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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150632/mucoadhesive-functionality-of-cell-wall-structures-from-fruits-and-grains-electrostatic-and-polymer-network-interactions-mediated-by-soluble-dietary-polysaccharides
#1
Oliver W Meldrum, Gleb E Yakubov, Ghanendra Gartaula, Michael A McGuckin, Michael J Gidley
We demonstrate the enhancement of intestinal mucin (Muc2) binding to plant cell wall structures from fruit (parenchymal apple tissue) and grain (wheat endosperm) mediated by soluble dietary fibers embedded within cellulose networks. Mucin binding occurs through two distinct mechanisms; for pectin polysaccharides characteristic of fruits and vegetables, it is governed by molecular mucoadhesive interactions, while for neutral polysaccharides, arabinoxylan and β-glucan characteristic of cereal grains, the interaction stems from the properties of their polymer network...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146448/sialic-acid-binding-lectins-sabls-from-solen-grandis-function-as-prrs-ensuring-immune-recognition-and-bacterial-clearance
#2
Xiumei Wei, Dinglong Yang, Huiying Li, Hailin Jiang, Xiangquan Liu, Qin Zhang, Jialong Yang
Sialic acid-binding lectins (SABLs) are ubiquitous ancient molecules with binding properties to N-acetyl or N-glycolyl carbohydrates, and play crucial roles in both adaptive and innate immune responses. In present study, recombinant protein and antibodies of two SABLs from mollusk Solen grandis (SgSABL-1 and SgSABL-2) were prepared to investigate their functions in innate immunity. The recombinant protein of SgSABL-1 (rSgSABL-1) could bind LPS, PGN and β-glucan in vitro, while rSgSABL-2 could only bind PGN rather than LPS and β-glucan...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144965/role-of-serum-1-3%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-in-early-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#3
Abd Elazeez Shabaan, Lobna Mahmoud Elbaz, Wafaa M El-Emshaty, Basma Shouman
OBJECTIVES: To study the microbiological pattern of late onset neonatal sepsis cultures and to assess the diagnostic performance of serum (1,3)-β-d-glucan level for early diagnosis of invasive fungemia in high-risk infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: A prospective multicenter clinical trial conducted on infants at high risk for invasive fungal infections, with suspected late onset sepsis, admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit at Mansoura University Children's Hospital and Mansoura General Hospital between March 2014 and February 2016...
November 13, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144773/cancer-chemopreventive-antiproliferative-and-superoxide-anion-scavenging-properties-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-var-boulardii-cell-wall-components
#4
Olivier Fortin, Blanca Aguilar-Uscanga, Khanh Dang Vu, Stephane Salmieri, Monique Lacroix
This study investigated the cancer chemopreventive, the antiradical, and the antiproliferative properties of polysaccharides extracts from cell wall of Saccharomyces boulardii and Kluyveromyces marxianus. β-glucan, mannan, and chitin were also quantified to identify the most important extract responsible for these biological properties. Soluble and insoluble glucans as well as mannoprotein were extracted from cell wall using single hot-alkaline method. Superoxide anion scavenging (antiradical capacity), NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) (EC 1...
November 16, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143790/deep-eutectic-solvents-dess-for-the-isolation-of-willow-lignin-salix-matsudana-cv-zhuliu
#5
Tengfei Li, Gaojin Lyu, Yu Liu, Rui Lou, Lucian A Lucia, Guihua Yang, Jiachuan Chen, Haroon A M Saeed
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a potentially high-value lignin extraction methodology. DESs prepared from choline chloride (ChCl) and three hydrogen-bond donors (HBD)-lactic acid (Lac), glycerol, and urea-were evaluated for isolation of willow (Salix matsudana cv. Zhuliu) lignin. DESs types, mole ratio of ChCl to HBD, extraction temperature, and time on the fractionated DES-lignin yield demonstrated that the optimal DES-lignin yield (91.8 wt % based on the initial lignin in willow) with high purity of 94...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141316/-a-clinical-analysis-of-micafungin-treatment-of-pulmonary-invasive-fungal-infection-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-leukemia-or-post-hematopoietic-stem-cells-transplantation
#6
K Huang, K Y Qiu, L L Deng, J P Fang, Y Li, H X Guo, D H Zhou
Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of micafungin (MCF) for pulmonary invasive fungal disease (PIFD) in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation. Method: Twenty-five neutropenic PIFD children with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were selected from January 2012 to June 2015, including 12 males and 13 females, age range 2-15 (average 6.2±2.0) years. There were 12 cases of acute leukemia (AL) after chemotherapy, 4 cases of acute leukemia (AL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and 9 cases of β-thalassemia major after allo-HSCT...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141231/molecular-mechanism-by-which-prominent-human-gut-bacteroidetes-utilize-mixed-linkage-beta-glucans-major-health-promoting-cereal-polysaccharides
#7
Kazune Tamura, Glyn R Hemsworth, Guillaume Déjean, Theresa E Rogers, Nicholas A Pudlo, Karthik Urs, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Eric C Martens, Harry Brumer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133884/epha2-is-an-epithelial-cell-pattern-recognition-receptor-for-fungal-%C3%AE-glucans
#8
Marc Swidergall, Norma V Solis, Michail S Lionakis, Scott G Filler
Oral epithelial cells discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic stimuli, and only induce an inflammatory response when they are exposed to high levels of a potentially harmful microorganism. The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in epithelial cells that mediate this differential response are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) is an oral epithelial cell PRR that binds to exposed β-glucans on the surface of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Binding of C...
