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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527076/the-role-of-visual-system-in-migraine
#1
Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Alessandra Criscuoli
The visual system is involved in different ways in migraine. Visual auras are the most common form of migraine aura. It may consist of positive or negative visual symptoms and cortical spreading depression is felt to be the phenomenon that underlies it. Even in migraine without aura, vision it is not totally excluded given that one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of migraine is photophobia. In persistent visual aura, patients refer symptoms defined as visual snow and television static. In retinal migraine unilateral decreased vision or complete visual loss occurs...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523336/multum-in-parvo
#2
Dan Cristian Voinescu, Aurel George Mohan, Andrei Alexandru Marinescu, Alexandru Vlad Ciurea
The authors begin from the Latin expression Multum in parvo, which is used to summarize the essential aspects of something. This phrase is used in this case to define the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) - the posttraumatic conscious state evaluation scale. The authors gather the entire information regarding the creation of a uniform evaluation scale for the patients that have the state of consciousness altered or are even in a posttraumatic coma. This subject has been thoroughly debated for over 40 years. Teasdale & Jennett represented a huge step in the evaluation of patient's state of consciousness...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520665/family-history-of-migraine-associated-with-posttraumatic-migraine-symptoms-following-sport-related-concussion
#3
Alicia Sufrinko, Jamie McAllister-Deitrick, R J Elbin, Michael W Collins, Anthony P Kontos
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether family history of migraine increased the likelihood of posttraumatic migraine (PTM) symptom presentation in adolescents following concussion, and examine the influence of family history of migraine and PTM on postinjury outcomes. SETTING: Outpatient concussion clinic. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 153 patients with concussion (103 males and 50 females) aged 15.72 ± 1.48 years (range 12-18 years). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study of patients presenting for initial evaluation 4...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500752/which-ante-mortem-clinical-features-predict-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-pathology
#4
Gesine Respondek, Carolin Kurz, Thomas Arzberger, Yaroslau Compta, Elisabet Englund, Leslie W Ferguson, Ellen Gelpi, Armin Giese, David J Irwin, Wassilios G Meissner, Christer Nilsson, Alexander Pantelyat, Alex Rajput, John C van Swieten, Claire Troakes, Keith A Josephs, Anthony E Lang, Brit Mollenhauer, Ulrich Müller, Jennifer L Whitwell, Angelo Antonini, Kailash P Bhatia, Yvette Bordelon, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Carlo Colosimo, Richard Dodel, Murray Grossman, Jan Kassubek, Florian Krismer, Johannes Levin, Stefan Lorenzl, Huw Morris, Peter Nestor, Wolfgang H Oertel, Gil D Rabinovici, James B Rowe, Thilo van Eimeren, Gregor K Wenning, Adam Boxer, Lawrence I Golbe, Irene Litvan, Maria Stamelou, Günter U Höglinger
BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neuropathologically defined disease presenting with a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical features and investigations that predict or exclude PSP pathology during life, aiming at an optimization of the clinical diagnostic criteria for PSP. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature published since 1996 to identify clinical features and investigations that may predict or exclude PSP pathology...
May 13, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500220/environmental-enrichment-rescues-binocular-matching-of-orientation-preference-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#5
Jared Levine, Hui Chen, Yu Gu, Jianhua Cang
Neural circuits are shaped by experience during critical periods of development. Sensory deprivation during these periods permanently compromises an organism's ability to perceive the outside world. In the mouse visual system, normal visual experience during a critical period in early life drives the matching of individual cortical neurons' orientation preferences through the two eyes, likely a key step in the development of binocular vision. Here, in mice of both sexes, we show that the binocular matching process is completely blocked by monocular deprivation spanning the entire critical period...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487376/visual-and-ocular-motor-function-in-the-atypical-form-of-neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation-type-i
#6
Joana Jesus-Ribeiro, Cláudia Farinha, Margarida Amorim, Anabela Matos, Aldina Reis, João Lemos, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Cristina Januário
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) type I is a rare disease that can be divided into a classical or atypical variant, according to age of onset and clinical pattern. Neuro-ophthalmological involvement has been documented in the classical variant but only anecdotically in the atypical variant. We sought to describe the visual and ocular motor function in patients with atypical form of NBIA type I. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, including patients with genetically confirmed NBIA type I and classified as atypical variant, who underwent ophthalmological examination with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), electroretinography (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and video-oculography...
May 9, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484820/-vertigo-and-dizziness-in-the-emergency-room
#7
REVIEW
A Zwergal, K Möhwald, M Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common chief complaints in the emergency department. Etiologies can be categorized into three subgroups: neurootological (vestibular), medical (especially cardiovascular, metabolic), and psychiatric disorders. The diagnostic approach in the emergency department is based on a systematic analysis of case history (type, time course of symptoms, modulating factors, associated symptoms), clinical examination of the vestibular, ocular motor, and cerebellar systems (head impulse test, nystagmus, skew deviation, positioning maneuver, test of gait and stance), as well as a basal monitoring (vital signs, 12-lead ECG, blood tests)...
