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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340117/an-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-dynamiker%C3%A2-fungus-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-to-assist-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-invasive-candidiasis-and-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#1
P Lewis White, Jessica S Price, Raquel B Posso, Rosemary A Barnes
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) can be caused by a range of pathogens. Conventional diagnosis has the capacity to detect most causes of IFD, but poor performance limits impact. The introduction of non-culture diagnostics, including the detection of (1-3)-β-D-Glucan (BDG), has shown promising performance for the detection of IFD in variety of clinical settings. Recently, the Dynamiker® Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan assay (D-BDG) was released as an IFD diagnostic test. This article describes an evaluation of the D-BDG assay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), invasive candidiasis (IC) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) across several high-risk patient cohorts and provides comparative data with the Associates of Cape Cod Fungitell® and BioRad Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag (GM) assays...
March 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338676/dirhamnolipids-secreted-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-modify-anjpegungal-susceptibility-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-by-inhibiting-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-synthase-activity
#2
Benoit Briard, Vero Rasoldier, Perrine Bomme, Noureddine ElAouad, Catherine Guerreiro, Pierre Chassagne, Laetitia Muszkieta, Jean-Paul Latgé, Laurence Mulard, Anne Beauvais
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are the two microorganisms responsible for most of the chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa is known to produce quorum-sensing controlled rhamnolipids during chronic infections. Here we show that the dirhamnolipids secreted from P. aeruginosa (i) induce A. fumigatus to produce an extracellular matrix, rich in galactosaminogalactan, 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)- and pyo-melanin, surrounding their hyphae, which facilitates P. aeruginosa binding and (ii) inhibit A...
March 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336960/co-expression-of-bira-with-biotin-bait-achieves-in-vivo-biotinylation-of-overexpressed-stable-n-glycosylated-srage-in-transgenic-silkworms
#3
Miyuki Kumano-Kuramochi, Ken-Ichiro Tatematsu, Mayumi Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mari Maeda-Yamamoto, Toshiro Kobori, Hideki Sezutsu, Sachiko Machida
Here, we demonstrated the expression of the N-glycosylated extracellular ligand binding domain of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in middle silk glands (MSGs) of transgenic silkworms using the GAL4/UAS system. Over 1 mg of sRAGE was obtained from one transgenic silkworm. sRAGE purified from the silkworm exhibited good stability and maintained specific ligand-binding ability. In addition, N-glycan analysis of sRAGE revealed that N-glucan completely lacked potentially allergenic fucose...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336885/preparation-and-characterization-of-cellulose-nanocrystals-from-the-bio-ethanol-residuals
#4
Lanxing Du, Jinwu Wang, Yang Zhang, Chusheng Qi, Michael P Wolcott, Zhiming Yu
This study was to explore the conversion of low-cost bio-residuals into high value-added cellulose nanocrystals. Two enzymatic hydrolyzed residuals (i.e., HRMMW and HRSPW) were collected from two different bio-ethanol producing processes-hydrolyzing medium-milled wood (MMW) and hydrolyzing acid sulfite pretreated wood (SPW), respectively. The results showed that both residuals contained over 20 wt % glucan with a crystallinity of about 30%, confirming the existence of cellulose in a well-organized structure in two bio-residuals...
February 23, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335393/solvent-retention-capacities-of-oat-flour
#5
Qianwen Niu, Yu Pu, Xiaoping Li, Zhen Ma, Xinzhong Hu
This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs) of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC), 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC), 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC), 5% Na₂CO₃ SRC (SCASRC), NaCl SRC (SCSRC), CaCl₂ SRC (CCSRC), FeCl₃ SRC (FCSRC), sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC), NaOH (pH 10) SRC (SHSRC), Na₂CO₃ (pH 10) SRC (SCABSRC) and SDS (pH 10) SRC (SDSSRC) values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#6
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330887/usefulness-of-two-aspergillus-pcr-assays-and-aspergillus-galactomannan-and-%C3%AE-d-glucan-testing-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-diagnosis-of-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#7
Naohisa Urabe, Susumu Sakamoto, Go Sano, Junko Suzuki, Akira Hebisawa, Yasuhiko Nakamura, Kazuya Koyama, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda, Sakae Homma
We evaluated the usefulness of an Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) test, a β-D-glucan (βDG) test, and two different Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples for diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). BALF samples from 28 patients with and 120 patients without CPA were collected. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio for each test individually and in combination with other tests...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326776/exopolysaccharides-production-during-the-fermentation-of-soybean-and-fava-bean-flours-by-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-dsm-20343
#8
Yan Xu, Rossana Coda, Qiao Shi, Päivi Tuomainen, Kati Katina, Maija Tenkanen
Consumption of legumes is highly recommended due to their beneficial properties. Thus, there is a great interest in developing new legume-based products with good texture. In situ produced microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) are regarded as efficient texture modifiers in the food industry. In this study, soybean and fava bean flours with different levels of added sucrose were fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides DSM 20343. After fermentation, a significant increase in viscosity was observed. Sugars, glucans, fructans, mannitol, lactic acid and acetic acid were quantified to follow the EPS and metabolite production...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325555/autohydrolysis-pretreatment-assessment-in-ethanol-production-from-agave-bagasse
#9
Leopoldo J Rios-González, Thelma K Morales-Martínez, María F Rodríguez-Flores, José A Rodríguez-De la Garza, David Castillo-Quiroz, Agustín J Castro-Montoya, Alfredo Martinez
The aim of the present work was to assess the autohydrolysis pretreatment of Agave tequilana bagasse for ethanol production. The pretreatment was conducted using a one-liter high pressure Parr reactor under different severity factors (SF) at a 1:6w/v ratio (solid:liquid) and 200rpm. The solids obtained under the selected autohydrolysis conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase cocktail, and the enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results obtained from the pretreatment process showed that the glucan content in the pretreated solid was mostly preserved, and an increase in the digestibility was observed for the case with a SF of 4...
