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Ocular motor

Doreen Huppert, Dominik Straumann, Mans Magnusson, Ilmari Pyykkö, Thomas Brandt
A common European Community driving licence was established in 1980. However, there are major differences among the countries as regards medical conditions that legally affect driving ability. This article discusses various assessment guidelines for dizzy patients. These range from a total absence of specified binding requirements in Finland or regulations open to clinical interpretation in Switzerland, to inappropriately strict regulations in Germany. We focus on requirements for patients with vestibular disorders in Germany which have been in force since 2014...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Ria Maxine Rühl, Thomas Bauermann, Marianne Dieterich, Peter Zu Eulenburg
The visual motion aftereffect (MAE) is the most prominent aftereffect in the visual system. Regarding its function, Psychophysical studies suggest its function to be a form of sensory error correction, possibly also triggered by incongruent visual-vestibular stimulation. Several observational imaging experiments have deducted an essential role for region MT+ in the perception of a visual MAE but not provided conclusive evidence. Potential confounders with the MAE such as ocular motor performance, attention, and vection sensations have also never been controlled for...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Kee Hong Park, Patrick Waters, Mark Woodhall, Bethan Lang, Thomas Smith, Jung-Joon Sung, Kwang-Kuk Kim, Young-Min Lim, Jee-Eun Kim, Byung-Jo Kim, Jin-Sung Park, Jeong-Geon Lim, Dae-Seong Kim, Ohyun Kwon, Eun Hee Sohn, Jong Seok Bae, Byung-Nam Yoon, Nam-Hee Kim, Suk-Won Ahn, Jeeyoung Oh, Hyung Jun Park, Kyong Jin Shin, Yoon-Ho Hong
Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototype autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction, caused in most patients by autoantibodies to the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). There seem to be ethnic and regional differences in the frequency and clinical features of MG seronegative for the AChR antibody. This study aimed to describe the autoantibody profiles and clinical features of Korean patients with generalized MG seronegative for the AChR antibody. A total of 62 patients with a high index of clinical suspicion of seronegative generalized MG were identified from 18 centers, and we examined their sera for antibodies to clustered AChR, muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK), and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) by cell-based assays (CBA) and to MuSK by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA)...
2018: PloS One
Ryan N Moran, Tracey Covassin, R J Elbin, Dan Gould, Sally Nogle
BACKGROUND: The Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) measure is a newly developed vestibular and ocular motor symptom provocation screening tool for sport-related concussions. Baseline data, psychometric properties, and reliability of the VOMS are needed to further understand the applications of this tool, especially in the youth population, where research is scarce. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish normative data and document the internal consistency and false-positive rate of the VOMS in a sample of nonconcussed youth athletes...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Kerstin Schweyer, Marc Aurel Busche, Jochen Hammes, Andreas Zwergal, Carsten Buhmann, Thilo van Eimeren, Günter U Höglinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Neurology
Daichi G Suzuki, Sten Grillner
Lampreys, which represent the oldest group of living vertebrates (cyclostomes), show unique eye development. The lamprey larva has only eyespot-like immature eyes beneath a non-transparent skin, whereas after metamorphosis, the adult has well-developed image-forming camera eyes. To establish a functional visual system, well-organised visual centres as well as motor components (e.g. trunk muscles for locomotion) and interactions between them are needed. Here we review the available knowledge concerning the structure, function and development of the different parts of the lamprey visual system...
February 28, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Yingchao Shi, Shihua Li, Qian Wu, Le Sun, Junjing Zhang, Na Pan, Qihui Wang, Yuhai Bi, Jing An, Xuancheng Lu, George Fu Gao, Xiaoqun Wang
The association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and congenital malformations such as microcephaly in infants is a public health emergency. Although various in vivo and in vitro models are used for ZIKV research, few animal models are available for resolving the effects of maternal ZIKV infection on neonatal development. Here, we established an immunocompetent mouse model via intrauterine inoculation. Our results confirmed that ZIKV, but not dengue virus, infection caused spontaneous abortions, brain malformations, ocular abnormalities, spinal cord defects and paralysis in mouse offspring...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alessandro Serra, Clara G Chisari, Manuela Matta
Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly causes eye movement abnormalities that may have a significant impact on patients' disability. Inflammatory demyelinating lesions, especially occurring in the posterior fossa, result in a wide range of disorders, spanning from acquired pendular nystagmus (APN) to internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), among the most common. As the control of eye movements is well understood in terms of anatomical substrate and underlying physiological network, studying ocular motor abnormalities in MS provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into mechanisms of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ricardo Soares-Dos-Reis, Ana Inês Martins, Ana Brás, Anabela Matos, Conceição Bento, João Lemos
Ocular neuromyotonia is a rare, albeit treatable, ocular motor disorder, characterised by recurrent brief episodes of diplopia due to tonic extraocular muscle contraction. Ephaptic transmission in a chronically damaged ocular motor nerve is the possible underlying mechanism. It usually improves with carbamazepine. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of recurrent episodes of binocular vertical diplopia (up to 40/day), either spontaneously or after sustained downward gaze. Between episodes she had a mild left fourth nerve palsy...
