Read by QxMD icon Read


Stephanie C Ray, Chad A Rappleye
The dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum takes advantage of the innate immune system, utilizing host macrophages as a proliferative niche while largely avoiding stimulation of signaling host receptors. As a result, innate immune cells are unable to control H. capsulatum on their own. Not all host phagocytes respond to H. capsulatum in the same way, with neutrophils and dendritic cells playing important roles in impeding fungal growth and initiating a protective TH 1 response, respectively. Dendritic cells prime T-cell differentiation after internalization of yeasts via VLA-5 receptors and subsequent degradation of the yeasts...
March 15, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Ashokkumar Sekar, Myoungjin Kim, Hyeong Chul Jeong, Keun Kim
Lactobacillus pentosus K1-23 was selected from among 25 lactic acid bacterial strains due to its high inhibitory activity against several pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, S. gallinarum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium perfringens , and Listeria monocytogenes . Additionally, among 13 strains of Aureobasidium spp., A. pullulans NRRL 58012 was shown to produce the highest amount of β-glucan (15.45 ± 0.07%) and was selected. Next, the optimal conditions for a solid-phase mixed culture with these two different microorganisms, one bacterium and one yeast, were determined...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xiying Wu, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Yuheng Luo, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Jun He
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the effects of different fiber fractions on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal development in a porcine model. METHODS: Blood and tissue samples were collected from thirty-two weaned pigs fed with control diet (CON) or diet containing 5 % cellulose (CEL), xylan (XYL) or β-glucan (GLU). RESULTS: This reserch showed that GLU supplementation decreased the growth performance of pigs (P <0...
February 6, 2018: Nutrition
Irina V Goldenkova-Pavlova, Alexander А Tyurin, Orkhan N Mustafaev
The main specific features of β-1,3-1,4-glucanases (or lichenases, EC, the enzymes that in a strictly specific manner hydrolyze β-glucans of many cereal species and lichens containing β-1,3 and β-1,4 bonds, are reviewed as well as the current strategies used for their protein design, which have been successfully applied to make lichenases more attractive and promising for biocatalytic conversion of biomass, in particular, in the areas of their biotechnological application, such as brewing industry, animal feed manufacture, and biofuel production, which will in future allow these technologies to be economically and ecologically beneficial...
March 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yanfang Liu, Qingjiu Tang, Jingsong Zhang, Yongmei Xia, Yan Yang, Di Wu, Steve W Cui
β-D-glucan (GLP20) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies was successfully fractionated into five fractions with different weight-average molecular weights (Mw ) through ultrasonic irradiation. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ), hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) and intrinsic viscosity ([η]) of these fractions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) aqueous solution were determined using HPSEC-MALLS-RI-VS system. The results indicated that β-D-glucan displayed rigid chain conformations with ρ values lager than 2...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jia Wu, Shanshan Jin, Shanshan Wu, Yifan Chen, Ruiwei Chen
Oat bran was fermented by filamentous fungi to improve the extractability of β-glucan. Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology were used to obtain the maximum extractability of β-glucan. Inoculum volume, fermentation temperature, and time were evaluated as three variables. Under optimal fermentation conditions, the extractability of β-glucan in oat bran increased to 45.57 ± 1.82% and 51.10 ± 2.32% by Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively. The extractability was about 3-fold of that before fermentation (16...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mohammad Hadi Aazami, Mohammad Hasan Fathi Nasri, Mohsen Mojtahedi, Shahla Roudbar Mohammadi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of heat-killed baker's yeast (HKBY), the cell wall of baker's yeast (CWBY), and cell wall (1→3)-β-d-glucan of baker's yeast (BGBY) to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) spiked with 0.5 μg/mL AFB1 . Baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was heat killed by autoclaving at 121°C for 10 min. The cell wall was physically extracted, and (1→3)-β-d-glucan was extracted by a modified method. The concentration of AFB1 was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after exposure to binders for three contact times, 30 min, 5 h, and 24 h, at room temperature...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
V Jung-Schroers, M Adamek, S Harris, H Syakuri, A Jung, I Irnazarow, D Steinhagen
The effect of dietary β-glucan on the bacterial community in the gut of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was examined after oral application of Aeromonas hydrophila. Carp received either feed supplemented with 1% MacroGard® , a β-1,3/1,6-glucan, or a β-glucan-free diet. Fourteen days after feeding, half of the carp from each group were intubated with 109 colony-forming units (CFU) of a pathogenic strain of A. hydrophila. Gut samples were taken 12 hr to 7 days after application and analysed using microbiological and molecular biological techniques (NGS, RT-PCR-DGGE)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Natalya Cherno, Sophya Osolina, Oleksandra Nikitina