March 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325331/two-banana-cultivars-differ-in-composition-of-potentially-immunomodulatory-mannan-and-arabinogalactan
#10
Tânia M Shiga, Nicholas C Carpita, Franco Maria Lajolo, Beatriz Rosana Cordenunsi-Lysenko
Banana (Musa acuminata and M. acuminata x M. balbisiana) fruit cell walls are rich in mannans, homogalacturonans and xylogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I, and arabinogalactans, certain forms of which is considered to have immunomodulatory activity. The cultivars Nanicão and Thap Maeo represent two widely variants with respect to compositional differences in the forms of these polysaccharides. Nanicão has low amounts of mannan in the water-insoluble and water-soluble fraction. Both cultivars have high amounts of water-soluble arabinogalactan...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325314/the-use-of-calcium-ions-instead-of-heat-treatment-for-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-gelation-improves-biocompatibility-of-the-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-ha-bone-scaffold
#11
Katarzyna Klimek, Agata Przekora, Aleksandra Benko, Wiktor Niemiec, Marta Blazewicz, Grazyna Ginalska
The aim of this study was to determine which procedure for β-1,3-glucan gelation - newly developed dialysis against calcium salt or described in the literature thermal technique - is more appropriate for fabrication of a biomaterial designed for bone tissue engineering applications. Thus, β-1,3-glucan/hydroxyapatite scaffolds were prepared based on two different methods and their physicochemical, microstructural, and biological properties were compared. Obtained results demonstrated that unlike thermal method-prepared β-1,3-glucan/hydroxyapatite material (glu/HAT), bone scaffold fabricated via dialysis method (glu/HA D) possessed rough surface resulting from the presence of CaCl2 precipitates as proven by SEM and EDS analysis...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323280/defining-the-functional-traits-that-drive-bacterial-decomposer-community-productivity
#12
Rachael Evans, Anna M Alessi, Susannah Bird, Simon J McQueen-Mason, Neil C Bruce, Michael A Brockhurst
Microbial communities are essential to a wide range of ecologically and industrially important processes. To control or predict how these communities function, we require a better understanding of the factors which influence microbial community productivity. Here, we combine functional resource use assays with a biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) experiment to determine whether the functional traits of constituent species can be used to predict community productivity. We quantified the abilities of 12 bacterial species to metabolise components of lignocellulose and then assembled these species into communities of varying diversity and composition to measure their productivity growing on lignocellulose, a complex natural substrate...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322149/characterization-of-polysaccharides-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-two-species-of-genus-ganoderma-agaricomycetes-and-determination-of-water-soluble-%C3%AE-d-glucan-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#13
Yanfang Liu, Qingjiu Tang, Yan Yang, Shuai Zhou, Di Wu, Chuanhong Tang, Zhong Zhang, Mengqiu Yan, Jie Feng, Jing-Song Zhang
Molecular weight (Mw) distributions of polysaccharides from the fruiting bodies of different Ganoderma lucidum strains and G. sinense were investigated and compared using high-pressure size exclusion chromatography/multiangle laser light scattering/refractive index analysis. Results showed that there were big differences in the Mw distributions and characteristics of polysaccharides from 2 species of Ganoderma. All tested G. lucidum materials exhibited similar polysaccharide distributions and similar characteristics for each fraction...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322142/enhanced-release-of-immunostimulating-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-by-autodigestion-of-the-lingzhi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lingzhi-agaricomycetes
#14
Yuina Ishimoto, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Hisatomi Ito, Kentaro Igami, Toshitsugu Miyazaki, Naohito Ohno
Ganoderma lingzhi is a widely used medicinal mushroom that has antioxidative effects, ameliorates insulin resistance, and improves quality of life in patients with metabolic syndrome. Potentiation of immunity is also a major function of G. lingzhi, and this has been applied in patients with cancer. Supplementing G. lingzhi into foods reduced the metastasis of cancer cells. β-l,3-glucan is an important bioactive component of G. lingzhi. In this study we enhanced the solubilization ofimmunostimulating β-l,3-glucan by autodigestion of G...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319748/modulation-of-vascular-function-and-anti-aggregation-effect-induced-by-1%C3%A2-3-1%C3%A2-6-%C3%AE-d-glucan-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-its-carboxymethylated-derivative-in-rats
#15
Lorena Soares Bezerra, Marciane Magnani, Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Gomez, Hassler Clementino Cavalcante, Tays Amanda Felisberto da Silva, Renata Layne Paixão Vieira, Isac Almeida de Medeiros, Robson Cavalcante Veras
