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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887803/psychosis-in-spinocerebellar-ataxias-a-case-series-and-study-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-in-substantia-nigra
#1
Katherine W Turk, Margaret E Flanagan, Samuel Josephson, C Dirk Keene, Suman Jayadev, Thomas D Bird
Spinocerebellar ataxias are a genetically heterogeneous group of degenerative diseases typically characterized by progressive ataxia and to various degrees, neuropathy, amyotrophy, and ocular abnormalities. There is increasing evidence for non-motor manifestations associated with cerebellar syndromes including cognitive and psychiatric features. We studied a retrospective clinical case series of eight subjects with spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) 2, 3, 7, and 17, all displaying features of psychosis, and also measured tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) staining of the substantia nigra (SN) at autopsy, among four of the subjects...
September 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878733/clinical-approach-to-supranuclear-brainstem-saccadic-gaze-palsies
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra Lloyd-Smith Sequeira, John-Ross Rizzo, Janet C Rucker
Failure of brainstem supranuclear centers for saccadic eye movements results in the clinical presence of a brainstem-mediated supranuclear saccadic gaze palsy (SGP), which is manifested as slowing of saccades with or without range of motion limitation of eye movements and as loss of quick phases of optokinetic nystagmus. Limitation in the range of motion of eye movements is typically worse with saccades than with smooth pursuit and is overcome with vestibular-ocular reflexive eye movements. The differential diagnosis of SGPs is broad, although acute-onset SGP is most often from brainstem infarction and chronic vertical SGP is most commonly caused by the neurodegenerative condition progressive supranuclear palsy...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867885/serious-visual-ocular-complications-in-pre-eclampsia-and-eclampsia
#3
Thangappah Radha Bai Prabhu
INTRODUCTION: Complete loss of vision is an uncommon ocular complication of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. The conditions which lead to visual loss in pre-eclampsia include cortical blindness, retinal detachment, retinal vascular thrombosis and optic nerve atrophy. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the cause, clinical course and prognosis in blindness complicating pre-eclampsia. METHODOLOGY: This is a prospective observational study conducted at the Govt...
October 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867398/visual-and-ocular-motor-outcomes-in-children-with-posterior-fossa-tumors
#4
Crandall E Peeler, Jane C Edmond, Jeffrey Hollander, Jamie K Alexander, David Zurakowski, Nicole J Ullrich, Peter E Manley, Gena Heidary
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics and visual and ocular motor outcomes of a large cohort of pediatric patients treated for tumors of the posterior cranial fossa. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with posterior fossa tumors evaluated by the ophthalmology services at two large tertiary care academic hospitals between 2005 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Data abstracted for each study patient included demographic information, presenting signs and symptoms, pathologic diagnosis, and results of the most recent ophthalmology examination...
August 31, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844105/the-floccular-syndrome-dynamic-changes-in-eye-movements-and-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-in-isolated-infarction-of-the-cerebellar-flocculus
#5
Dario Andres Yacovino, Manuel Perez Akly, Leonel Luis, David S Zee
The cerebellar flocculus is a critical structure involved in the control of eye movements. Both static and dynamic abnormalities of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) have been described in animals with experimental lesions of the flocculus/paraflocculus complex. In humans, lesions restricted to the flocculus are rare so they can become an exceptional model to contrast with the clinical features in experimental animals or in patients with more generalized cerebellar diseases. Here, we examined a 67-year-old patient with an acute vestibular syndrome due to an isolated infarct of the right flocculus...
August 26, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807728/vestibulo-ocular-reflex-abnormality-in-parkinson-s-disease-detected-by-video-head-impulse-test
#6
Wen Lv, Qiongfeng Guan, Xingyue Hu, Jiaqi Chen, Hong Jiang, Lisan Zhang, Weinv Fan
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by dopaminergic neuronal loss. The underlying cause of PD is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical relevance of vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) gain in patients with PD, especially those in the early stages. METHODS: Sixty-three PD patients and 56 control healthy individuals were enrolled in this study between Mar 2015 and Aug 2015. VOR gains were determined by video head impulse test (vHIT) device...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799562/ophthalmic-features-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-7
#7
A Campos-Romo, E O Graue-Hernandez, L Pedro-Aguilar, J C Hernandez-Camarena, D Rivera-De la Parra, V Galvez, R Diaz, A Jimenez-Corona, J Fernandez-Ruiz
PurposeTo analyze the relation between ophthalmologic and motor changes in spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7).Patients and methodsThis was a case series study. Sixteen SCA7 patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including ocular extrinsic motility testing, color vision test, and optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve and macula. Changes in the corneal endothelium, electroretinographic patterns, and a complete neurologic evaluation using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) were evaluated...
