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Predictive value, injury risk, standardized test

Mariana Brussoni, M Anne George, Andrew Jin, Ofer Amram, Rod McCormick, Christopher E Lalonde
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC): total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities. METHODS: We identified Aboriginal people through BC's universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations...
2018: PloS One
Sara Gherardini, Claudia Biricolti, Enrico Benvenuti, M Grazia Almaviva, Monica Lombardi, Paola Pezzano, Costanza Bertini, Marco Baccini, Mauro Di Bari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSES: Hip fracture represents one of the most severe injuries in the older adults. In long-term survivors, disability is common and walking ability may be considered important predictor of functional recovery. We, therefore, investigated whether 4-m gait speed, assessed in older persons early after surgical repair of hip fracture, could predict functional recovery and subsequent development of major clinical outcomes. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
Ryo Matsuura, Yohei Komaru, Yoshihisa Miyamoto, Teruhiko Yoshida, Kohei Yoshimoto, Rei Isshiki, Kengo Mayumi, Tetsushi Yamashita, Yoshifumi Hamasaki, Masaomi Nangaku, Eisei Noiri, Naoto Morimura, Kent Doi
BACKGROUND: Furosemide responsiveness (FR) is determined by urine output after furosemide administration and has recently been evaluated as a furosemide stress test (FST) for predicting severe acute kidney injury (AKI) progression. Although a standardized furosemide dose is required for FST, variable dosing is typically employed based on illness severity, including renal dysfunction in the clinical setting. This study aimed to evaluate whether FR with different furosemide doses can predict AKI progression...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Griffin Ernst, Fares Qeadan, Andrew P Carlson
OBJECTIVE Decompressive craniectomy is used for uncontrolled intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury and malignant hemispheric stroke. Subcutaneous preservation of the autologous bone flap in the abdomen is a simple, portable technique but has largely been abandoned due to perceived concerns of resorption. The authors sought to characterize their experience with subcutaneous preservation of the bone flap and cranioplasty. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective single-institution review of subcutaneous preservation of the autologous bone flap after decompressive craniectomy from 2005 to 2015...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Annelie Slaar, M M Fockens, Junfeng Wang, Mario Maas, David J Wilson, J Carel Goslings, Niels Wl Schep, Rick R van Rijn
BACKGROUND: Pediatric cervical spine injury (CSI) after blunt trauma is rare. Nonetheless, missing these injuries can have severe consequences. To prevent the overuse of radiographic imaging, two clinical decision tools have been developed: The National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria and the Canadian C-spine Rule (CCR). Both tools are proven to be accurate in deciding whether or not diagnostic imaging is needed in adults presenting for blunt trauma screening at the emergency department...
December 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ekrem Musalar, Murat Ersel, Funda Karbek Akarca, Güçlü Selahattin Kıyan, Özge Can
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of non-invasively and rapidly obtained biochemical parameter results to the diagnosis and follow-up of intraabdominal injuries in multitrauma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 2604 multitrauma patients who were treated following their referral to our emergency department between January 2009 and January 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. A logistic regression analysis was used in the risk assessment...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Dorota Lewartowska-Nyga, Kamil Nyga, Grażyna Skotnicka-Klonowicz
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine whether Infrascanner screening is a test which would facilitate excluding acute intracranial bleeding in children after minor head injury and thus make it possible to limit indications for computed tomography in those children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled 155 children aged 2-18 years after a minor or moderate head injury. The children were assessed using the Glasgow Coma Scale, examined by Infrascanner screening...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
Christopher Robert Connelly, John D Yonge, Sean P McCully, Kyle D Hart, Thomas C Hilliard, Diane E Lape, Justin J Watson, Beth Rick, Ben Houser, Thomas G Deloughery, Martin A Schreiber, Laszlo N Kiraly
BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet (AP) medication use is common among trauma patients and is associated with poor outcomes. Management options for platelet dysfunction in trauma patients are controversial, expensive, and potentially harmful. Although light transmission platelet aggregometry is considered the standard test to assess platelet function, it is cumbersome and not generally available. Currently, there are no widely accepted platelet function point-of-care tests for acute trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study from 2014 to 2015...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
Marek Kozinski, Magdalena Krintus, Jacek Kubica, Grazyna Sypniewska
Implementation of cardiac troponin (cTn) assays has revolutionized the diagnosis, risk stratification, triage and management of patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI). The Universal Definition of MI brought about a shift in the diagnostics of MI, from an approach primarily based on electrocardiography (ECG) to one primarily based on biomarkers. Currently, detection of a rise and/or fall in concentration or activity of myocardial necrosis biomarkers, preferentially cTns, with at least one value above the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL), is the essential component for the diagnosis of MI...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Olga Helena Hernández Ortiz, Héctor Iván García García, Fabián Muñoz Ramírez, Juan Sebastián Cardona Flórez, Bladimir Alejandro Gil Valencia, Salvador Ernesto Medina Mantilla, María Juliana Moreno Ochoa, Jorge Eliécer Sará Ochoa, Fabián Jaimes
OBJECTIVE Diagnosing nosocomial meningitis (NM) in neurosurgical patients is difficult. The standard CSF test is not optimal and when it is obtained, CSF cultures are negative in as many as 70% of cases. The goal of this study was to develop a diagnostic prediction rule for postoperative meningitis using a combination of clinical, laboratory, and CSF variables, as well as risk factors (RFs) for CNS infection. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed in 4 intensive care units in Medellín, Colombia. Patients with a history of neurosurgical procedures were selected at the onset of febrile symptoms and/or after an increase in acute-phase reactants...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
J S Sittig, C S P M Uiterwaal, K G M Moons, I M B Russel, R A J Nievelstein, E E S Nieuwenhuis, E M van de Putte
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our diagnostic accuracy study Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms (CHAIN-ER) was to establish whether a widely used checklist accurately detects or excludes physical abuse among children presenting to ERs with physical injury. DESIGN: A large multicentre study with a 6-month follow-up in 4 ERs in The Netherlands. METHOD: Participants were 4290 children aged 0-7 years, attending the ER because of physical injury. All children were systematically tested with an easy-to-use child abuse checklist (index test)...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Fuat H Saner, Carmen Kirchner
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) are assumed to be at high risk of bleeding when undergoing any kind of invasive intervention (any kind of operation, including transplantation or minimally invasive interventions). Both bleeding and thrombosis are associated with a poor outcome. METHODS: A selective literature research was conducted with the following key words: 'cirrhosis', 'coagulation', 'bleeding', 'INR' (international normalized ratio), 'aPTT' (activated partial thromboplastin time), and 'thrombocytopenia'...