BACKGROUND: β-d-Glucans are polysaccharides found in the cell walls of yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and they have been studied because of their beneficial effects on health, mainly in terms of immunomodulation. However, information on the action of these polymers on vascular and platelet function is still scarce. This study evaluate the effect of (1→3) (1→6) β-d-glucan (βG-Sc) and its carboxymethylated derivative (CM-G) on vascular and platelet function in rats. METHODS: The animals received daily oral treatments with βG-Sc (20mg/kg) and CM-G (20mg/kg) for eight days...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314725/a-genome-survey-and-postharvest-transcriptome-analysis-in-lentinula-edodes
#16
Yuichi Sakamoto, Keiko Nakade, Shiho Sato, Kentaro Yoshida, Kazuhiro Miyazaki, Satoshi Natsume, Naotake Konno
Lentinula edodes is a popular cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. Lentinula edodes is susceptible to postharvest problems such as gill browning, fruiting body softening, and lentinan degradation. We constructed a de novo assembly draft genome sequence and performed gene prediction of Lentinula edodesDe novo assembly was carried out using short reads from paired-end and mate-paired libraries and long reads by PacBio, resulting in a contig number of 1951 and an N50 of 1 Mb. Further, we predicted genes by Augustus using RNA-seq data from the whole life cycle of Lentinula edodes, resulting in 12,959 predicted genes...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306723/the-redefinition-of-helicobacter-pylori-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-and-core-oligosaccharide-domains
#17
Hong Li, Tiandi Yang, Tingting Liao, Aleksandra W Debowski, Hans-Olof Nilsson, Alma Fulurija, Stuart M Haslam, Barbara Mulloy, Anne Dell, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Mohammed Benghezal
Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide promotes chronic gastric colonisation through O-antigen host mimicry and resistance to mucosal antimicrobial peptides mediated primarily by modifications of the lipid A. The structural organisation of the core and O-antigen domains of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide remains unclear, as the O-antigen attachment site has still to be identified experimentally. Here, structural investigations of lipopolysaccharides purified from two wild-type strains and the O-antigen ligase mutant revealed that the H...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304350/a-multifunctional-bread-rich-in-beta-glucans-and-low-in-starch-improves-metabolic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-a-controlled-trial
#18
Paolo Tessari, Anna Lante
DESIGN: Functional foods may be useful for people with diabetes. The soluble fibers beta glucans can modify starch digestion and improve postprandial glucose response. We analyzed the metabolic effects of a specifically designed 'functional' bread, low in starch, rich in fibers (7 g/100 g), with a beta glucan/starch ratio of (7.6:100, g/g), in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Clinical and metabolic data from two groups of age-, sex- and glycated hemoglobin-matched diabetic subjects, taking either the functional bread or regular white bread, over a roughly six-month observation period, were retrieved...
March 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303594/the-analysis-of-the-different-functions-of-starch-phosphorylating-enzymes-during-the-development-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-plants-discloses-an-unexpected-role-for-the-cytosolic-isoform-gwd2
#19
Claudia Pirone, Libero Gurrieri, Ivan Gaiba, Alessio Adamiano, Francesco Valle, Paolo Trost, Francesca Sparla
The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes three glucan, water dikinases. Glucan, water dikinase 1 (GWD1; EC 2.7.9.4) and phosphoglucan, water dikinase (PWD; EC 2.7.9.5) are chloroplastic enzymes, while glucan, water dikinase 2 (GWD2) is cytosolic. Both GWDs and PWD catalyze the addition of phosphate groups to amylopectin chains at the surface of starch granules, changing its physicochemical properties. As a result, GWD1 and PWD have a positive effect on transitory starch degradation at night. Because of its cytosolic localization, GWD2 does not have the same effect...
March 17, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303575/isoform-localization-of-dectin-1-regulates-the-signaling-quality-of-anti-fungal-immunity
#20
Mike Fischer, Jörg P Müller, Bärbel Spies-Weisshart, Christine Gräfe, Oliver Kurzai, Kerstin Hünniger, Andreas Hochhaus, Sebastian Scholl, Ulf Schnetzke
Dectin-1 is recognized as a major receptor for fungal ß-glucans and contributes to anti-fungal immunity. Human monocyte populations express Dectin-1 isoforms A and B, which differ by the presence of a stalk region and its N-linked glycosylation site. Here, we analyzed the expression of both isoforms in human monocyte-derived cells. The cellular localization on cell lines stably expressing either Dectin-1 isoform A or B was studied by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Intracellular protein signaling and cytokine production was analyzed by immunoblotting and cytometric bead arrays, respectively...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
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