May 8, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476458/-sensory-and-motor-clinical-presentation-of-congenital-retraction-syndromes-stilling-duane-and-brown-syndrome
#8
V Promelle, M Fortier, S Milazzo
INTRODUCTION: Congenital Brown syndrome and Stilling-Duane syndrome, two rare causes of strabismus are caused by fibrosis of one or more extraocular muscles. This series aims to report the clinical sensory and motor features of patients with Brown or Stilling-Duane syndrome. METHODS: Seventeen patients' records were retrospectively assessed for: the ocular deviation in primary position and in the 9 positions of gaze, head tilt, visual acuity and binocular vision...
May 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467418/a-kcnc3-mutation-causes-a-neurodevelopmental-non-progressive-sca13-subtype-associated-with-dominant-negative-effects-and-aberrant-egfr-trafficking
#9
Swati Khare, Jerelyn A Nick, Yalan Zhang, Kira Galeano, Brittany Butler, Habibeh Khoshbouei, Sruti Rayaprolu, Tyisha Hathorn, Laura P W Ranum, Lisa Smithson, Todd E Golde, Martin Paucar, Richard Morse, Michael Raff, Julie Simon, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Karin Wirdefeldt, Diego E Rincon-Limas, Jada Lewis, Leonard K Kaczmarek, Pedro Fernandez-Funez, Harry S Nick, Michael F Waters
The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467028/clinical-diagnosis-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-the-movement-disorder-society-criteria
#10
Günter U Höglinger, Gesine Respondek, Maria Stamelou, Carolin Kurz, Keith A Josephs, Anthony E Lang, Brit Mollenhauer, Ulrich Müller, Christer Nilsson, Jennifer L Whitwell, Thomas Arzberger, Elisabet Englund, Ellen Gelpi, Armin Giese, David J Irwin, Wassilios G Meissner, Alexander Pantelyat, Alex Rajput, John C van Swieten, Claire Troakes, Angelo Antonini, Kailash P Bhatia, Yvette Bordelon, Yaroslau Compta, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Carlo Colosimo, Dennis W Dickson, Richard Dodel, Leslie Ferguson, Murray Grossman, Jan Kassubek, Florian Krismer, Johannes Levin, Stefan Lorenzl, Huw R Morris, Peter Nestor, Wolfgang H Oertel, Werner Poewe, Gil Rabinovici, James B Rowe, Gerard D Schellenberg, Klaus Seppi, Thilo van Eimeren, Gregor K Wenning, Adam L Boxer, Lawrence I Golbe, Irene Litvan
BACKGROUND: PSP is a neuropathologically defined disease entity. Clinical diagnostic criteria, published in 1996 by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/Society for PSP, have excellent specificity, but their sensitivity is limited for variant PSP syndromes with presentations other than Richardson's syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to provide an evidence- and consensus-based revision of the clinical diagnostic criteria for PSP. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and PSYCInfo databases for articles published in English since 1996, using postmortem diagnosis or highly specific clinical criteria as the diagnostic standard...
May 3, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460589/expanding-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-gabrg2-variants-a-recurrent-gabrg2-missense-variant-associated-with-a-severe-phenotype
#11
Fanggeng Zou, Kirsty McWalter, Lindsay Schmidt, Amy Decker, Jonathan D Picker, Sharyn Lincoln, David A Sweetser, Lauren C Briere, Chellamani Harini, Eric Marsh, Livija Medne, Raymond Y Wang, Karen Leydiker, Andrew Mower, Gepke Visser, Inge Cuppen, Koen L van Gassen, Jasper van der Smagt, Adeel Yousaf, Michael Tennison, Anita Shanmugham, Elizabeth Butler, Gabriele Richard, Dianalee McKnight
Pathogenic missense and truncating variants in the GABRG2 gene cause a spectrum of epilepsies, from Dravet syndrome to milder simple febrile seizures. In most cases, pathogenic missense variants in the GABRG2 gene segregate with a febrile seizure phenotype. In this case series, we report a recurrent, de novo missense variant (c0.316 G > A; p.A106T) in the GABRG2 gene that was identified in five unrelated individuals. These patients were described to have a more severe phenotype than previously reported for GABRG2 missense variants...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459979/ocular-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders-ccdds-insights-into-axon-growth-and-guidance
#12
Mary C Whitman, Elizabeth C Engle
Unraveling the genetics of the paralytic strabismus syndromes known as congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) is both informing physicians and their patients and broadening our understanding of development of the ocular motor system. Genetic mutations underlying ocular CCDDs alter either motor neuron specification or motor nerve development, and highlight the importance of modulations of cell signaling, cytoskeletal transport, and microtubule dynamics for axon growth and guidance. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of two CCDDs, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), and discuss what they have taught us about mechanisms of axon guidance and selective vulnerability...
