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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327966/ocular-histomorphometry-of-free-living-common-kestrels-falco-tinnunculus
#1
Karin Werther, Cinthia Graziela Candioto, Rüdiger Korbel
We evaluated the histomorphometry of the eye structures (cornea, retina, choroid, and sclera) of 13 adult free-living common kestrels ( Falco tinnunculus). Birds included in the study were euthanatized because of severe trauma from a motor vehicle injury. The eyes were enucleated immediately after euthanasia, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and decalcified. The right eyes were cut vertically (dorsoventrally) and the left eyes cut horizontally (temporonasally). Tissues were processed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated by an image analysis software...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315185/vestibular-function-and-gross-motor-development-in-195-children-with-congenital-hearing-loss-assessment-of-inner-ear-malformations
#2
Yusuke Kimura, Takeshi Masuda, Kimitaka Kaga
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between vestibular function and gross motor development in children with inner ear malformations. METHODS: A total of 195 children (average age: 2.4 ± 1.6 yr) with profound hearing loss, defined as a hearing threshold greater than 80 dB, participated in this study. Evaluation of vestibular function was assessed in all children using a damped rotational chair test. Gross motor development was assessed by examining the age of acquisition of head control and independent walking...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305208/vestibulo-cochlear-function-in-inflammatory-neuropathies
#3
Marisa Blanquet, Jens A Petersen, Antonella Palla, Dorothe Veraguth, Konrad P Weber, Dominik Straumann, Alexander A Tarnutzer, Hans H Jung
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify peripheral-vestibular deficits that may contribute to imbalanced stance/gait in patients with inflammatory neuropathies. METHODS: Twenty-one patients (58 ± 15 y [mean age ± 1SD]; chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy = 10, Guillain-Barré Syndrome = 5, Anti-MAG peripheral neuropathy = 2, multifocal-motor-neuropathy = 4) were compared with 26 healthy controls. All subjects received video-head-impulse testing (vHIT), caloric irrigation and cervical/ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic-potentials (VEMPs)...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260439/eye-movement-research-in-the-twenty-first-century-a-window-to-the-brain-mind-and-more
#4
EDITORIAL
Aasef G Shaikh, David S Zee
The study of eye movements not only addresses debilitating neuro-ophthalmological problems but has become an essential tool of basic neuroscience research. Eye movements are a classic way to evaluate brain function-traditionally in disorders affecting the brainstem and cerebellum. Abnormalities of eye movements have localizing value and help narrow the differential diagnosis of complex neurological problems. More recently, using sophisticated behavioral paradigms, measurement of eye movements has also been applied to disorders of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex...
December 19, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260043/oculocardiac-reflex-elicited-by-orbital-floor-fracture-and-inferior-globe-displacement
#5
Chau M Pham, Steven M Couch
Purpose: To review the physiology, presentation and management of the oculocardiac reflex (OCR) by describing a case of the OCR associated with an orbital foreign body and complete ocular prolapse through a large orbital floor fracture in a 40-year-old male following a motor vehicle accident. Observations: The patient demonstrated marked bradycardia and hypotension necessitating intubation and medical therapy for autonomic shock. A computed tomography (CT) showed a total blow out floor fracture and complete dislocation of a radiographically intact globe with uninterrupted rectus muscle attachments into the left maxillary sinus...
June 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249386/eye-movement-abnormalities-in-aqp4-igg-positive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#6
Houliang Sun, Shilei Cui, Fei Gao, Qisheng You, Yong Li, Jiawei Wang, Xiaojun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has been recognized as a disease characterized by severe visual afferent impairment. Abnormal eye movements, as the other important neuro-ophthalmic manifestation of NMOSD, were commonly overlooked. The aim of our study was to describe the ocular motor manifestations of AQP4-IgG positive NMOSD patients, and explore the value of eye movement abnormalities in the evaluation of the disabled disease. METHODS: Systemic clinical bedside ocular motor examinations and quantitative horizontal saccadic eye movement assessments were performed in 90 patients with AQP4-IgG positive NMOSD...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246608/patterns-and-modulations-of-pendular-nystagmus-in-a-family-with-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia
#7
Eun Hye Oh, Jae-Hyeok Lee, Jin-Hong Shin, Hyang-Sook Kim, Ji-Soo Kim, Hyo-Jung Kim, Seo-Young Choi, Kwang-Dong Choi, David S Zee, Jae-Hwan Choi
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower extremities. Additional findings include ataxia, extrapyramidal signs, and dementia. Pendular nystagmus (PN) has been reported in some subtypes of HSP caused by PLP1 (SPG2) or paraplegin (SPG7) mutation. To describe the patterns and modulation of PN in HSP, we performed eye movement recording using video-oculography in a Korean family with HSP and PN. The PN was convergent-divergent in the oblique plane with a frequency of 6 to 7Hz and maximum amplitude at about 1...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234230/traumatic-eye-ball-luxation-a-stepwise-approach-to-globe-salvage
#8
Himika Gupta, Srivalli Natarajan, Sushrut Vaidya, Shipra Gupta, Dinesh Shah, Raj Merchant, Shrikant Deshpande
Craniofacial trauma is often associated with orbital and ocular injuries. We report a case of a 21-year-old male with motor vehicular accident, orbital roof blow-in fracture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and left sided globe luxation with corneal abrasion and complete conjunctival denuding. The patient was managed by a multispeciality team and the eyeball was protected by amniotic membrane graft (AMG) biological dressing with novel use of inverted sterile metallic bowl as mechanical protection till the patient stabilized...
