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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646240/delineating-function-and-connectivity-of-optokinetic-hubs-in-the-cerebellum-and-the-brainstem
#1
Ria Maxine Ruehl, Carolin Hinkel, Thomas Bauermann, Peter Zu Eulenburg
Optokinetic eye movements are crucial for keeping a stable image on the retina during movements of the head. These eye movements can be differentiated into a cortically generated response (optokinetic look nystagmus) and the highly reflexive optokinetic stare nystagmus, which is controlled by circuits in the brainstem and cerebellum. The contributions of these infratentorial networks and their functional connectivity with the cortical eye fields are still poorly understood in humans. To map ocular motor centres in the cerebellum and brainstem, we studied stare nystagmus using small-field optokinetic stimuli in the horizontal and vertical directions in 22 healthy subjects...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640006/poor-gait-performance-is-influenced-with-decreased-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-in-poststroke-patients
#2
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Shinichiro Oka, Etsuo Horikawa
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) exerts a significant influence on gait performance. Therefore, a decrease in VOR function could worsen gait impairments in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. The effects of decreased VOR function on gait performance could be further exacerbated by aging-related physical weakness and impaired motor function of the hemiparetic lower limb. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of aging and impairment in lower extremity function and the VOR on walking ability of poststroke hemiplegic patients...
June 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638085/differential-regulations-of-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-and-optokinetic-response-by-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptors-in-the-cerebellar-flocculus
#3
Ryo Wakita, Soshi Tanabe, Kazunari Tabei, Asako Funaki, Takuma Inoshita, Tomoo Hirano
Norepinephrine modulates synaptic plasticity in various brain regions and is implicated in memory formation, consolidation and retrieval. The cerebellum is involved in motor learning, and adaptations of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and optokinetic response (OKR) have been studied as models of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Previous studies showed the involvement of adrenergic systems in the regulation of VOR, OKR and cerebellar synaptic functions. Here, we show differential contributions of β- and α2-adrenergic receptors in the mouse cerebellar flocculus to VOR and OKR control...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632848/effect-of-gabapentin-memantine-on-the-infantile-nystagmus-syndrome-in-the-zebrafish-model-implications-for-the-therapy-of-ocular-motor-diseases
#4
Stefan Yu Bögli, Maresa Afthinos, Melody Ying-Yu Huang
Purpose: Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is a disorder characterized by typical horizontal eye oscillations. Due to the uncertain etiology of INS, developing specific treatments remains difficult. Single reports demonstrated, on limited measures, alleviating effects of gabapentin and memantine. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish INS model belladonna (bel) to conduct an in-depth study of how gabapentin and memantine interventions alleviate INS signs, which may further restore visual conditions in affected subjects...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632677/preexisting-ocular-motor-palsy-and-central-neuroaxial-block-a-reply-to-dr-nair
#5
Monica Del-Rio-Vellosillo, Jose Javier Garcia-Medina, Maria Dolores Pinazo-Duran, Antonio Abengochea-Cotaina, Manuel Barbera-Alacreu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632676/is-central-neuraxial-block-advisable-in-a-patient-with-preexisting-ocular-motor-palsy
#6
Abhijit S Nair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622546/the-semiology-of-febrile-seizures-focal-features-are-frequent
#7
Michihiko Takasu, Tetsuo Kubota, Takeshi Tsuji, Hirokazu Kurahashi, Shingo Numoto, Kazuyoshi Watanabe, Akihisa Okumura
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the semiology of febrile seizures (FS) and to determine the frequency of FS with symptoms suggestive of focal onset. METHODS: FS symptoms in children were reported within 24h of seizure onset by the parents using a structured questionnaire consisting principally of closed-ended questions. We focused on events at seizure commencement, including changes in behavior and facial expression, and ocular and oral symptoms. We also investigated the autonomic and motor symptoms developing during seizures...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622442/muscular-basis-of-whisker-torsion-in-mice-and-rats
#8
Sebastian Haidarliu, Knarik Bagdasarian, Namrata Shinde, Ehud Ahissar
Whisking mammals move their whiskers in the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral directions with simultaneous rolling about their long axes (torsion). Whereas muscular control of the first two types of whisker movement was already established, the anatomic muscular substrate of the whisker torsion remains unclear. Specifically, it was not clear whether torsion is induced by asymmetrical operation of known muscles or by other largely unknown muscles. Here we report that mystacial pads of newborn and adult rats and mice contain oblique intrinsic muscles (OMs) that connect diagonally adjacent vibrissa follicles...