November 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133207/oral-hepatitis-b-vaccine-chitosan-or-glucan-based-delivery-systems-for-efficient-hbsag-immunization-following-subcutaneous-priming
#9
Edna Soares, Sandra Jesus, Olga Borges
The World Health Organization encourages "the development of oral formulations to simplify their transport, storage and administration in poor countries", and to "facilitate an effective immunization program to prevent sexually transmitted hepatitis B". Thus, two distinct and promising delivery systems were developed: recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) encapsulated into alginate-coated chitosan particles (AlgChiPs) and into glucan particles (GPs) mainly composed of β-1,3-D-glucan. In vitro preliminary studies showed that both could be internalized by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and murine Peyer's patches, an imperative aspect regarding oral immunization...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133008/biotechnological-potential-of-novel-glycoside-hydrolase-family-70-enzymes-synthesizing-%C3%AE-glucans-from-starch-and-sucrose
#10
REVIEW
Joana Gangoiti, Tjaard Pijning, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Transglucosidases belonging to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 70 are promising enzymatic tools for the synthesis of α-glucans with defined structures from renewable sucrose and starch substrates. Depending on the GH70 enzyme specificity, α-glucans with different structures and physicochemical properties are produced, which have found diverse (potential) commercial applications, e.g. in food, health and as biomaterials. Originally, the GH70 family was established only for glucansucrase enzymes of lactic acid bacteria that catalyze the synthesis of α-glucan polymers from sucrose...
November 10, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131847/evolutionary-history-of-callose-synthases-in-terrestrial-plants-with-emphasis-on-proteins-involved-in-male-gametophyte-development
#11
Lenka Záveská Drábková, David Honys
Callose is a plant-specific polysaccharide (β-1,3-glucan) playing an important role in angiosperms in many developmental processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Callose is synthesised at the plasma membrane of plant cells by callose synthase (CalS) and, among others, represents the main polysaccharide in the callose wall surrounding the tetrads of developing microspores and in the growing pollen tube wall. CalS proteins involvement in spore development is a plesiomorphic feature of terrestrial plants, but very little is known about their evolutionary origin and relationships amongst the members of this protein family...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129983/the-impact-of-oat-structure-and-%C3%AE-glucan-on-in-vitro-lipid-digestion
#12
Myriam M L Grundy, Janina Quint, Anne Rieder, Simon Ballance, Cécile A Dreiss, Kathryn L Cross, Robert Gray, Balazs H Bajka, Peter J Butterworth, Peter R Ellis, Peter J Wilde
Oat β-glucan has been shown to play a positive role in influencing lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, the mechanisms behind these beneficial effects are not fully understood. The purpose of the current work was to investigate some of the possible mechanisms behind the cholesterol lowering effect of oat β-glucan, and how processing of oat modulates lipolysis. β-Glucan release, and the rate and extent of lipolysis measured in the presence of different sources of oat β-glucan, were investigated during gastrointestinal digestion...
November 2017: Journal of Functional Foods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128588/curcumin-loaded-chitin-glucan-quercetin-conjugate-synthesis-characterization-antioxidant-in-vitro-release-study-and-anticancer-activity
#13
Anu Singh, Lavkush, Amit Kumar Kureel, P K Dutta, Sushil Kumar, Ambak Kumar Rai
In this study, we have synthesized chitin-glucan quercetin conjugate (ChGCQ) by an easy and facile free radical grafting reaction. The structure of ChGCQ was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Curcumin was loaded into ChGCQ to study its anti-cancer efficiency. The biocompatibility of ChGCQ and curcumin loaded ChGCQ (Cu-ChGCQ) were analysed by different assays in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cytotoxicity test was performed in a macrophage cancer cell line (J774)...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125373/use-of-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-in-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-hematology-patients
#14
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Valerio Del Bono, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hematology patients. Within a diagnostic-driven approach, the use of the serum (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) test represents a valid tool for the early diagnosis and treatment of IFD. Areas covered: The available literature on the use of BDG in hematology patients was systematically retrieved. Then, it was reviewed and discussed, to identify key issues pertaining to a clinically-oriented narrative presentation of the topic. Expert commentary: The use of BDG in hematology patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis (IA) is secondary to the use of galactomannan...
