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M V Gangoiti, A I Puertas, M F Hamet, P J Peruzzo, M G Llamas, M Medrano, A Prieto, M T Dueñas, A G Abraham
Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 8327 is an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producer strain isolated from kefir with promising properties for the development of functional foods. The aim of the present study was to characterize the structure of the EPS synthesized by this strain grown in skim milk or semidefined medium (SDM). Additionally, genes involved in EPS synthesis were detected by PCR. L. plantarum produces an EPS with a molecular weight of 10(4)Da in both media. When grown in SDM produce an heteropolysaccharide composed mainly of glucose, glucosamine and rhamnose meanwhile the EPS produced in milk was composed exclusively of glucose indicating the influence of the sugar source...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vincenzo Zaccone, Alberto Tosoni, Giovanna Passaro, Carla Vallone, Michele Impagnatiello, Domenica Donatella Li Puma, Salvatore De Cosmo, Raffaele Landolfi, Antonio Mirijello
Sepsis represents a global health problem in terms of morbidity, mortality, social and economic costs. Although usually managed in Intensive Care Units, sepsis showed an increased prevalence among Internal Medicine wards in the last decade. This is substantially due to the ageing of population and to multi-morbidity. These characteristics represent both a risk factor for sepsis and a relative contra-indication for the admission to Intensive Care Units. Although there is a lack of literature on the management of sepsis in Internal Medicine, the outcome of these patients seems to be gradually improving...
May 18, 2017: Annals of Medicine
Jaeyeong Choi, Claudia Zielke, Lars Nilsson, Seungho Lee
The macromolecular composition of beer is largely determined by the brewing and the mashing process. It is known that the physico-chemical properties of proteinaceous and polysaccharide molecules are closely related to the mechanism of foam stability. Three types of "American pale ale" style beer were prepared using different mashing protocols. The foam stability of the beers was assessed using the Derek Rudin standard method. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) in combination with ultraviolet (UV), multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors was used to separate the macromolecules present in the beers and the molar mass (M) and molar mass distributions (MD) were determined...
May 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Tarun K Upadhyay, Nida Fatima, Deepak Sharma, V Saravanakumar, Rolee Sharma
β-glucan particles (GP) are polymeric carbohydrates, mainly found as components of cell wall fungi, yeast, bacteria and also in cereals such as barley and oat, and have been recently shown to have application in macrophage-targeted drug delivery. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize GP containing a large payload of Rifabutin (RB), an anti-tuberculosis drug effective against MDR-TB at lower MIC than Rifampicin. GP were prepared from yeast cells by acidic and alkaline extraction were either spray dried or lyophilized, prior to RB loading and alginate sealing...
2017: EXCLI journal
Xiaofeng Yue, Yawei Que, Shuzhen Deng, Lin Xu, Miriam Oses-Ruiz, Nicholas J Talbot, Youliang Peng, Zhengyi Wang
Cell cycle regulation is pivotal for proper cell division and cellular differentiation in eukaryotic cells. The central regulators that govern eukaryotic cell cycle progression are cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their partners. Here, we report that Magnaporthe oryzae CKS1 encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase subunit, which plays a significant role in regulation of plant infection. We demonstrate that CKS1 is a functional homolog of CKS1/SUC1 and can physically interact with the CDK protein Cdc28, and Som1, a downstream regulator of the cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase A pathway...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Sakarin Puanglek, Satoshi Kimura, Tadahisa Iwata
The convenient and environmentally friendly method for in vitro polymerization catalyzed by glucosyltransferase, designated as GtfJ, extracted from recombinant E. Coli was used to synthesize tailor-made α-1,3-glucan (α-1,3-d-glucan) having moderate molecular weight (Mw=2.0×10(5)) and no branches. With the aim to improve thermoplasticity of this polysaccharide, after in vitro synthesis, chemical modification by acylation was selected and then fully substituted α-1,3-glucan esters were successfully obtained via both homogeneous and heterogeneous methods...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yu-Jie Wang, Ruzhen Zhan, Tuula Sontag-Strohm, Ndegwa Henry Maina
