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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328939/multimodal-mr-imaging-reveals-large-scale-structural-and-functional-connectivity-changes-in-profound-early-blindness
#1
Corinna M Bauer, Gabriella V Hirsch, Lauren Zajac, Bang-Bon Koo, Olivier Collignon, Lotfi B Merabet
In the setting of profound ocular blindness, numerous lines of evidence demonstrate the existence of dramatic anatomical and functional changes within the brain. However, previous studies based on a variety of distinct measures have often provided inconsistent findings. To help reconcile this issue, we used a multimodal magnetic resonance (MR)-based imaging approach to provide complementary structural and functional information regarding this neuroplastic reorganization. This included gray matter structural morphometry, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) of white matter connectivity and integrity, and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325621/-diplopia-an-important-symptom-in-internal-medicine
#2
S Bidot, V Biousse
Diplopia is defined as "double vision" when looking at a single object. Monocular diplopia is related to an ocular disorder and must be differentiated from binocular diplopia which is secondary to ocular misalignment. The examination of the patient with binocular diplopia is often challenging for non-specialists. However, a careful and systematic clinical examination followed by targeted ancillary testing allows the clinician to localize the lesion along the oculomotor pathways. The lesion may involve the brainstem, the ocular motor nerves III, IV or VI, the neuromuscular junction, the extraocular ocular muscles, or the orbit...
March 18, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315806/paroxysmal-nonepileptic-events-in-children-with-epilepsy
#3
Yuji Ito, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Tamiko Negoro, Masaharu Tanaka, Yu Okai, Yoko Sakaguchi, Chikako Ogawa, Tomoya Takeuchi, Atsuko Ohno, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Tomohiko Nakata, Satoshi Maesawa, Kazuyoshi Watanabe, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Jun Natsume
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of paroxysmal nonepileptic events (PNEs) suspected as being epileptic seizures by families of children with epilepsy. METHODS: The video-EEG (vEEG) recordings of habitual paroxysmal events in children with epilepsy at Nagoya University Hospital between October 2006 and January 2016 were reviewed. Based on the doctor's suspicion before the vEEG, the PNEs were divided into two groups that included PNEs suspected as epileptic seizures and PNEs suspected as PNEs...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314977/isolated-vestibular-syndromes-due-to-brainstem-and-cerebellar-lesions
#4
Sung-Hee Kim, Hyo Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
Dizziness/vertigo is the most common symptoms of posterior circulation strokes. Isolated vestibular symptoms and signs without other neurologic deficits have been found in infarctions involving the brainstem and cerebellum. In the brainstem, infarctions responsible for isolated vestibular syndrome are usually restricted to the dorsal portion that contains the vestibular nucleus and the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. Cerebellar lesions confined to the flocculus, tonsil, and nodulus also produce isolated vertigo and imbalance...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303385/after-effects-of-cerebellar-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-on-reflexive-saccades-and-smooth-pursuit-in-humans
#5
Silvia Colnaghi, P Colagiorgio, S Ramat, E D'Angelo, G Koch, M Versino
The use of cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has been attempted for perturbing reflexive and voluntary eye movements, but discrepancies are seen between the results of distinct studies possibly due to the different stimulation sites, intensities, and paradigms. We describe the after effects of 20 and 40 s continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) as compared to sham stimulation, applied over the lateral cerebellar vermis and paravermis on Reflexive Saccades (RS) and Smooth Pursuit (SP) eye movements, recorded in the 30 min following stimulation...
March 16, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293537/a-rare-case-of-concomitant-sicca-keratopathy-and-ipsilateral-central-facial-palsy-in-wallenberg-s-dorsolateral-medullary-syndrome
#6
Deborah De Bruyn, Elisabeth Van Aken, Kristien Herman
Objective: To describe a patient with a right-sided supranuclear facial palsy and concomitant sicca keratopathy of the right eye following right-sided dorsolateral medullary infarction. Methods: Our patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic and neurologic examination including biomicroscopy, fundus examination, cranial nerve examination, Shirmer I test, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Results: A 61-year-old woman presented in emergency with a central facial nerve palsy on the right side and truncal ataxia...