October 2017: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200430/long-term-sensorimotor-adaptation-in-the-ocular-following-system-of-primates
#9
Markus A Hietanen, Nicholas S C Price, Shaun L Cloherty, Kostas Hadjidimitrakis, Michael R Ibbotson
The sudden movement of a wide-field image leads to a reflexive eye tracking response referred to as short-latency ocular following. If the image motion occurs soon after a saccade the initial speed of the ocular following is enhanced, a phenomenon known as post-saccadic enhancement. We show in macaque monkeys that repeated exposure to the same stimulus regime over a period of months leads to progressive increases in the initial speeds of ocular following. The improvement in tracking speed occurs for ocular following with and without a prior saccade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190849/concussion-recovery-phase-affects-vestibular-and-oculomotor-symptom-provocation
#10
Kelly M Cheever, Jane McDevitt, Ryan Tierney, W Geoffrey Wright
Vestibular and oculomotor testing is emerging as a valuable assessment in sport-related concussion (SRC). However, their usefulness for tracking recovery and guiding return-to-play decisions remains unclear. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate their clinical usefulness for tracking SRC recovery. Vestibular and oculomotor assessments were used to measure symptom provocation in an acute group (n=21) concussed≤10 days, prolonged symptoms group (n=10) concussed ≥16 days (median=84 days), healthy group (n=58) no concussions in >6 months...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181323/a-new-interpretation-and-quantitative-method-for-diplopia-test-304-cases-of-ocular-motor-nerve-palsy-for-clinical-test-and-verify
#11
Ling-Yun Zhou, Tie-Juan Liu, Xue-Mei Li, Chang Su, Xiao-Jie Ji, Ming Zhao
We introduce a new interpretation and quantitative method for computerized diplopia test. By comparing this new method to the Hess screen test, we validate its applicability among 304 patients with ocular motor nerve palsy. This new method shows great assistant value as the Hess screen test in making accurate diagnosis and quantitative evaluation the severity of diplopia. Furthermore, it is more convenient and suitable for daily clinical use.
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149358/clinically-directed-neuroimaging-of-ophthalmoplegia
#12
REVIEW
Lucia Danieli, Margherita Montali, Luca Remonda, Hanspeter E Killer, Cesare Colosimo, Alessandro Cianfoni
PURPOSE: Ophthalmoplegia (OP) can have numerous etiologies and different clinical presentations. Most causes of OP can be narrowed down to specific anatomical locations based on clinical information. The aim of this study was to outline the different categories of diseases encountered in patients with OP, based on the location along the ocular motor pathways, and the most appropriate imaging modality for the given scenarios. METHODS: Representative neuroimaging examples of pathological processes causing OP are displayed, sequenced by anatomical location and disease category...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133438/normal-topography-and-binocularity-of-the-superior-colliculus-in-strabismus
#13
John R Economides, Brittany C Rapone, Daniel L Adams, Jonathan C Horton
In subjects with alternating strabismus either eye can be used to saccade to visual targets. The brain must calculate the correct vector for each saccade, which will depend on the eye chosen to make it. The superior colliculus, a major midbrain center for saccade generation, was examined to determine if the maps serving each eye were shifted to compensate for strabismus.Alternating exotropia was induced in two male macaques at age one month by sectioning the tendons of the medial recti. Once the animals grew to maturity, they were trained to fixate targets with either eye...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132416/distinct-functional-consequences-of-ecel1-dine-missense-mutations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-congenital-contracture-disorders
#14
Kenichi Nagata, Mika Takahashi, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroshi Kiyama, Takaomi C Saido
Endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1, also termed DINE in rodents), a membrane-bound metalloprotease, has been identified as a gene responsible for distal arthrogryposis (DA). ECEL1-mutated DA is generally characterized by ocular phenotypes in addition to the congenital limb contractures that are common to all DA subtypes. Until now, the consequences of the identified pathogenic mutations have remained incompletely understood because of a lack of detailed phenotypic analyses in relevant mouse models. In this study, we generated a new knock-in mouse strain that carries an ECEL1/DINE pathogenic G607S missense mutation, based on a previous study reporting atypical DA hindlimb phenotypes in two siblings with the mutation...