April 28, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448671/disrupted-eye-movements-in-preperimetric-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#13
Raymond P Najjar, Sourabh Sharma, Morgane Drouet, Stephanie Leruez, Mani Baskaran, Monisha E Nongpiur, Tin Aung, Joanne Fielding, Owen White, Michael J Girard, Cédric Lamirel, Dan Milea
Purpose: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) can be associated with abnormal ocular motor behavior, possibly as a compensatory strategy following visual field loss. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of saccadic eye movements in patients with early-stage POAG without any detectable glaucomatous visual field loss (i.e., preperimetric POAG). Methods: Binocular eye movements were explored in 16 patients with bilateral preperimetric POAG and 16 age-matched healthy controls in a cross-sectional, observational study...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444617/computational-theory-underlying-acute-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-motor-learning-with-cerebellar-long-term-depression-and-long-term-potentiation
#14
Keiichiro Inagaki, Yutaka Hirata
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) can be viewed as an adaptive control system that maintains compensatory eye movements during head motion. As the cerebellar flocculus is intimately involved in this adaptive motor control of the VOR, the VOR has been a popular model system for investigating cerebellar motor learning. Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses are considered to play major roles in cerebellar motor learning. A recent study using mutant mice demonstrated cerebellar motor learning with hampered LTD; the study concluded that the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell LTD is not essential...
April 25, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439720/the-impact-of-oral-promethazine-on-human-whole-body-motion-perceptual-thresholds
#15
Ana Diaz-Artiles, Adrian J Priesol, Torin K Clark, David P Sherwood, Charles M Oman, Laurence R Young, Faisal Karmali
Despite the widespread treatment of motion sickness symptoms using drugs and the involvement of the vestibular system in motion sickness, little is known about the effects of anti-motion sickness drugs on vestibular perception. In particular, the impact of oral promethazine, widely used for treating motion sickness, on vestibular perceptual thresholds has not previously been quantified. We examined whether promethazine (25 mg) alters vestibular perceptual thresholds in a counterbalanced, double-blind, within-subject study...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437527/ocular-motor-nerve-development-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-extraocular-muscle
#16
Suzanne M Michalak, Mary C Whitman, Jong G Park, Max A Tischfield, Elaine H Nguyen, Elizabeth C Engle
Purpose: To spatially and temporally define ocular motor nerve development in the presence and absence of extraocular muscles (EOMs). Methods: Myf5cre mice, which in the homozygous state lack EOMs, were crossed to an IslMN:GFP reporter line to fluorescently label motor neuron cell bodies and axons. Embryonic day (E) 11.5 to E15.5 wild-type and Myf5cre/cre:IslMN:GFP whole mount embryos and dissected orbits were imaged by confocal microscopy to visualize the developing oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves in the presence and absence of EOMs...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429801/the-dizzy-patient-don-t-forget-disorders-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422801/interrater-and-test-retest-reliability-of-the-beery-visual-motor-integration-in-schoolchildren
#18
Erin M Harvey, Tina K Leonard-Green, Kathleen M Mohan, Marjean Taylor Kulp, Amy L Davis, Joseph M Miller, J Daniel Twelker, Irene Campus, Leslie K Dennis
PURPOSE: To assess interrater and test-retest reliability of the 6th Edition Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and test-retest reliability of the VMI Visual Perception Supplemental Test (VMIp) in school-age children. METHODS: Subjects were 163 Native American third- to eighth-grade students with no significant refractive error (astigmatism <1.00 D, myopia <0.75 D, hyperopia <2.50 D, anisometropia <1.50 D) or ocular abnormalities...
May 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410563/wernicke-s-encephalopathy-following-reduced-food-intake-due-to-depressive-disorders
#19
Donato Melchionda, Tommaso Martino, Elena Carapelle, Alessandra Lalla, Daniela Cologno, Carlo Avolio
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an unexpected common neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency often due to alcohol abuse, but WE-not alcohol related is also frequent. A prolonged reduction of food intake can cause WE. This condition can arise in depression disorders, especially in the early stages of these psychiatric syndromes. WE is characterized by the triad of signs: ataxia, ocular dysfunctions and confusional state. However, they rarely appear together and this makes the diagnosis particularly difficult, especially when there is not a history of alcohol abuse...
April 14, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410279/ocular-motor-manifestations-of-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Elodie Nerrant, Caroline Tilikete
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system leading to disability, especially in young patients. Acute or chronic lesions of MS within the brainstem and the cerebellum frequently result in ocular motor disorders. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This review encompasses the spectrum of ocular motor disorders in patients with MS emphasizing prevalence, examination findings, diagnostic features, functional consequences, classification of MS course, and management of these disturbances of ocular motility...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
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