November 10, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124282/development-of-a-complete-set-of-wheat-barley-group-7-robertsonian-translocation-chromosomes-conferring-an-increased-content-of-%C3%AE-glucan
#15
Tatiana V Danilova, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill, Jesse Poland, Eric Jackson
A complete set of six compensating Robertsonian translocation chromosomes involving barley chromosome 7H and three chromosomes of hexaploid wheat was produced. Grain β-glucan content increased in lines containing 7HL. Many valuable genes for agronomic performance, disease resistance and increased yield have been transferred from relative species to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through whole-arm Robertsonian translocations (RobT). Although of a great value, the sets of available translocations from barley (Hordeum vulgare L...
November 10, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123871/comparison-of-quality-of-human-serum-albumin-preparations-in-two-pharmaceutical-products
#16
Hajime Nakae, Kouki Tomida, Yoshihiro Kikuya, Manabu Okuyama, Toshiko Igarashi
Aim: Human serum albumin (HSA) is known for its multiple functions, such as maintenance of colloid osmotic pressure, transport of endogenous and exogenous substances, and antioxidation. The aim of this study was to measure the redox state and concentrations of β-d-glucan and endotoxin to compare the quality of 5% HSA preparations from two different manufacturers. Methods: The quality of 5% HSA preparations in two different pharmaceutical products (groups A and B) was compared in terms of the percentage of reduced and oxidized albumin and the contaminant level of β-d-glucan and endotoxin...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122987/glutathione-transferase-u13-functions-in-pathogen-triggered-glucosinolate-metabolism
#17
Mariola Piślewska-Bednarek, Ryohei Thomas Nakano, Kei Hiruma, Marta Pastorczyk, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Suthitar Singkaravanit-Ogawa, Danuta Ciesiołka, Yoshitaka Takano, Antonio Molina, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Paweł Bednarek
Glutathione (GSH) and indole glucosinolates (IGs) exert key functions in the immune system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Appropriate GSH levels are important for execution of both pre- and post-invasive disease resistance mechanisms to invasive pathogens, while an intact PENETRATION2 (PEN2)-pathway for IG-metabolism is essential for pre-invasive resistance in this species. Earlier indirect evidence suggested that the latter pathway involves conjugation of GSH with unstable products of IG metabolism and further processing of the resulting adducts to biologically active molecules...
November 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120786/comparison-of-the-dietary-fibre-composition-of-old-and-modern-durum-wheat-triticum-turgidum-spp-durum-genotypes
#18
Michele Andrea De Santis, Ondrej Kosik, Diana Passmore, Zina Flagella, Peter R Shewry, Alison Lovegrove
It has been suggested that intensive breeding has led to decreased contents of health-promoting components in modern wheats. We therefore compared the contents and compositions of the major dietary fibre components, arabinoxylan and β-glucan, in semolina and wholemeal flour of old and modern Italian durum wheats. No differences in total arabinoxylan content were observed but the modern varieties had higher proportions of soluble arabinoxylan in wholemeals and of β-glucan in semolina. The study therefore provides no evidence that intensive breeding has had negative effects on the contents of dietary fibre components in durum wheat...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120001/correction-formation-of-%C3%AE-1-3-1-6-d-glucan-complexed-70-fullerene-and-its-photodynamic-activity-towards-macrophages
#19
Atsushi Ikeda, Motofusa Akiyama, Kouta Sugikawa, Kazuya Koumoto, Yuta Kagoshima, Jiawei Li, Toshio Suzuki, Takeshi Nagasaki
Correction for 'Formation of β-(1,3-1,6)-d-glucan-complexed [70]fullerene and its photodynamic activity towards macrophages' by Atsushi Ikeda et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2017, 15, 1990-1997.
November 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115611/d%C3%A2-tagatose-inhibits-the-growth-and-biofilm-formation-of-streptococcus%C3%A2-mutans
#20
Khaleque Hasibul, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Masahito Hashimoto, Hisashi Yamasaki, Takaaki Ogawa, Junpei Waki, Ayano Tada, Saori Yoneda, Masaaki Tokuda, Minoru Miyake, Tomomi Kuwahara
Dental caries is an important global health concern and Streptococcus mutans has been established as a major cariogenic bacterial species. Reports indicate that a rare sugar, D‑tagatose, is not easily catabolized by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of D‑tagatose on the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans GS‑5 were examined. Monitoring S. mutans growth over a 24 h period revealed that D‑tagatose prolonged the lag phase without interfering with the final cell yield...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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