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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213541/accurate-quantification-of-laminarin-in-marine-organic-matter-with-enzymes-from-marine-microbes
#1
Stefan Becker, André Scheffel, Martin F Polz, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann
Marine algae produce varieties of glycans, which fulfill diverse biological functions and fuel the carbon and energy demand of heterotrophic microbes. A common approach to analyze marine organic matter uses acid to hydrolyze its glycans into measurable monosaccharides. These, however, may derive from different glycans that are built with the same monosaccharides, hence this approach does not distinguish between glycans in natural samples. Here we use enzymes to selectively digest and thereby quantify laminarin in particulate organic matter...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208790/%C3%AE-glucans-relationships-between-modification-conformation-and-functional-activities
#2
REVIEW
Qiang Wang, Xiaojing Sheng, Aimin Shi, Hui Hu, Ying Yang, Li Liu, Ling Fei, Hongzhi Liu
β-glucan is a type of polysaccharide which widely exists in bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants, and has been well known for its biological activities such as enhancing immunity, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, and wound healing activities. The conformation of β-glucan plays a crucial role on its biological activities. Therefore, β-glucans obtained from different sources, while sharing the same basic structures, often show different bioactivities. The basic structure and inter-molecular forces of polysaccharides can be changed by modification, which leads to the conformational transformation in solution that can directly affect bioactivity...
February 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197159/an-rna-seq-analysis-of-grape-plantlets-grown-in-vitro-reveals-different-responses-to-blue-green-red-led-light-and-white-fluorescent-light
#3
Chun-Xia Li, Zhi-Gang Xu, Rui-Qi Dong, Sheng-Xin Chang, Lian-Zhen Wang, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Jian-Min Tao
Using an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approach, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and physiological behaviors of "Manicure Finger" grape plantlets grown in vitro under white, blue, green, and red light. A total of 670, 1601, and 746 DEGs were identified in plants exposed to blue, green, and red light, respectively, compared to the control (white light). By comparing the gene expression patterns with the growth and physiological responses of the grape plantlets, we were able to link the responses of the plants to light of different spectral wavelengths and the expression of particular sets of genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196092/characterization-of-cereal-%C3%AE-glucan-extracts-from-oat-and-barley-and-quantification-of-proteinaceous-matter
#4
Claudia Zielke, Ondrej Kosik, Marie-Louise Ainalem, Alison Lovegrove, Anna Stradner, Lars Nilsson
An extraction method for mixed-linkage β-glucan from oat and barley was developed in order to minimize the effect of extraction on the β-glucan structure. β-Glucan were characterized in terms of molecular size and molar mass distributions using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multiangle light scattering (MALS), differential refractive index (dRI) and fluorescence (FL) detection. The carbohydrate composition of the extracts was analysed using polysaccharide analysis by carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194264/agrobacterium-sp-derived-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-enhances-natural-killer-cell-activity-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-study
#5
Yeon Joo Lee, Doo-Jin Paik, Dae Young Kwon, Hye Jeong Yang, Yongsoon Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the hypothesis that a highly pure linear β-1,3-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. R259 enhances human natural killer (NK) cell activity and suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In an eight-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 83 healthy adults with white blood cell counts of 4,000-8,000 cells/µL were participated and randomly assigned to take two capsules per day containing either 350 mg β-1,3-glucan or placebo...