This study investigated the role of phytate in the Fenton reaction induced oxidative degradation of cereal β-glucan. Viscosity analysis showed that the degradation rate was high in the beginning of oxidation, which fitted to the second order kinetic model. Oat β-glucan contained significant amount of residual phytate and after the residual phytate was removed, faster degradation was shown compared to the original oat β-glucan. Adding the same amount of phytic acid (PA) to the phytate removed β-glucan sample also retarded the degradation but not as efficiently as the residual phytate...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vanessa Sovrani, Liana Inara de Jesus, Fernanda Fogagnoli Simas-Tosin, Fhernanda Ribeiro Smiderle, Marcello Iacomini
A crude fraction (SCW) was extracted with cold water from Pholiota nameko and showed mannose (24.1%), galactose (44.9%) and glucose (31%). Purification procedures resulted in a polysaccharide fraction (bG-PN), that showed only glucose. NMR and methylation analyses of bG-PN indicated a β-d-glucan-(1→3)-linked, substituted at O-6 by β-d-Glcp or (1→6)-linked β-d-Glcp side chains. Rheological studies of crude and purified fractions at the same concentration showed similar shear-thinning behavior and gel-like structure which indicates no need to isolate the polymer to achieve some desirable rheological properties...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yadi Li, Caiming Li, Zhengbiao Gu, Yan Hong, Li Cheng, Zhaofeng Li
Steady and dynamic shear measurements were used to investigate the rheological properties of cassava starches modified using the 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. GBE treatment lowered the hysteresis loop areas, the activation energy (Ea) values and the parameters in rheological models of cassava starch pastes. Moreover, GBE treatment increased its storage (G') and loss (G") moduli, and decreased their tan δ (ratio of G"/G') values and frequency-dependencies. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the selective and particular attack of GBE on starch granules, and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that GBE treatment produces significant structural changes in amylose and amylopectin...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Wimonrat Panpetch, Naraporn Somboonna, Dewi Embong Bulan, Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Navaporn Worasilchai, Malcolm Finkelman, Ariya Chindamporn, Tanapat Palaga, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
The role of intestinal Candida albicans in bacterial sepsis, in the absence of candidemia, was investigated in murine models. Live C. albicans or normal saline solution (NSS) was administered orally once, followed by 5 days of daily oral antibiotic-mixtures (ATB). Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was then performed to induce sepsis.Fecal Candida was detected by culture only in models with Candida administration. Oral Candida administration with/without ATB enhanced gut-pathogenic bacteria as determined by microbiome analysis...
May 11, 2017: Shock
Annica A M Andersson, R Andersson, Anette Jonsäll, Jörgen Andersson, Helena Fredriksson
Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Warasirin Sornlake, Phatcharamon Rattanaphanjak, Verawat Champreda, Lily Eurwilaichitr, Suthathip Kittisenachai, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Tatsuya Fujii, Hiroyuki Inoue
Schizophyllum commune is a basidiomycete equipped with an efficient cellulolytic enzyme system capable of growth on decaying woods. In this study, production of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from S. commune mutant G-135 (SC-Cel) on various cellulosic substrates was examined. The highest cellulase activities including CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase were obtained on Avicel-PH101 while a wider range of enzymes attacking non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin were found when grown on alkaline-pretreated biomass...
May 10, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Andoni Ramirez-Garcia, Aize Pellon, Idoia Buldain, Aitziber Antoran, Aitana Arbizu-Delgado, Xabier Guruceaga, Aitor Rementeria, Fernando L Hernando
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of suffering microbial, including fungal, infections. In this paper, proteomics-based information was collated relating to secreted and cell wall proteins with potential medical applications from the most common filamentous fungi in CF, i.e., Aspergillus and Scedosporium/Lomentospora species. Among the Aspergillus fumigatus secreted allergens, β-1,3-endoglucanase, the alkaline protease 1 (Alp1/oryzin), Asp f 2, Asp f 13/15, chitinase, chitosanase, dipeptidyl-peptidase V (DppV), the metalloprotease Asp f 5, mitogillin/Asp f 1, and thioredoxin reductase receive a special mention...