2017: GMS Ophthalmology Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292832/functional-organization-of-vestibulo-ocular-responses-in-abducens-motoneurons
#7
Haike Dietrich, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) are the dominating contributors to gaze stabilization in all vertebrates. During horizontal head movements, abducens motoneurons form the final element of the reflex arc that integrates visuo-vestibular inputs into temporally precise motor commands for the lateral rectus eye muscle. Here, we studied a possible differentiation of abducens motoneurons into subtypes by evaluating their morphology, discharge properties and synaptic pharmacology in semi-intact in vitro preparations of larval Xenopus laevis Extracellular nerve recordings during sinusoidal head motion revealed a continuum of resting rates and activation thresholds during vestibular stimulation...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289399/auditory-and-vestibular-evoked-potentials-correlate-with-motor-and-non-motor-features-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Ali Soliman Shalash, Dalia Mohamed Hassan, Hanan Hani Elrassas, Mohamed Mosaad Salama, Edna Méndez-Hernández, José M Salas-Pacheco, Oscar Arias-Carrión
Degeneration of several brainstem nuclei has been long related to motor and non-motor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, due to technical issues, there are only a few studies that correlate that association. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP) and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses represent a valuable tool for brainstem assessment. Here, we investigated the abnormalities of BAEPs, ocular VEMPs (oVEMPs), and cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) in patients with PD and its correlation to the motor and NMSs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286307/strabismus-surgery-outcomes-in-eyes-with-glaucoma-drainage-devices
#9
Carla J Osigian, Kara M Cavuoto, Julia D Rossetto, Mohamed Sayed, Sara Grace, Ta C Chang, Hilda Capo
PURPOSE: To report strabismus surgery outcomes in eyes with prior implantation of glaucoma drainage devices (GDD). METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent strabismus surgery for ocular misalignment that developed after implantation of a GDD over a 13-year period at a single institution were examined retrospectively. Patient characteristics, deviation types, preoperative measurements, surgical procedures, and postoperative measurements were analyzed...
March 9, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284903/ocular-and-visual-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-common-but-frequently-overlooked
#10
REVIEW
Merel S Ekker, Sabine Janssen, Klaus Seppi, Werner Poewe, Nienke M de Vries, Thomas Theelen, Jorik Nonnekes, Bastiaan R Bloem
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often compensate for their motor deficits by guiding their movements visually. A wide range of ocular and visual disorders threatens the patients' ability to benefit optimally from visual feedback. These disorders are common in patients with PD, yet they have received little attention in both research and clinical practice, leading to unnecessary - but possibly treatable - disability. Based on a literature search covering 50 years, we review the range of ocular and visual disorders in patients with PD, and classify these according to anatomical structures of the visual pathway...
February 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282710/early-onset-friedreich-s-ataxia-with-oculomotor-apraxia
#11
Amene Saghazadeh, Sina Hafizi, Firouzeh Hosseini, Mahmoud Reza Ashrafi, Nima Rezaei
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a rare autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia which in the majority of cases is associated with a GAA-trinucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron of Frataxin gene located on chromosome 9. The clinical features include progressive gait and limb ataxia, cerebellar dysarthria, neuropathy, optic atrophy, and loss of vibration and proprioception. Ataxia with ocular motor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is another autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia which is associated with oculomotor apraxia, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypercholesterolemia...
February 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271408/moving-or-being-moved-that-makes-a-difference
#12
Hans Straka, Boris P Chagnaud
During head/body movements, gaze stability is ensured by transformation of motion-related sensory signals into respective motor commands. Passively induced motion in all vertebrates including amphibians evokes a robust vestibulo-ocular reflex, suggesting an equally important role of this motor reaction during actively induced motion. However, during self-induced movements including locomotion, motor efference copies offer a convenient additional substrate for counteracting retinal image displacements. During such locomotor activity in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, spinal central pattern generator-derived efference copies elicit spatio-temporally specific eye movements, which are functionally appropriate to offset swimming-related retinal image displacements...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269244/portable-video-oculography-device-for-implementation-in-sideline-concussion-assessments-a-prototype
#13
Joshua D Fischer, Dawie J van den Heever