February 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194062/performance-of-galactomannan-antigen-beta-d-glucan-and-aspergillus-lateral-flow-device-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#6
Gökhan Metan, Muzaffer Keklik, Gökçen Dinç, Çiğdem Pala, Afra Yıldırım, Berkay Saraymen, Mustafa Yavuz Köker, Leylagül Kaynar, Bülent Eser, Mustafa Çetin
Aspergillus lateral-flow device (LFD) was recently introduced as a practical tool for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). We investigated the performance of Aspergillus-LFD as a point-of-care test for the diagnosis of IA. Serum samples were collected twice weekly from patients who received intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia, or recepients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) antigen, 1,3-beta-d-glucan and Aspergillus-LFD tests were carried out according to manufacturers' recommendations...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193843/bound-substrate-in-the-structure-of-cyanobacterial-branching-enzyme-supports-a-new-mechanistic-model
#7
Mari Hayashi, Ryuichiro Suzuki, Christophe Colleoni, Steven G Ball, Naoko Fujita, Eiji Suzuki
Branching enzyme (BE) catalyzes the formation of α-1,6-glucosidic linkages in amylopectin and glycogen. The reaction products are variable depending on the organism sources, and the mechanistic basis for these different outcomes is unclear. Although most cyanobacteria have only one BE isoform belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 13, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has three isoforms (BE1, BE2, and BE3) with distinct enzymatic properties, suggesting that investigations of these enzymes might provide unique insights into this system...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193424/a-hyperbranched-%C3%AE-d-glucan-with-compact-coil-conformation-from-lignosus-rhinocerotis-sclerotia
#8
Ting Hu, Qilin Huang, Kahing Wong, Hong Yang, Jingsi Gan, Yanru Li
An alkali-soluble polysaccharide was extracted from Lignosus rhinocerotis sclerotia (LRP). Its structural characteristics were determined by GC-MS, FT-IR, GC, 1D and 2D NMR combined with Smith degradation and methylation analysis. The LRP had a (1→3)-β-d-Glcp backbone with every three residues bearing a (1→6)-linked and hyperbranched side chain that contained three (1→6)-β-d-Glcp residues as secondary main chain and two terminal β-d-Glcp residues linked at O3. The degree of branching was 0.76 from GC-MS analysis, implying a highly branched structure for LRP...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187901/enhanced-immune-response-to-a-dual-promoter-anti-caries-dna-vaccine-orally-delivered-by-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium
#9
Hao Jiang, Yijun Hu, Mei Yang, Hao Liu, Guangshui Jiang
The strength of immune responses induced by DNA vaccine is closely associated with the expression level of cloned antigens available to the antigen presenting cells (APCs). To acquire a larger and more persistent amount of antigen, a dual-promoter, which could double the target antigen output through its expression both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, was employed in the constructed anti-caries DNA vaccine with attenuated Salmonella as mucosal delivery vector in this study. Here, both CMV and nirB promoters were included in the plasmid that harbors the genes encoding the functional epitopes of two virulence factors of S...
January 25, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185642/quantifying-the-sensitivity-of-human-immune-cells-to-chemoattractant
#10
Emmet A Francis, Volkmar Heinrich
The efficient recruitment of immune cells is a vital cornerstone of our defense against infections and a key challenge of immunotherapeutic applications. It relies on the ability of chemotaxing cells to prioritize their responses to different stimuli. For example, immune cells are known to abandon gradients of host-cell-produced cytokines in favor of complement-derived anaphylatoxins, which then guide the cells toward nearby pathogen surfaces. The aptitude to triage stimuli depends on the cells' specific sensitivities to different chemoattractants...
February 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183603/chitosan-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-hydroxyapatite-bone-scaffold-enhances-osteogenic-differentiation-through-tnf-%C3%AE-mediated-mechanism
#11
Agata Przekora, Grazyna Ginalska
The role of TNF-α in bone healing process is still unclear and controversial. Although it is commonly believed that TNF-α inhibits osteogenic differentiation, there are few reports that identified a crucial role of TNF-α in enhancing bone regeneration process. The aim of this study was to prove that novel chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/HA scaffold (chit/glu/HA) may promote osteogenic differentiation via TNF-α-mediated mechanism and an autocrine stimulation of osteoblasts. It was demonstrated that normal human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182670/killing-of-diverse-eye-pathogens-acanthamoeba-spp-fusarium-solani-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-with-alcohols
#12
Yousuf Aqeel, Raquel Rodriguez, Aparajita Chatterjee, Robin R Ingalls, John Samuelson
BACKGROUND: Blindness is caused by eye pathogens that include a free-living protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. byersi, and/or other Acanthamoeba spp.), a fungus (Fusarium solani), and a bacterium (Chlamydia trachomatis). Hand-eye contact is likely a contributor to the spread of these pathogens, and so hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizers (when water is not available) might reduce their transmission. Recently we showed that ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers kill walled cysts of Giardia and Entamoeba, causes of diarrhea and dysentery, respectively...
February 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182518/clinical-evaluation-of-a-bioactive-beta-glucan-gel-in-the-treatment-of-hard-to-heal-wounds
#13
B King, S Barrett, K F Cutting
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this evaluation is to assess the effects of a wound healing gel in a wounds of different aetiologies. METHOD: Data was recorded on the wound surface area, tissue type, and patient level of wound pain at baseline (0) and at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8. RESULTS: Of the total 39 patients enrolled in the study, 26 patients who complied with the protocol criteria completed the minimum four-week study period. During the 12-week evaluation period, seven of the 26 wounds fully healed and an additional eight wounds showed a reduction in size of more than 50 %...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180946/new-developments-and-directions-in-the-clinical-application-of-the-echinocandins
#14
REVIEW
C C Chang, M A Slavin, S C-A Chen
The echinocandins-caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin-are semi-synthetic cyclic hexapeptide antimicrobial agents with modified N-linked acyl lipid side chains which anchor the compounds to the phospholipid bilayer of the fungal cell membrane, thereby inhibiting synthesis of fungal cell wall glucan. Over the last 10 years, echinocandins have become the first-line antifungal treatment of candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis (IC). Echinocandins are generally well tolerated, but their use is limited by their requirement for daily intravenous dosing, lack of oral formulation and limited spectrum...