August 11, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791940/biased-visuospatial-attention-in-cervical-dystonia
#8
Gaetana Chillemi, Caterina Formica, Adriana Salatino, Alessandro Calamuneri, Paolo Girlanda, Francesca Morgante, Demetrio Milardi, Carmen Terranova, Alberto Cacciola, Angelo Quartarone, Raffaella Ricci
OBJECTIVES: There is increasing evidence of non-motor, sensory symptoms, mainly involving the spatial domain, in cervical dystonia (CD). These manifestations are likely driven by dysfunctional overactivity of the parietal cortex during the execution of a sensory task. Few studies also suggest the possibility that visuospatial attention might be specifically affected in patients with CD. Therefore, we asked whether non-motor manifestations in CD might also comprise impairment of higher level visuospatial processing...
August 9, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771056/ocular-motor-function-in-children-with-spastic-hemiplegia-evaluated-by-the-ocular-motor-score
#9
A Rydberg, J Ygge, M Olsson
PURPOSE: To assess the ocular motor functions in children with spastic hemiplegia by using the Ocular Motor Score (OMS). MATERIAL: This study included 34 children, median age 11 years. The children were divided into 3 groups according to the underlying brain lesion; group 1 malformations, group 2 white matter damage of immaturity (WMDI), and group 3 cortical/subcortical lesions. METHODS: The OMS protocol consists of 15 different subtests evaluating ocular motor functions...
August 3, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769866/eye-control-deficits-coupled-to-hand-control-deficits-eye-hand-incoordination-in-chronic-cerebral-injury
#10
John-Ross Rizzo, James K Fung, Maryam Hosseini, Azadeh Shafieesabet, Edmond Ahdoot, Rosa M Pasculli, Janet C Rucker, Preeti Raghavan, Michael S Landy, Todd E Hudson
It is widely accepted that cerebral pathology can impair ocular motor and manual motor control. This is true in indolent and chronic processes, such as neurodegeneration and in acute processes such as stroke or those secondary to neurotrauma. More recently, it has been suggested that disruptions in these control systems are useful markers for prognostication and longitudinal monitoring. The utility of examining the relationship or the coupling between these systems has yet to be determined. We measured eye and hand-movement control in chronic, middle cerebral artery stroke, relative to healthy controls, in saccade-to-reach paradigms to assess eye-hand coordination...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765488/wernicke%C3%A3-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-s-encephalopathy-associated-with-liver-abscess
#11
Rajesh Verma, Vipul Garg
Wernicke's encephalopathy is a rare neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, characterised by ocular motor dysfunction, ataxia and impairment in consciousness. It predominantly affects brain regions with a high metabolic rate such as mammillary bodies, medial thalamic nuclei, the tectal region and the cerebellum. Although chronic alcoholism is the most common cause of Wernicke's encephalopathy, various other conditions not related to alcohol consumption such as bariatric surgery, acute pancreatitis, hyperemesis gravidarum, prolonged fasting and gastrointestinal surgery have been implicated in its aetiology...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759292/an-optimal-measurement-of-fixation-disparity-using-ogle-s-apparatus
#12
L de Meij, M A J Telleman, M R C Luijten, J R Polling, M Gutter
PURPOSE: Fixation disparity (FD) is a small misalignment of the eyes within the normal alignment when viewing under binocular condition. Ogle's apparatus measures FD. Standards of procedures vary, which may lead to different outcomes. METHODS: Students with normal ocular alignment, stereopsis ≤60 seconds of arc and visual acuity <0.1 logMAR, were included in this prospective comparative study. Four procedures (P1-P4) of measuring FD with Ogle's apparatus were performed with divergent placement of the line (P1 and P3), or the line moving from subjective zero (P1 and P2: prisms of ascending strength; P3 and P4: prisms alternating base in base out; combined and P4)...
July 31, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733210/threat-effects-on-human-oculo-motor-function
#13
E N Naranjo, T W Cleworth, J H J Allum, J T Inglis, J Lea, B D Westerberg, M G Carpenter
Neuro-anatomical evidence supports the potential for threat-related factors, such as fear, anxiety and vigilance, to influence brainstem motor nuclei controlling eye movements, as well as the vestibular nuclei. However, little is known about how threat influences human ocular responses, such as eye saccades (ES), smooth pursuit eye tracking (SP), and optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), and whether these responses can be facilitated above normal baseline levels with a natural source of threat. This study was designed to examine the effects of height-induced postural threat on the gain of ES, SP and OKN responses in humans...