June 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620341/the-intersection-between-ocular-and-manual-motor-control-eye-hand-coordination-in-acquired-brain-injury
#9
REVIEW
John-Ross Rizzo, Maryam Hosseini, Eric A Wong, Wayne E Mackey, James K Fung, Edmond Ahdoot, Janet C Rucker, Preeti Raghavan, Michael S Landy, Todd E Hudson
Acute and chronic disease processes that lead to cerebral injury can often be clinically challenging diagnostically, prognostically, and therapeutically. Neurodegenerative processes are one such elusive diagnostic group, given their often diffuse and indolent nature, creating difficulties in pinpointing specific structural abnormalities that relate to functional limitations. A number of studies in recent years have focused on eye-hand coordination (EHC) in the setting of acquired brain injury (ABI), highlighting the important set of interconnected functions of the eye and hand and their relevance in neurological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619428/neuromyelitis-optica-presenting-with-horner-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#10
İrem Fatma Uludağ, Alp Sarıteke, Levent Öcek, Yaşar Zorlu, Ufuk Şener, Figen Tokuçoğlu, Burhanettin Uludağ
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that predominantly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. We describe a 19 years old woman with left Horner syndrome (HS), who was diagnosed as NMO with characteristic longitudinally extensive myelitis and positive serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). Our report describes one of the very rare ocular motor symptoms in NMO patients.
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606756/lasting-retinal-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-blast-induced-trauma
#11
Najiba Mammadova, Shivani Ghaisas, Gary Zenitsky, Donald S Sakaguchi, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Justin J Greenlee, M Heather West Greenlee
Traumatic brain injury due to blast exposure is currently the most prevalent of war injuries. Although secondary ocular blast injuries due to flying debris are more common, primary ocular blast exposure resulting from blast wave pressure has been reported among survivors of explosions, but with limited understanding of the resulting retinal pathologies. Using a compressed air-driven shock tube system, adult male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to blast wave pressure of 300 kPa (43.5 psi) per day for 3 successive days, and euthanized 30 days after injury...
July 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591570/compromised-survival-of-cerebellar-molecular-layer-interneurons-lacking-gdnf-receptors-gfr%C3%AE-1-or-ret-impairs-normal-cerebellar-motor-learning
#12
Maria Christina Sergaki, Juan Carlos López-Ramos, Stefanos Stagkourakis, Agnès Gruart, Christian Broberger, José María Delgado-García, Carlos F Ibáñez
The role of neurotrophic factors as endogenous survival proteins for brain neurons remains contentious. In the cerebellum, the signals controlling survival of molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) are unknown, and direct evidence for the requirement of a full complement of MLIs for normal cerebellar function and motor learning has been lacking. Here, we show that Purkinje cells (PCs), the target of MLIs, express the neurotrophic factor GDNF during MLI development and survival of MLIs depends on GDNF receptors GFRα1 and RET...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586131/mechanisms-underlying-vestibulo-cerebellar-motor-learning-in-mice-depend-on-movement-direction
#13
Kai Voges, Bin Wu, Laura Post, Martijn Schonewille, Chris I De Zeeuw
Compensatory eye movements elicited by head rotation, also known as vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), can be adapted with the use of visual feedback. The cerebellum is essential for this type of movement adaptation, but its neuronal correlates remain to be elucidated. Here we show that the direction of vestibular input determines the magnitude of eye movement adaptation induced by mismatched visual input in mice, with larger changes during contraversive head rotation. Moreover, the location of the neural correlate of this changed behaviour depends on the type of paradigm...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567027/transient-vestibulopathy-in-wallenberg-s-syndrome-pathologic-analysis
#14
Jorge C Kattah, Ali S Saber Tehrani, Sigrun Roeber, Meena Gujrati, Sarah E Bach, David E Newman Toker, Ari M Blitz, Anja K E Horn
OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual lateral medullary stroke (LMS) associated with transient unidirectional horizontal, nystagmus, and decreased horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (h-VOR) gain that mimicked a peripheral vestibulopathy. MRI suggested involvement of caudal medial vestibular nucleus (MVN); however, the rapid resolution of the nystagmus and improved h-VOR gain favored transient ischemia without infarction. Decreased h-VOR gain is expected with peripheral vestibular lesions within the labyrinth or superior vestibular nerve; less frequently lateral pontine strokes involving the vestibular root entry, the vestibular fascicle, or neurons within the MVN may be responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566184/unexpectedly-mild-phenotype-in-an-ataxic-family-with-a-two-base-deletion-in-the-aptx-gene