Concussion is currently a serious health problem and can lead to severe brain dysfunction. There is a definite need for sensitive and reliable tests to detect and evaluate the subtle changes in brain function caused by concussion. This study details the development of a low cost portable eye tracking device that can aid in the detection of concussions. The device evaluates ocular motor function and can be used on the sidelines of sporting events to give a quick indication of the severity of head trauma. It can further be used to evaluate and monitor mild Traumatic Brain Injuries and aid in the return to play decision making process...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268149/corneal-nerve-microstructure-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Stuti L Misra, Hannah M Kersten, Richard H Roxburgh, Helen V Danesh-Meyer, Charles N J McGhee
Ocular surface changes and blink abnormalities are well-established in Parkinson's disease. Blink rate may be influenced by corneal sub-basal nerve density, however, this relationship has not yet been investigated in Parkinson's disease. This case-control study examined the ocular surface in patients with moderately severe Parkinson's disease, including confocal microscopy of the cornea. Fifteen patients with moderately severe Parkinson's disease (modified Hoehn and Yahr grade 3 or 4) and fifteen control participants were recruited...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259707/clinical-and-molecular-phenotyping-of-a-child-with-hermansky-pudlak-syndrome-7-an-uncommon-genetic-type-of-hps
#15
Melanie M Bryan, Nathanial J Tolman, Karen L Simon, Marjan Huizing, Robert B Hufnagel, Brian P Brooks, Vladislav Speransky, James C Mullikin, William A Gahl, May Christine V Malicdan, Bernadette R Gochuico
PURPOSE: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare inherited disorder with ten reported genetic types; each type has defects in subunits of either Adaptor Protein-3 complex or Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex (BLOC)-1, -2, or -3. Very few patients with BLOC-1 deficiency (HPS-7, -8, and -9 types) have been diagnosed. We report results of comprehensive clinical testing and molecular analyses of primary fibroblasts from a new case of HPS-7. RESULTS: A 6-year old Paraguayan male presented with hypopigmentation, ocular albinism, nystagmus, reduced visual acuity, and easy bruising...
February 27, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248913/pitfalls-and-rewards-for-implementing-ocular-motor-testing-in-acute-vestibular-syndrome-a-pilot-project
#16
Oana M Dumitrascu, Sam Torbati, Mourad Tighiouart, David E Newman-Toker, Shlee S Song
OBJECTIVES: Isolated acute vestibular syndrome (iAVS) presentations to the emergency department (ED) pose management challenges, given the concerns for posterior circulation strokes. False-negative brain imaging may erroneously reassure clinicians, whereas HINTS-plus examination outperforms imaging to screen for strokes in iAVS. We studied the feasibility of implementing HINTS-plus testing in the ED, aiming to reduce neuroimaging in patients with iAVS. METHODS: We launched an institutional Quality Improvement initiative, using DMAIC methodology...
March 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242733/ocular-stability-and-set-point-adaptation
#17
REVIEW
D S Zee, P Jareonsettasin, R J Leigh
A fundamental challenge to the brain is how to prevent intrusive movements when quiet is needed. Unwanted limb movements such as tremor impair fine motor control and unwanted eye drifts such as nystagmus impair vision. A stable platform is also necessary to launch accurate movements. Accordingly, nature has designed control systems with agonist (excitation) and antagonist (inhibition) muscle pairs functioning in push-pull, around a steady level of balanced tonic activity, the set-point Sensory information can be organized similarly, as in the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which generates eye movements that compensate for head movements...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236839/lack-of-eye-discipline-during-headers-in-high-school-girls-soccer-a-possible-mechanism-for-increased-concussion-rates
#18
Joseph F Clark, Hagar T Elgendy-Peerman, Jon G Divine, Robert E Mangine, Kimberly A Hasselfeld, Jane C Khoury, Angelo J Colosimo
The sport of soccer is the fastest growing and most popular sport worldwide. With this growth and popularity, attention needs to be given to this athletic population. Sports related concussions is a topic that has gained attention both in the media and by governmental organizations, with growing initiatives in diagnosis, prevention and treatment. The act of soccer heading is thought to contribute to increased concussion incidence. Current evidence reveals that within the high school soccer athletic population, female athletes incur a higher concussion rate than males...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235347/traumatic-ocular-motor-neuropathies-after-mild-head-injury
#19
G Lakshmi Prasad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227478/portable-video-oculography-device-for-implementation-in-sideline-concussion-assessments-a-prototype
#20
Joshua D Fischer, Dawie J van den Heever, Joshua D Fischer, Dawie J van den Heever, Dawie J Van den Heever, Joshua D Fischer
Concussion is currently a serious health problem and can lead to severe brain dysfunction. There is a definite need for sensitive and reliable tests to detect and evaluate the subtle changes in brain function caused by concussion. This study details the development of a low cost portable eye tracking device that can aid in the detection of concussions. The device evaluates ocular motor function and can be used on the sidelines of sporting events to give a quick indication of the severity of head trauma. It can further be used to evaluate and monitor mild Traumatic Brain Injuries and aid in the return to play decision making process...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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