July 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730451/using-planar-phi29-prna-three-way-junction-to-control-size-and-shape-of-rna-nanoparticles-for-biodistribution-profiling-in-mice
#14
Farzin Haque, Congcong Xu, Daniel L Jasinski, Hui Li, Peixuan Guo
RNA is rapidly emerging as a versatile building block for nanoparticle assembly due to its simplicity in base pairing, while exhibiting diversity in function such as enzymatic activity similar to some proteins. Recent advances in RNA nanotechnology have generated significant interests in applying RNA nanoparticles for various applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. In particular, assessing the effect of size and shape on cell entry and intracellular trafficking as well as in vivo biodistribution of nanoparticles is challenging due to the lack of nanoparticles rich in structure while varying in size and shape...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730080/old-canalicular-laceration-repair-a-retrospective-study-of-the-curative-effects-and-prognostic-factors
#15
Fang Bai, Hai Tao, Yan Zhang, Peng Wang, Cui Han, Yi-Fei Huang, Ye Tao
AIM: To investigate the epidemiology and surgical outcomes of old canalicular laceration and analyze the variables impacting on the prognosis of reparation. METHODS: A retrospective review of all old canalicular laceration repairs from Jan. 1, 2008 to Dec. 30, 2015 was performed. Analyzed data included demographics, mechanisms of injury, the time from injury to repair, causes for delayed repair, old associated injuries, the types of surgery, and the effects of repair using canaliculus anastomosis combined with bicanalicular stent intubation...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705744/the-relationship-between-ocular-trauma-and-substance-abuse-in-emergency-department-patients
#16
Sylvia L Chang, Vaama Patel, John Giltner, Richard Lee, Catherine A Marco
INTRODUCTION: Eye injury is the second most common cause of visual impairment and a leading cause of monocular blindness in the United States. There are approximately 6 million ED visits related to drug use annually, including misuse or abuse of pharmaceuticals and illicit drug use. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between ocular trauma and substance abuse among emergency department patients and to assess that relationship with demographic factors, including age and gender...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698242/abnormal-fixational-eye-movements-in-strabismus
#17
Fatema F Ghasia, Jorge Otero-Millan, Aasef G Shaikh
INTRODUCTION: Fixational saccades are miniature eye movements that constantly change the gaze during attempted visual fixation. Visually guided saccades and fixational saccades represent an oculomotor continuum and are produced by common neural machinery. Patients with strabismus have disconjugate binocular horizontal saccades. We examined the stability and variability of eye position during fixation in patients with strabismus and correlated the severity of fixational instability with strabismus angle and binocular vision...
July 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690584/decompression-in-chiari-malformation-clinical-ocular-motor-cerebellar-and-vestibular-outcome
#18
Nicolina Goldschagg, Katharina Feil, Franziska Ihl, Siegbert Krafczyk, Mathias Kunz, Jörg Christian Tonn, Michael Strupp, Aurelia Peraud
BACKGROUND: Treatment of Chiari malformation can include suboccipital decompression with resection of one cerebellar tonsil. Its effects on ocular motor and cerebellar function have not yet been systematically examined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether decompression, including resection of one cerebellar tonsil, leads to ocular motor, vestibular, or cerebellar deficits. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten patients with Chiari malformation type 1 were systematically examined before and after (1 week and 3 months) suboccipital decompression with unilateral tonsillectomy...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689341/painful-spasms-in-facial-masticatory-and-motor-ocular-muscles-reversed-after-microvascular-decompression-of-a-neurovascular-conflict-at-brainstem
#19
Tania-Mihaela Idriceanu, Marc Sindou
The authors present a case of a 42-year-old female admitted for disabling complex and atypical bilateral facial spasms associated with painful masticatory and motor ocular dystonic movements, difficult to fit in the definition of any known cranio-facial dyskinesias. MRI showed a left PICA loop invaginated into the brainstem, considered responsible of an hyperactive disorder of the brainstem nuclei neighboring the conflict. After microvascular decompression, the patient made a full recovery with complete disappearance of the paroxystic phenomena...
July 8, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680171/thiamine-prescribing-practices-for-adult-patients-admitted-to-an-internal-medicine-service
#20
Uzma Alim, Duane Bates, Ashten Langevin, Denise Werry, Deonne Dersch-Mills, Robert J Herman, Marcy Mintz, Sunita Ghosh
BACKGROUND: Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential cofactor responsible for the breakdown of glucose, and its deficiency is associated with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). There is a lack of evidence from systematic studies on the optimal dosing of thiamine for WE. Objectives: The primary objective was to describe the prescribing patterns for IV thiamine in adult patients admitted to a large teaching hospital. The secondary objective was to evaluate the clinical resolution of WE symptoms (confusion, ataxia, and/or ocular motor abnormalities) in relation to the dose of IV thiamine prescribed...
May 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
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