August 2016: Visceral Medicine
Patty Coker-Bolt, Andrew Barbour, Hunter Moss, Jordan Tillman, Emma Humphries, Emily Ward, Truman Brown, Dorothea Jenkins
PURPOSE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can detect injury to specific white matter (WM) tracts involved with sensorimotor processing and may provide sensitive measures for latent or nascent motor skills. We hypothesized that DTI measures of WM fractional anisotropy (FA) could predict early motor scores on a standardized assessment in a cohort of preterm infants at risk for WM injury. METHODS: In this prospective study, preterm infants (n= 26, 11 female, 15 male, mean gestational age 29...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
Adam M H Young, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Helen Fernandes, Matthew R Garnett, Shruti Agrawal, Peter J Hutchinson
OBJECTIVE There is increasing interest in the use of predictive models of outcome in adult head injury. Two international models have been identified to be reliable modalities for predicting outcome: the Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) model, and the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of randomized Controlled Trials in TBI (IMPACT) model. However, these models are designed only to identify outcomes in adult populations. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed on pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Addenbrooke's Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013...
November 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Krzysztof A Świerzy, Robert Pudlo, Bartosz Wesołowski, Marcin Garbacz, Michał Morawski, Izabela Jaworska, Mariusz Sołtysik, Marian Zembala
Confusion on a somatic basis is a dangerous problem mainly related with aging of the population. Data says that consciousness disorders concern 10-15% of patients in general wards, and up to 50% of patients admitted to geriatric wards. The persistence of the symptoms of confusion results in increase of agitation, disorganization, fear, which increases the risk of self-injuries of patients, it causes the need for parenteral feeding and hydratation, as well as maintaining water balance, and also disturbs cooperation, worsening the course and prognosis of the primary disease...
June 2016: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Andrew Jin, Mariana Brussoni, M Anne George, Christopher E Lalonde, Rod McCormick
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC), especially those residing on Indian reserves, have higher risk of unintentional fall injury than the general population. We test the hypothesis that the disparities are attributable to a combination of socioeconomic status, geographic place, and Aboriginal ethnicity. METHODS: Within each of 16 Health Service Delivery Areas in BC, we identified three population groups: total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve...
August 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Aashish Sharma, Jose J Zaragoza, Gianluca Villa, Leonardo C Ribeiro, Renhua Lu, Marco Sartori, Elena Faggiana, Massimo de Cal, Grazia M Virzi, Valentina Corradi, Alessandra Brocca, Faeq Husain-Syed, Alessandra Brendolan, Claudio Ronco
BACKGROUND: Renal function reserve (RFR) describes the capacity of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to physiological or pathological stimuli. The scope of our study was to evaluate the optimal level of stimulation using different doses of protein load (PL) for a standard renal stress test (RST). METHODS: 18 young healthy individuals were given sessions of PL with 1 and 2 g/kg body weight. Endogenous creatinine clearance was calculated...
July 2016: Clinical Nephrology
D Tosovic, C Than, J M M Brown
PURPOSE: Muscle fatigue has been identified as a risk factor for spontaneous muscle injuries in sport. However, few studies have investigated the accumulated effects of muscle fatigue on human muscle contractile properties. This study aimed to determine whether repeated bouts of exercise inducing acute fatigue leads to longer-term fatigue-related changes in muscle contractile properties. METHODS: Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) measures were recorded in the biceps brachii of 11 participants for 13 days, before and after a maximally fatiguing exercise protocol...
August 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Judith S Sittig, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Karel G M Moons, Ingrid M B Russel, Rutger A J Nievelstein, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Elise M van de Putte
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our diagnostic accuracy study Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms (CHAIN-ER) was to establish whether a widely used checklist accurately detects or excludes physical abuse among children presenting to ERs with physical injury. DESIGN: A large multicentre study with a 6-month follow-up. SETTING: 4 ERs in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 4290 children aged 0-7 years attending the ER because of physical injury...
March 22, 2016: BMJ Open
Brissi Zagadou, Philemon Chan, Kevin Ho, David Shelley
The current impulse noise criteria for the protection against impulse noise injury do not incorporate an objective measure of hearing protection. A new biomechanically-based model has been developed based on improvement of the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for the Human (AHAAH) using the integrated cochlear energy (ICE) as the damage risk correlate (DRC). The model parameters have been corrected using the latest literature data. The anomalous dose-response inversion behavior of the AHAAH model was eliminated...
December 2016: Hearing Research
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