February 21, 2018: Practical Neurology
Xiaoguang Tian, Masatoshi Yoshida, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades are systematically modulated by peripheral spatial cues, and these eye movements have been implicated in perceptual and motor performance changes in cueing tasks. However, an additional oculomotor factor that may also influence performance in these tasks, fixational eye position itself, has been largely neglected so far. Using precise eye tracking and real-time retinal-image stabilization, we carefully analyzed fixational eye position dynamics and related them to microsaccade generation during spatial cueing...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
M Muntaseer Mahfuz, Michael C Schubert, William V C Figtree, Christopher J Todd, Serajul I Khan, Americo A Migliaccio
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is the main vision-stabilising system during rapid head movements in humans. A visual-vestibular mismatch stimulus can be used to train or adapt the VOR response because it induces a retinal image slip error signal that drives VOR motor learning. The training context has been shown to affect VOR adaptation. We sought to determine whether active (self-generated) versus passive (externally imposed) head rotation vestibular training would differentially affect adaptation and short-term retention of the active and passive VOR responses...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Laurène Leclair-Visonneau, Laurent Magy, Christelle Volteau, Thomas Clairembault, Séverine Le Dily, Cécile Préterre, Arnaud Peyre, Philippe Damier, Michel Neunlist, Yann Péréon, Pascal Derkinderen
Dysautonomic symptoms are frequent non-motor complaints in patients with Parkinson's disease. Numerous neuropathological studies have shown that Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease, are widely distributed throughout the peripheral autonomic nervous systems and across end organs. However, few investigations integrally explored the symptoms and physiology of dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease. We, therefore, performed a comprehensive evaluation of the autonomic function in a prospective group of 45 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Elisa Galliano, Martijn Schonewille, Saša Peter, Mandy Rutteman, Simone Houtman, Dick Jaarsma, Freek E Hoebeek, Chris I De Zeeuw
In many brain regions involved in learning NMDA receptors (NMDARs) act as coincidence detectors of pre- and postsynaptic activity, mediating Hebbian plasticity. Intriguingly, the parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell (PC) input in the cerebellar cortex, which is critical for procedural learning, shows virtually no postsynaptic NMDARs. Why is this? Here, we address this question by generating and testing independent transgenic lines that overexpress NMDAR containing the type 2B subunit (NR2B) specifically in PCs...
January 2018: ENeuro
Oliver H Tam, David Pennisi, Lorine Wilkinson, Melissa H Little, Fatima Wazin, Victor L Wan, Frank J Lovicu
The development and growth of the vertebrate ocular lens is dependent on the regulated proliferation of an anterior monolayer of epithelial cells, and their subsequent differentiation into elongate fiber cells. The growth factor rich ocular media that bathes the lens mediates these cellular processes, and their respective intracellular signaling pathways are in turn regulated to ensure that the proper lens architecture is maintained. Recent studies have proposed that Cysteine Rich Motor Neuron 1 (Crim1), a transmembrane protein involved in organogenesis of many tissues, might influence cell adhesion, polarity and proliferation in the lens by regulating integrin-signaling...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
João Lemos, Adnan Subei, Mário Sousa, César Nunes, Luís Cunha, Christopher Glisson, Eric Eggenberger
Importance: Accurate clinical differentiation between skew deviation and fourth nerve palsy (4NP) is critical in the acute and subacute settings. Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the upright-supine test to detect vertical misalignment changes using different head positions for the diagnosis of acute or subacute skew deviation vs 4NP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter study enrolled consecutive patients from Coimbra University Hospital Centre, Coimbra, Portugal, and Michigan State University, Lansing, within 2 months of presenting with vertical diplopia and diagnosed as having skew deviation or acquired unilateral 4NP...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Camila V Ventura, Liana O Ventura
Vision plays an important role in the development of communication, social interaction, spatial awareness, and the motor skills needed to explore the environment. In the past 2 years, researchers have described the broad spectrum of clinical features that comprise congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). The ocular manifestations are considered 1 important pillar of this new entity. The most characteristic ophthalmic findings include chorioretinal scars and focal pigmentary changes seen in the macular region. Since these findings were first reported, other researchers have validated and extended them, leading to a more complete picture of the spectrum of ocular manifestations related to CZS...
February 2018: Pediatrics
Luca Rinaldi, Giovanni Bertolini, Christopher J Bockisch, Angelo Maravita, Luisa Girelli, Peter Brugger
Line bisection studies generally find a left-to-right shift in bisection bias with increasing distance between the observer and the target line, which may be explained by hemispheric differences in the processing of proximo-distal information. In the present study, the segregation between near and far space was further characterized across the motor system and contextual cues. To this aim, 20 right-handed participants were required to perform a manual bisection task of simple lines presented at three different distances (60, 90, 120 cm)...
February 8, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Germano Gallicchio, Andrew Cooke, Christopher Ring
Eye-tracking research has revealed that, compared to novices, experts make longer ocular fixations on the target of an action when performing motor skills; that is, they have a longer quiet eye. Remarkably, the reason why a longer quiet eye aids movement has yet to be established. There is a need for interdisciplinary research and new measures to accelerate progress on the mechanistic understanding of the phenomenon. With the aim to provide researchers with new tools, we assessed the utility of electrooculography (EOG) to examine ocular activity while 10 experts and 10 novices putted golf balls...
February 9, 2018: Psychophysiology
Arnulf H Koeppen
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA-3)/Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), the most common autosomal dominant ataxia, affects many regions of the brain and spinal cord. Similar to SCA-1, SCA-2, SCA-6, SCA-7, and SCA-17, the mutation consists of a pathogenic translated cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat expansion. Almost invariably, the substantia nigra and the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum bear the brunt of the disease, and these lesions account for the Parkinsonian and ataxic phenotypes. Lesions of motor nuclei in the brain stem cause the complex disturbance of ocular motility and weakness of the tongue...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Edward Margolin, Cindy T Y Lam
BACKGROUND: Diplopia can be the result of benign or life-threatening etiologies. It is imperative for the emergency physician to be proficient at assessing diplopia and recognize when urgent referral or neuroimaging is required. OBJECTIVE: The first part of this review highlights a simple framework to arrive at the appropriate disposition of diplopic patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). The second part of this review provides more detail and further management strategies...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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