One of the methods for curing obesity is the inclusion of some substances with the antilipase activity in the diet and thus reducing the uptake of fat components from food. The aim of this research is to provide a stabilized form of lipase inhibitor by immobilization of enzyme on the biopolymers from Agaricus bisporus cell walls. The phenolic compounds extracted from the rapeseed were considered as the lipase inhibitor. The activity of the inhibitor was considerably reduced in the gastric juice, as well as at temperatures above 37 °C and during its storage, which determined the suitability of the inhibitor for stabilization on the matrix...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Roghayeh Amini Sarteshnizi, Hedayat Hosseini, Nader Karimian Khosroshahi, Farzane Shahraz, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Manije Kamran, Rozita Komeili, Emma Chiavaro
This study aims to evaluate the performance of two types of prebiotic sausages formulated with resistant starch (RS) and β-glucan (BG) extract (in ratios of 2.22:1.33 and 2.75:1.88) during frying and chilled storage. The oxidative stability indices and microbial counts were determined. The incorporation of two types of prebiotic dietary fibre increased frying loss and oil absorption. However, the moisture content of prebiotic sausages after production was higher than of conventional sausages and it decreased significantly during storage...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Chunjiang Lv, Yongsheng Zhang, Lili Shen
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a natural, nonflavonoid polyphenol, exerting anti-inflammatory activity. It has been reported that resveratrol, together with carboxymethyl-β-glucan, can reduce nasal symptoms in children with allergic rhinitis (AR). In this study, the effect of resveratrol on nasal symptoms in adults with AR was investigated. METHODS: We conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. One hundred and fifty-one adults (aged 18-60 years) with severe persistent AR were divided into a placebo-treated group (n = 50), a positive control budesonide-treated group (n = 50), and a resveratrol-treated group (n = 51)...
March 14, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Lili Wang, Ke Zhang, Youjie Xu, Meng Zhang, Donghai Wang
The aim of this research was to study a high-solid pretreatment of corn stover using urea. Effects of solid loading (30-70%), temperature (60-80 °C), time (2-14 d), ratio of urea to corn stover (1:10-1:1), and ratio of soybean flour to corn stover (1:40-1:10) on enzymatic saccharification were investigated. Generally, the glucose and xylose yield increased as the reaction temperature, time, and ratio of urea to corn stover increased. Urea enhanced enzymatic saccharification at a relatively high-solid loading and low temperature...
March 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Mei Zhang, Julian A Kim, Alex Yee-Chen Huang
Immunotherapy is revolutionizing cancer treatment. Recent clinical success with immune checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, and adoptive immune cellular therapies has generated excitement and new hopes for patients and investigators. However, clinically efficacious responses to cancer immunotherapy occur only in a minority of patients. One reason is the tumor microenvironment (TME), which potently inhibits the generation and delivery of optimal antitumor immune responses. As our understanding of TME continues to grow, strategies are being developed to change the TME toward one that augments the emergence of strong antitumor immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
V Isoni, D Kumbang, P N Sharratt, H H Khoo
Aligned with Singapore's commitment to sustainable development and investment in renewable resources, cleaner energy and technology (Sustainable Singapore Blueprint), we report a techno-economic analysis of the biorefinery process in Southeast Asia. The considerations in this study provide an overview of the current and future challenges in the biomass-to-chemical processes with life-cycle thinking, linking the land used for agriculture and biomass to the levulinic acid production. 7-8 kg of lignocellulosic feedstock (glucan content 30-35 wt%) from agriculture residues empty fruit bunches (EFB) or rice straw (RS) can be processed to yield 1 kg of levulinic acid...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jichen Bao, Mingtao Huang, Dina Petranovic, Jens Nielsen
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory to produce recombinant proteins. However, S. cerevisiae naturally secretes only a few proteins, such as invertase and the mating alpha factor, and its secretory capacity is limited. It has been reported that engineering protein anterograde trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus by the moderate overexpression of SEC16 could increase recombinant protein secretion in S. cerevisiae. In this study, the retrograde trafficking in a strain with moderate overexpression of SEC16 was engineered by overexpression of ADP-ribosylation factor GTP activating proteins, Gcs1p and Glo3p, which are involved in the process of COPI-coated vesicle formation...
