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Xin Gu, Michael J Trujillo, Jacob E Olson, Jon P Camden
Owing to its extreme sensitivity and easy execution, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) now finds application for a wide variety of problems requiring sensitive and targeted analyte detection. This widespread application has prompted a proliferation of different SERS-based sensors, suggesting the need for a framework to classify existing methods and guide the development of new techniques. After a brief discussion of the general SERS modalities, we classify SERS-based sensors according the origin of the signal...
March 16, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Camden Cheek, Huiyong Zheng, Brian R Hallstrom, Richard E Hughes
Improving the quality of care for hip arthroplasty (replacement) patients requires the systematic evaluation of clinical performance of implants and the identification of "outlier" devices that have an especially high risk of reoperation ("revision"). Postmarket surveillance of arthroplasty implants, which rests on the analysis of large patient registries, has been effective in identifying outlier implants such as the ASR metal-on-metal hip resurfacing device that was recalled. Although identifying an implant as an outlier implies a causal relationship between the implant and revision risk, traditional signal detection methods use classical biostatistical methods...
2018: Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology
Andi Camden, Jennifer Levy, Kate Bassil, Loren Vanderlinden, Olanna White Barnett, Leia M Minaker, Kate Mulligan, Monica Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Assess the consumer nutrition environment in midsize to large supermarkets by supermarket type and area-level socioeconomic variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional census of 257 supermarkets using the Toronto Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores. SETTING: Toronto, Canada. VARIABLES MEASURED: Availability; price and linear shelf space of fruits and vegetables vs energy-dense snack foods by supermarket type; after-tax, low-income measure; and neighborhood improvement area...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Bradford A Wall, Alan Moskowitz, M Camden Whitaker, Teresa L Jones, Ryan M Stuckey, Catherine L Carr-Maben, Alexander Cm Chong
Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the functional outcomes of traumatic thoracic and lumbar vertebral body fractures. This study evaluated the functional and clinical outcomes of patients, who sustained a fracture to the thoracolumbar area of the spine (T10 to L2 region), with ≥ 25° kyphosis versus those with less kyphotic curvature. Methods: The trauma registry records of two level 1 trauma centers using ICD-9 codes for fracture to the thoracolumbar juncture (T10 to L2 region) were reviewed...
May 2017: Kansas Journal of Medicine
Clare L V Westhorpe, M Ursula Norman, Pam Hall, Sarah L Snelgrove, Michaela Finsterbusch, Anqi Li, Camden Lo, Zhe Hao Tan, Songhui Li, Susan K Nilsson, A Richard Kitching, Michael J Hickey
Although effector CD4+ T cells readily respond to antigen outside the vasculature, how they respond to intravascular antigens is unknown. Here we show the process of intravascular antigen recognition using intravital multiphoton microscopy of glomeruli. CD4+ T cells undergo intravascular migration within uninflamed glomeruli. Similarly, while MHCII is not expressed by intrinsic glomerular cells, intravascular MHCII-expressing immune cells patrol glomerular capillaries, interacting with CD4+ T cells. Following intravascular deposition of antigen in glomeruli, effector CD4+ T-cell responses, including NFAT1 nuclear translocation and decreased migration, are consistent with antigen recognition...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Robyn D Gartrell, Douglas K Marks, Thomas D Hart, Gen Li, Danielle R Davari, Alan Wu, Zoe Blake, Yan Lu, Kayleigh N Askin, Anthea Monod, Camden L Esancy, Edward C Stack, Dan Tong Jia, Paul M Armenta, Yichun Fu, Daisuke Izaki, Bret Taback, Raul Rabadan, Howard L Kaufman, Charles G Drake, Basil A Horst, Yvonne M Saenger
Novel methods to analyze the tumor microenvironment (TME) are urgently needed to stratify melanoma patients for adjuvant immunotherapy. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) analysis, by conventional pathologic methods, is predictive but is insufficiently precise for clinical application. Quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence (qmIF), allows for evaluation of the TME using multiparameter phenotyping, tissue segmentation, and quantitative spatial analysis (qSA). Given that CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) promote antitumor immunity, whereas CD68+ macrophages impair immunity, we hypothesized that quantification and spatial analysis of macrophages and CTLs would correlate with clinical outcome...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
A M Roth, B Aumaier, M Felsher, S L Welles, A P Donate-Martinez, M Chavis, B Van Der Pol
BACKGROUND: In 2015 approximately 50,000 new HIV infections occurred in the United States, 2,400 of which were attributable to injection drug use in. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to curb HIV acquisition, however, uptake remains low among persons who inject drugs (PWID). The purpose of the study is to describe PrEP eligibility, willingness to use PrEP, and ability to access PrEP among PWID recruited from a pilot program that paired screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections with mobile syringe exchange program (SEP) services...