May 8, 2017: Mycopathologia
Elizabeth L Berkow, David Angulo, Shawn R Lockhart
Candida auris, an emerging fungal pathogen that is associated with high mortality, has been identified in many countries across the world.….
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Hee-Soo Park, Mi-Kyung Lee, Sun Chang Kim, Jae-Hyuk Yu
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans primarily reproduces by forming asexual spores called conidia, the integrity of which is governed by the NF-κB type velvet regulators VosA and VelB. The VosA-VelB hetero-complex regulates the expression of spore-specific structural and regulatory genes during conidiogenesis. Here, we characterize one of the VosA/VelB-activated developmental genes, called vadA, the expression of which in conidia requires activity of both VosA and VelB. VadA (AN5709) is predicted to be a 532-amino acid length fungal-specific protein with a highly conserved domain of unknown function (DUF) at the N-terminus...
2017: PloS One
Lamia Lahouar, Fatma Ghrairi, Amira El Arem, Sana Medimagh, Mouledi El Felah, Hichem Ben Salem, Lotfi Achour
BACKGROUND: Many experimental studies have suggested an important role for barley Rihane(BR)in the prevention of colon cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and nutritional characterizations of BR compared to other varieties grown in Tunisia (Manel, Roho and Tej). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber(β-glucan), total protein, ash and some minerals of BR and Tunisian barley varieties were determined...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
Oksana V Berezina, Jonathan Herlet, Sergey V Rykov, Petra Kornberger, Artem Zavyalov, Dmitriy Kozlov, Liliya Sakhibgaraeva, Irina Krestyanova, Wolfgang H Schwarz, Vladimir V Zverlov, Wolfgang Liebl, Sergey V Yarotsky
A xyloglucanase of the GH74 family was identified in the thermophilic fungus strain Myceliophthora thermophila VKPM F-244, and its gene sequence was optimized for cloning and expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant xyloglucanase MtXgh74 exhibited the highest activity toward tamarind seed xyloglucan with a K M value of 0.51 ± 0.06 mg/mL. The activities on barley β-glucan and carboxymethylcellulose were about 4 and 2%, respectively, compared to xyloglucan. Maximum xyloglucanase activity was observed at 70-75 °C and pH 6...
May 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jichen Bao, Mingtao Huang, Dina Petranovic, Jens Nielsen
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used to produce biopharmaceutical proteins. However, the limited capacity of the secretory pathway may reduce its productivity. Here, we increased the secretion of a heterologous α-amylase, a model protein used for studying the protein secretory pathway in yeast, by moderately overexpressing SEC16, which is involved in protein translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. The moderate overexpression of SEC16 increased α-amylase secretion by generating more endoplasmic reticulum exit sites...
May 5, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Navaneet Chaturvedi, Brijesh Singh Yadav, Paras Nath Pandey, Vijay Tripathi
Dectin-1 is a recently discovered pattern-recognition receptor that plays an important role in antifungal innate immunity, which acts a specific receptor for β-glucan (BG). The present study, aimed at clarifying effect of BG and a new analog, maltotriose (MT) on Dectin-1 receptor. We implemented molecular docking of MT on Dectin-1 along with model-independent all-atom-molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations were carried out at three levels of complexity: (1) Apo-Dectin-1; (2) BG:Dectin-1; (3) MT:Dectin-1...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
K F Cutting
OBJECTIVE: Wounds that have stalled healing are costly in terms of patient morbidity and increase in use of material and financial resources. A natural polymer beta-glucans has been incorporated into a methylcellulose gel to provide a topical gel designed to accelerate healing in wounds where it has stalled. Although the gel provides an environment conducive to moist wound healing the active agent, beta-glucans, activate the innate immune response. METHOD: Using a Markov cohort simulation model, data were extrapolated from a double-blind randomised trial to evaluate the economic benefits of the soluble beta-glucan (SBG) gel in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs)...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
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