November 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129037/eye-movement-abnormalities-in-middle-cerebellar-peduncle-strokes
#15
Sung-Hee Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
The middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) is a major conduit for cortico-ponto-cerebellar fibers that convey information related to eye movements. This study aims to elucidate eye movement abnormalities that arise from lesions confined to the MCP. In 23 patients with acute strokes restricted to unilateral MCPs, we investigated the clinical features and ocular motor findings including spontaneous nystagmus, saccades, smooth pursuit, ocular tilt reaction, and head impulse tests. Bithermal caloric tests and audiometry were also performed...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118202/bayesian-optimal-adaptation-explains-age-related-human-sensorimotor-changes
#16
Faisal Karmali, Gregory T Whitman, Richard F Lewis
The brain uses information from different sensory systems to guide motor behavior, and aging is associated with a simultaneous decline in the quality of sensory information provided to the brain and a deterioration in motor control. Correlations between age-dependent decline in sensory anatomical structures and behavior have been demonstrated, and it has recently been suggested that a Bayesian framework could explain these relationships. Here we show that age-dependent changes in a human sensorimotor reflex, the vestibulo-ocular reflex, are explained by a Bayesian optimal adaptation in the brain occurring in response to death of motion-sensing hair cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099407/ocular-motor-dysfunction-due-to-brainstem-disorders
#17
Seung-Han Lee, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The brainstem contains numerous structures including afferent and efferent fibers that are involved in generation and control of eye movements. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: These structures give rise to distinct patterns of abnormal eye movements when damaged. Defining these ocular motor abnormalities allows a topographic diagnosis of a lesion within the brainstem. RESULTS: Although diverse patterns of impaired eye movements may be observed in lesions of the brainstem, medullary lesions primarily cause various patterns of nystagmus and impaired vestibular eye movements without obvious ophthalmoplegia...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098983/what-domains-of-clinical-function-should-be-assessed-after-sport-related-concussion-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Nina Feddermann-Demont, Ruben J Echemendia, Kathryn J Schneider, Gary S Solomon, K Alix Hayden, Michael Turner, Jiří Dvořák, Dominik Straumann, Alexander A Tarnutzer
BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a clinical diagnosis made after a sport-related head trauma. Inconsistency exists regarding appropriate methods for assessing SRC, which focus largely on symptom-scores, neurocognitive functioning and postural stability. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane-DSR, Cochrane CRCT, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus (accessed July 9, 2016). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Original (prospective) studies reporting on postinjury assessment in a clinical setting and evaluation of diagnostic tools within 2 weeks after an SRC...
June 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092804/bilateral-vestibular-hypofunction-in-quantitative-head-impulse-test-clinical-characteristics-in-23-patients
#19
Hilla Levo, Heikki Aalto, Timo P Hirvonen
OBJECTIVE: To explore clinical features of patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) verified in motorized head impulse test (MHIT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined clinical records of 23 adult patients (10 males and 13 females), whose gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in the MHIT was bilaterally lowered. Fifteen of 62 unilateral cochlear implant (CI) recipients routinely tested both pre- and postoperatively with the MHIT had BVH. Eight of 198 vestibular outpatients selected to the MHIT due to clinical causes had BVH...
November 2, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052317/defective-ciliogenesis-in-inpp5e-related-joubert-syndrome
#20
Isabel Hardee, Ariane Soldatos, Mariska Davids, Thierry Vilboux, Camilo Toro, Karen L David, Carlos R Ferreira, Michele Nehrebecky, Joseph Snow, Audrey Thurm, Theo Heller, Ellen F Macnamara, Meral Gunay-Aygun, Wadih M Zein, William A Gahl, May Christine V Malicdan
Joubert syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by malformation of the mid and hindbrain leading to the pathognomonic molar tooth appearance of the brainstem and cerebellum on axial MRI. Core clinical manifestations include hypotonia, tachypnea/apnea, ataxia, ocular motor apraxia, and developmental delay of varying degrees. In addition, a subset of patients has retinal dystrophy, chorioretinal colobomas, hepatorenal fibrocystic disease, and polydactyly. Joubert syndrome exhibits genetic heterogeneity, with mutations identified in more than 30 genes, including INPP5E, a gene encoding inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E, which is important in the development and stability of the primary cilium...
December 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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