October 4, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Daniel Davis, Sarah Richardson, Joanne Hornby, Helen Bowden, Katrin Hoffmann, Maryse Weston-Clarke, Fenella Green, Nishi Chaturvedi, Alun Hughes, Diana Kuh, Elizabeth Sampson, Ruth Mizoguchi, Khai Lee Cheah, Melanie Romain, Abhi Sinha, Rodric Jenkin, Carol Brayne, Alasdair MacLullich
BACKGROUND: Delirium affects 25% of older inpatients and is associated with long-term cognitive impairment and future dementia. However, no population studies have systematically ascertained cognitive function before, cognitive deficits during, and cognitive impairment after delirium. Therefore, there is a need to address the following question: does delirium, and its features (including severity, duration, and presumed aetiologies), predict long-term cognitive impairment, independent of cognitive impairment at baseline? METHODS: The Delirium and Population Health Informatics Cohort (DELPHIC) study is an observational population-based cohort study based in the London Borough of Camden...
February 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Matthew C Camden, Alejandra Medina-Flintsch, Jeffrey S Hickman, James Bryce, Gerardo Flintsch, Richard J Hanowski
Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations...
February 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Hayley McBain, Stanton Newman, Michael Shipley, Abigail Olaleye, Samantha Moore
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to explore patients' experience of a patient-initiated self-monitoring service for people with rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis who are on methotrexate. METHODS: The study took the form of qualitative semi-structured interviews, embedded within a randomized controlled trial. Twelve participants who were randomly assigned to the intervention arm were interviewed. Interviews digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis...
January 30, 2018: Musculoskeletal Care
Nomi Werbeloff, David P J Osborn, Rashmi Patel, Matthew Taylor, Robert Stewart, Matthew Broadbent, Joseph F Hayes
BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) are widely used in mental health services. Case registers using EHRs from secondary mental healthcare have the potential to deliver large-scale projects evaluating mental health outcomes in real-world clinical populations. METHODS: We describe the Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust (C&I) Research Database which uses the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) tool to extract and de-identify routinely collected clinical information from a large UK provider of secondary mental healthcare, and demonstrate its capabilities to answer a clinical research question regarding time to diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder...
2018: PloS One
Gabrielle Pratte, Karen Hurtubise, Lisa Rivard, Jade Berbari, Chantal Camden
INTRODUCTION: Web platforms are increasingly used to support virtual interactions between members of communities of practice (CoP). However, little is known about how to develop these platforms to support the implementation of best practices for health care professionals. The aim of this article is to explore pediatric physiotherapists' (PTs) perspectives regarding the utility and usability of the characteristic of a web platform developed to support virtual communities of practice (vCoP)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Joshua A Eudailey, Maria L Dennis, Morgan E Parker, Bonnie L Phillips, Tori N Huffman, Camden P Bay, Michael G Hudgens, Roger W Wiseman, Justin J Pollara, Genevieve G Fouda, Guido Ferrari, David J Pickup, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Sallie R Permar
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to an estimated 150,000 new infections annually. Maternal vaccination has proven safe and effective at mitigating the impact of other neonatal pathogens and is one avenue toward generating the potentially protective immune responses necessary to inhibit HIV-1 infection of infants through breastfeeding. In the present study, we tested the efficacy of a maternal vaccine regimen consisting of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) 1086...