February 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180917/improvement-of-enzyme-activity-of-%C3%AE-1-3-1-4-glucanase-from-paenibacillus-sp-x4-by-error-prone-pcr-and-structural-insights-of-mutated-residues
#15
Seung Cheol Baek, Thien-Hoang Ho, Hyun Woo Lee, Won Kyeong Jung, Hyo-Seung Gang, Lin-Woo Kang, Hoon Kim
β-1,3-1,4-Glucanase (BGlc8H) from Paenibacillus sp. X4 was mutated by error-prone PCR or truncated using termination primers to improve its enzyme properties. The crystal structure of BGlc8H was determined at a resolution of 1.8 Å to study the possible roles of mutated residues and truncated regions of the enzyme. In mutation experiments, three clones of EP 2-6, 2-10, and 5-28 were finally selected that exhibited higher specific activities than the wild type when measured using their crude extracts. Enzyme variants of BG2-6, BG2-10, and BG5-28 were mutated at two, two, and six amino acid residues, respectively...
February 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179427/stability-and-ligand-promiscuity-of-type-a-carbohydrate-binding-modules-are-illustrated-by-the-structure-of-spirochaeta-thermophila-stcbm64c
#16
Virginia M R Pires, Pedro M M Pereira, Joana L A Brás, Márcia Correia, Vânia Cardoso, Pedro Bule, Victor D Alves, Shabir Najmudin, Immacolata Venditto, Luís M A Ferreira, Maria João Romão, Ana Luísa Carvalho, Carlos M G A Fontes, Duarte M Prazeres
Deconstruction of cellulose, the most abundant plant cell wall polysaccharide, requires the cooperative activity of a large repertoire of microbial enzymes. Modular cellulases contain non-catalytic type A Carbohydrate-Binding Modules (CBMs) that specifically bind to the crystalline regions of cellulose, thus promoting enzyme efficacy through proximity and targeting effects. Although type A CBMs play a critical role in cellulose recycling, their mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here we produced a library of recombinant CBMs representative of the known diversity of type A modules...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178285/purification-characterization-and-antitumor-activity-of-a-novel-glucan-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-coriolus-versicolor
#17
Annoor Awadasseid, Jie Hou, Yaser Gamallat, Shang Xueqi, Kuugbee D Eugene, Ahmed Musa Hago, Djibril Bamba, Abdo Meyiah, Chiwala Gift, Yi Xin
Cancer is one of the most common causes of deaths worldwide. Herein, we report an efficient natural anticancer glucan (CVG) extracted from Coriolus Versicolar (CV). CVG was extracted by the hot water extraction method followed by ethanol precipitation and purified using gas exclusion chromatography. Structural analysis revealed that CVG has a linear α-glucan chain composed of only (1→ 6)-α-D-Glcp. The antitumor activity of CVG on Sarcoma-180 cells was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Mice were treated with three doses of CVG (40, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight) for 9 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177008/formation-of-%C3%AE-1-3-1-6-d-glucan-complexed-70-fullerene-and-its-photodynamic-activity-towards-macrophages
#18
Atsushi Ikeda, Motofusa Akiyama, Kouta Sugikawa, Kazuya Koumoto, Yuta Kashijima, Jiawei Li, Toshio Suzuki, Takeshi Nagasaki
[70]Fullerene was dissolved in water by complexation with β-1,3-glucan using a mechanochemical high-speed vibration milling apparatus. The photodynamic activity of β-1,3-glucan-complexed C70 was highly dependent on the expression level of dectin-1 on the cell surfaces of macrophages. The photodynamic activity increased as a result of a synergistic effect between β-1,3-glucan-complexed 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and the C70 complex.
February 8, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175309/the-novel-oral-glucan-synthase-inhibitor-scy-078-shows-in-vitro-activity-against-sessile-and-planktonic-candida-spp
#19
Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Marta Gómez-Perosanz, Pilar Escribano, Emilio Bouza, Jesús Guinea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170016/the-anti-obesity-effect-of-fermented-barley-extracts-with-lactobacillus-plantarum-dy-1-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#20
Jiayan Zhang, Xiang Xiao, Ying Dong, Lani Shi, Tian Xu, Fei Wu
Fermented cereals have significant potential for improving the nutritional quality and health effects of foods and ingredients. In the present study, aqueous extracts of fermented barley with either Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated for their anti-adipogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of an aqueous extract of fermented barley with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) significantly prevented body weight gain and fat mass increase, and improved lipid profiles and glucose tolerance in high fat diet-induced obese male rats...
February 7, 2017: Food & Function
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