March 12, 2018: AMB Express
Sophie A Poeker, Annelies Geirnaert, Laura Berchtold, Anna Greppi, Lukasz Krych, Robert E Steinert, Tomas de Wouters, Christophe Lacroix
Consumption of fermentable dietary fibers (DFs), which can induce growth and/or activity of specific beneficial populations, is suggested a promising strategy to modulate the gut microbiota and restore health in microbiota-linked diseases. Until today, inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are the best studied DFs, while little is known about the gut microbiota-modulating effects of β-glucan, α-galactooligosaccharide (α-GOS) and xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS). Here, we used three continuous in vitro fermentation PolyFermS model to study the modulating effect of these DFs on two distinct human adult proximal colon microbiota, independently from the host...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qun Yue, Yan Li, Li Chen, Xiaoling Zhang, Xingzhong Liu, Zhiqiang An, Gerald F Bills
The echinocandins are antifungal lipopeptides targeting fungi via noncompetitive inhibition of the β-1,3-D-glucan synthase FKS1 subunit. A novel echinocandin resistance mechanism involving an auxiliary copy of FKS1 in echinocandin-producing fungus Pezicula radicicola NRRL 12192 was discovered. We sequenced the genome of NRRL 12192 and predicted two FKS1-encoding genes (prfks1n and prfks1a), rather than a single FKS1 gene typical of filamentous ascomycetes. The prfks1a gene sits immediately adjacent to an echinocandin (sporiofungin) gene cluster which was confirmed by disruption of prnrps4 and abolishment of sporiofungin production...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Wenjing Wan, Baojun Xu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop a beverage using beta-glucan and whey protein isolate (WPI). Furthermore, we evaluated the sensory attributes and changes of the physiochemical properties (pH value, total acidity, total soluble solids, sugar-acid ratio, color, viscosity, turbidity, and browning index) of the beverage during 48-hour storage by comparison with the commercial product and blank sample. RESULTS: The developed beverage had similar sweetness, smoothness, and overall acceptance as those of the commercial and blank samples...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Federico Sabbadin, Giovanna Pesante, Luisa Elias, Katrin Besser, Yi Li, Clare Steele-King, Meg Stark, Deborah A Rathbone, Adam A Dowle, Rachel Bates, J Reuben Shipway, Simon M Cragg, Neil C Bruce, Simon J McQueen-Mason
Lignocellulose forms the structural framework of woody plant biomass and represents the most abundant carbon source in the biosphere. Turnover of woody biomass is a critical component of the global carbon cycle, and the enzymes involved are of increasing industrial importance as industry moves away from fossil fuels to renewable carbon resources. Shipworms are marine bivalve molluscs that digest wood and play a key role in global carbon cycling by processing plant biomass in the oceans. Previous studies suggest that wood digestion in shipworms is dominated by enzymes produced by endosymbiotic bacteria found in the animal's gills, while little is known about the identity and function of endogenous enzymes produced by shipworms...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Marcin Andrzej Kurek, Sabina Karp, Adrian Stelmasiak, Ewelina Pieczykolan, Karolina Juszczyk, Anne Rieder
In this study, β-glucan was extracted from wholegrain oat and barley flours by a novel extraction and purification method employing natural flocculants (chitosan, guar gum and gelatin). The use of flocculants decreased the total amount of extracted gum, which was highest in control samples (9.07 and 7.9% for oat and barley, respectively). The β-glucan specific yield, however, increased with the use of chitosan and guar gum, which were able to remove protein and ash impurities resulting in gums with a higher purity...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"