#15
Makito Hirano, Ryusuke Matsumura, Yusaku Nakamura, Kazumasa Saigoh, Hikaru Sakamoto, Shuichi Ueno, Hiroya Inoue, Susumu Kusunoki
INTRODUCTION: Early onset ataxia with ocular motor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia (EAOH)/ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1 (AOA1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the APTX gene. In contrast to the recent progress on the molecular mechanism of aprataxin in DNA repair, the genotype and phenotype correlation has not been fully established. A previous study demonstrated that patients with truncation mutations had earlier onset of disease than those with missense mutations METHODS: Genomic DNA analysis was performed in a consanguineous family with relatively late-onset EAOH/AOA1...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553580/fast-and-efficient-four%C3%A2-class-motor-imagery-electroencephalography-signal-analysis-using-common-spatial-pattern-ridge-regression-algorithm-for-the-purpose-of-brain-computer-interface
#16
Sahar Seifzadeh, Mohammad Rezaei, Karim Faez, Mahmood Amiri
Brain-computer interfaces enable users to control devices with electroencephalographic (EEG) activity from the scalp or with single-neuron activity from within the brain. One of the most challenging issues in this regard is the balance between the accuracy of brain signals from patients and the speed of interpreting them into machine language. The main objective of this paper is to analyze different approaches to achieve the balance more quickly and in a better way. To reduce the ocular artifacts, the symmetric prewhitening independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm has been evaluated, which has the lowest runtime and lowest signal-to-interference (SIR) index, without destroying the original signal...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538036/multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies-in-giant-cell-arteritis
#17
Michael Ross, Lulu Bursztyn, Rosanne Superstein, Mark Gans
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis of medium and large arteries often with ophthalmic involvement, including ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal artery occlusion, and ocular motor cranial nerve palsies. This last complication occurs in 2%-15% of patients, but typically involves only 1 cranial nerve. We present 2 patients with biopsy-proven GCA associated with multiple cranial nerve palsies.
May 18, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527076/the-role-of-visual-system-in-migraine
#18
Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Alessandra Criscuoli
The visual system is involved in different ways in migraine. Visual auras are the most common form of migraine aura. It may consist of positive or negative visual symptoms and cortical spreading depression is felt to be the phenomenon that underlies it. Even in migraine without aura, vision it is not totally excluded given that one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of migraine is photophobia. In persistent visual aura, patients refer symptoms defined as visual snow and television static. In retinal migraine unilateral decreased vision or complete visual loss occurs...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523336/multum-in-parvo
#19
Dan Cristian Voinescu, Aurel George Mohan, Andrei Alexandru Marinescu, Alexandru Vlad Ciurea
The authors begin from the Latin expression Multum in parvo, which is used to summarize the essential aspects of something. This phrase is used in this case to define the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) - the posttraumatic conscious state evaluation scale. The authors gather the entire information regarding the creation of a uniform evaluation scale for the patients that have the state of consciousness altered or are even in a posttraumatic coma. This subject has been thoroughly debated for over 40 years. Teasdale & Jennett represented a huge step in the evaluation of patient's state of consciousness...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520665/family-history-of-migraine-associated-with-posttraumatic-migraine-symptoms-following-sport-related-concussion
#20
Alicia Sufrinko, Jamie McAllister-Deitrick, R J Elbin, Michael W Collins, Anthony P Kontos
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether family history of migraine increased the likelihood of posttraumatic migraine (PTM) symptom presentation in adolescents following concussion, and examine the influence of family history of migraine and PTM on postinjury outcomes. SETTING: Outpatient concussion clinic. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 153 patients with concussion (103 males and 50 females) aged 15.72 ± 1.48 years (range 12-18 years). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study of patients presenting for initial evaluation 4...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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