January 2018: MSphere
Joseph F DeJesus, Michael J Trujillo, Jon P Camden, David M Jenkins
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) underpins a wide range of commercial and fundamental applications. SERS often relies on ligands, usually thiols, bound to a noble metal surface. The difficulty of straightforward thiol synthesis combined with their instability on surfaces highlights the need for alternative ligand design. We present the first example of SERS utilizing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. A general three step synthesis is presented for functionalized NHC-CO2 adducts. These ligands are deposited on SERS-active gold film-over-nanosphere substrates (AuFONs) in solvent-free and base-free conditions, which prevents fouling...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Adriana E Kajon, Daryl M Lamson, Camden R Bair, Xiaoyan Lu, Marie L Landry, Marilyn Menegus, Dean D Erdman, Kirsten St George
Human adenovirus type 4 (HAdV-4) is most commonly isolated in military settings. We conducted detailed molecular characterization on 36 HAdV-4 isolates recovered from civilian adults with acute respiratory disease (ARD) in the northeastern United States during 2011-2015. Specimens came from college students, residents of long-term care facilities or nursing homes, a cancer patient, and young adults without co-morbidities. HAdV-4 genome types 4a1 and 4a2, the variants most frequently detected among US military recruits in basic training before the restoration of vaccination protocols, were isolated in most cases...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Charles Cherqui, Guoliang Li, Jacob A Busche, Steven C Quillin, Jon P Camden, David J Masiello
Facile control of the radiative and nonradiative properties of plasmonic nanostructures is of practical importance to a wide range of applications in the biological, chemical, optical, information, and energy sciences. For example, the ability to easily tune not only the plasmon spectrum but also the degree of coupling to light and/or heat, quality factor, and optical mode volume would aid the performance and function of nanophotonic devices and molecular sensors that rely upon plasmonic elements to confine and manipulate light at nanoscopic dimensions...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Lucas T Woods, Jean M Camden, Mahmoud G Khalafalla, Michael J Petris, Laurie Erb, Julian L Ambrus, Gary A Weisman
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-14α-transgenic (IL-14αTG) mice develop an autoimmune exocrinopathy with characteristics similar to Sjögren's syndrome, including sialadenitis and hyposalivation. The P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2 R) for extracellular ATP and UTP is upregulated during salivary gland inflammation (i.e., sialadenitis) where it regulates numerous inflammatory responses. The present study investigated the role of P2Y2 Rs in autoimmune sialadenitis in the IL-14αTG mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome...
January 3, 2018: Oral Diseases
Karen Hurtubise, Gabrielle Pratte, Lisa Rivard, Jade Berbari, Léa Héguy, Chantal Camden
PURPOSE: Communities of practice are increasingly recognized in rehabilitation as useful knowledge transfer tools; however, little is known about their users. This exploratory study describes the characteristics of participants and non-participants invited to engage in a pediatric rehabilitation virtual community of practice. In addition, we explored virtual community of practice utilization behaviors, engagement predictors, and the impact of strategies designed to foster engagement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants' demographics including information-seeking style and organization e-readiness, as well as online platform frequency of use data were collected and analyzed using descriptive, comparative, and predictive statistics...
December 20, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
Werner Leber, Lee Beresford, Claire Nightingale, Estela Capelas Barbosa, Stephen Morris, Farah El-Shogri, Heather McMullen, Kambiz Boomla, Valerie Delpech, Alison Brown, Jane Hutchinson, Vanessa Apea, Merle Symonds, Samantha Gilliham, Sarah Creighton, Maryam Shahmanesh, Naomi Fulop, Claudia Estcourt, Jane Anderson, Jose Figueroa, Chris Griffiths
INTRODUCTION: HIV remains underdiagnosed. Guidelines recommend routine HIV testing in primary care, but evidence on implementing testing is lacking. In a previous study, the Rapid HIV Assessment 2 (RHIVA2) cluster randomised controlled trial, we showed that providing training and rapid point-of-care HIV testing at general practice registration (RHIVA2 intervention) in Hackney led to cost-effective, increased and earlier diagnosis of HIV. However, interventions effective in a trial context may be less so when implemented in routine practice...
December 14, 2017: BMJ Open
Yueying Wu, Guoliang Li, Jon P Camden
Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has demonstrated unprecedented power in the characterization of surface plasmons. The subangstrom spatial resolution achieved in EELS and its capability of exciting the full set of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes supported by a metallic nanostructure makes STEM/EELS an ideal tool in the study of LSPRs. The plasmonic properties characterized using EELS can be associated with geometric or structural features collected simultaneously in a STEM to achieve a deeper understanding of the plasmonic response...
December 7, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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