitamin D in 54 patients with diabetic retinopathy. We measured levels of vitamin D, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results: The supplementation strongly decreased the cholesterol levels and improved the levels of HDL cholesterol...
2018: Open Biochemistry Journal
Thapelo Mokomele, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Venkatesh Balan, Eugéne van Rensburg, Bruce E Dale, Johann F Görgens
Background: Expanding biofuel markets are challenged by the need to meet future biofuel demands and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, while using domestically available feedstock sustainably. In the context of the sugar industry, exploiting under-utilized cane leaf matter (CLM) in addition to surplus sugarcane bagasse as supplementary feedstock for second-generation ethanol production has the potential to improve bioenergy yields per unit land. In this study, the ethanol yields and processing bottlenecks of ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX™) and steam explosion (StEx) as adopted technologies for pretreating sugarcane bagasse and CLM were experimentally measured and compared for the first time...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Fábio C S Nogueira, Andreza R B Farias, Fabiano M Teixeira, Gilberto B Domont, Francisco A P Campos
Label-free quantitative proteome analysis of extrafloral (EFN) and floral nectar (FN) from castor ( Ricinus communis ) plants resulted in the identification of 72 and 37 proteins, respectively. Thirty proteins were differentially accumulated between EFN and FN, and 24 of these were more abundant in the EFN. In addition to proteins involved in maintaining the nectar pathogen free such as chitinases and glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase, both proteomes share an array of peptidases, lipases, carbohydrases, and nucleases...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Giorgio Camilli, Guillaume Tabouret, Jessica Quintin
β-glucan, the most abundant fungal cell wall polysaccharide, has gained much attention from the scientific community in the last few decades for its fascinating but not yet fully understood immunobiology. Study of this molecule has been motivated by its importance as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern upon fungal infection as well as by its promising clinical utility as biological response modifier for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Its immune effect is attributed to the ability to bind to different receptors expressed on the cell surface of phagocytic and cytotoxic innate immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wei Dai, Xiaolin Chen, Xuewen Wang, Zimu Xu, Xueyan Gao, Chaosheng Jiang, Ruining Deng, Guomin Han
The molecular mechanism underlying the elimination of algal cells by fungal mycelia has not been fully understood. Here, we applied transcriptomic analysis to investigate the gene expression and regulation at time courses of Trametes versicolor F21a during the algicidal process. The obtained results showed that a total of 193, 332, 545, and 742 differentially expressed genes were identified at 0, 6, 12, and 30 h during the algicidal process, respectively. The gene ontology terms were enriched into glucan 1,4-α-glucosidase activity, hydrolase activity, lipase activity, and endopeptidase activity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
S Moura, L Cerqueira, A Almeida
The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the main pathogenic agent responsible for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Immunocompromised patients are more likely to develop this pathology due to a decrease in the immune system's defense capacity. Despite of the low occurrence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, this pathology presents high rates of mortality, mostly due to late and unspecific diagnosis. Currently, the diagnostic methods used to detect this fungal infection are conventional mycological examination (direct microscopic examination, histological examination, and culture), imaging, non-culture-based tests for the detection of galactomannan, β(1,3)-glucan and an extracellular glycoprotein, and molecular tests based on PCR...
May 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Dimitry Y Sorokin, Tatiana V Khijniak, Nadezhda A Kostrikina, Alexander G Elcheninov, Stepan V Toshchakov, Nicole J Bale, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Ilya V Kublanov
Six strains of extremely halophilic and alkaliphilic euryarchaea were enriched and isolated in pure culture from surface brines and sediments of hypersaline alkaline lakes in various geographical locations with various forms of insoluble cellulose as growth substrate. The cells are mostly flat motile rods with a thin monolayer cell wall while growing on cellobiose. In contrast, the cells growing with cellulose are mostly nonmotile cocci covered with a thick external EPS layer. The isolates, designated AArcel, are obligate aerobic heterotrophs with a narrow substrate spectrum...
April 27, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Stephen Wring, Gail Murphy, George Atiee, Christy Corr, Michele Hyman, Michael Willett, David Angulo
SCY-078, the first in a new class of β 1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitors, is being developed as an oral and intravenous antifungal treatment for Candida and Aspergillus species fungal infections. In vitro, studies indicated SCY-078 is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 with markedly lower effect over other CYP isozymes. To examine clinically relevant effects of the potential interaction with SCY-078, this phase 1, open-label, 2-period crossover study evaluated the pharmacokinetic parameters of rosiglitazone, a sensitive substrate of CYP2C8 metabolism, in the absence and presence of SCY-078 dosed to therapeutically relevant SCY-078 concentration exposure after repeat dosing...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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