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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925084/evaluation-of-stop-smoking-in-its-tracks-an-intensive-smoking-cessation-program-for-pregnant-aboriginal-women-incorporating-contingency-based-financial-rewards
#1
Megan E Passey, Janelle M Stirling
BACKGROUND: Smoking during pregnancy is three times as common among Aboriginal women as non-Aboriginal women, with consequent higher rates of adverse health outcomes. Effective interventions to support Aboriginal women to quit smoking have not yet been identified. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a culturally tailored, intensive smoking cessation program, including contingency-based financial rewards (CBFR), for pregnant Aboriginal women...
June 14, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924809/the-added-value-of-implicit-motives-for-management-research-development-and-first-validation-of-a-brief-implicit-association-test-biat-for-the-measurement-of-implicit-motives
#2
Hendrik Slabbinck, Arjen van Witteloostuijn, Julie Hermans, Johanna Vanderstraeten, Marcus Dejardin, Jacqueline Brassey, Dendi Ramdani
Many Management (sub-)disciplines, from Organizational Behavior and Marketing to Accounting and Strategy, are interested in antecedents and consequences of individual attitudes and traits. A key aspect of personality profiles are explicit and implicit motives. Yet, Management scholars mainly focus on explicit motives, with limited attention to implicit motives. We argue that this state of affairs probably came into being because current Management researchers mainly rely on implicit motive measures that are either difficult to apply or to develop, hampering researchers from applying implicit motive measures...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923479/motivations-for-attempting-suicide-in-mid-and-late-life
#3
Maria Alessi, Katalin Szanto, Alexandre Dombrovski
ABSTRACTObjectives:To understand pathways to suicide by investigating the association between personality and suicidal motivations in mid- and late-life attempts. DESIGN: In a two-study approach, we measured different components of suicidal motivations using an existing self-report investigating reasons for suicide and a semi-qualitative assessment of motivational states preceding attempts. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient psychiatric services in Pittsburgh, PA...
June 20, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922205/roles-of-impulsivity-motivation-and-emotion-regulation-in-procrastination-path-analysis-and-comparison-between-students-and-non-students
#4
Marek Wypych, Jacek Matuszewski, Wojciech Ł Dragan
Procrastination - an irrational delay of intended actions despite expecting to be worse off - is a complex and non-homogenous phenomenon. Previous studies have found a number of correlates of procrastination, some of which seem to be particularly important. Impulsivity is closely connected to procrastination on behavioral, genetic, and neuronal levels. Difficulties in emotion regulation have also been shown to be strongly related to procrastination. Procrastination can also be considered as a motivation-based problem...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922197/the-neural-basis-of-and-a-common-neural-circuitry-in-different-types-of-pro-social-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Jun Luo
Pro-social behaviors are voluntary behaviors that benefit other people or society as a whole, such as charitable donations, cooperation, trust, altruistic punishment, and fairness. These behaviors have been widely described through non self-interest decision-making in behavioral experimental studies and are thought to be increased by social preference motives. Importantly, recent studies using a combination of neuroimaging and brain stimulation, designed to reveal the neural mechanisms of pro-social behaviors, have found that a wide range of brain areas, specifically the prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, are correlated or causally related with pro-social behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922185/neural-correlates-for-intrinsic-motivational-deficits-of-schizophrenia-implications-for-therapeutics-of-cognitive-impairment
#6
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Takeda, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Madoka Matsumoto, Kou Murayama, Satoru Ikezawa, Kenji Matsumoto, Kazuyuki Nakagome
The ultimate goal of the treatment of schizophrenia is recovery, a notion related to improvement of cognitive and social functioning. Cognitive remediation therapies (CRT), one of the most effective cognition enhancing methods, have been shown to moderately improve social functioning. For this purpose, intrinsic motivation, related to internal values such as interest and enjoyment, has been shown to play a key role. Although the impairment of intrinsic motivation is one of the characteristics of schizophrenia, its neural mechanisms remain unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922044/predicting-treatment-course-and-outcome-using-a-promotion-and-prevention-framework-in-a-community-sample-of-arthritis-sufferers
#7
Dan V Blalock, Patrick E McKnight, Todd B Kashdan, Simone C Franz
Objective: The present study examined the proposition that patients need to focus on something beyond simply "getting better". In a sample of arthritis sufferers, we distinguished individuals by the goals that motivated them - moving toward aspirational goals and maximizing gains (promotion focus) rather than obligations and minimizing losses (prevention focus) - and how these motivational styles influenced treatment. Methods: Patients (N=254) participated in a randomized controlled trial of resistance training and self-management, providing 6 time points of data over 2 years...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921619/how-altruistic-organ-donation-may-be-intrinsically-bad
#8
Ben Saunders
It has traditionally been assumed that organ donation must be altruistic, though the necessity of altruistic motivations has recently been questioned. Few, however, have questioned whether altruism is always a good motive. This paper considers the possibility that excessive altruism, or self-abnegation, may be intrinsically bad. How this may be so is illustrated with reference to Tom Hurka's account of the value of attitudes, which suggests that disproportionate love of one's own good-either excessive or deficient-is intrinsically bad...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921282/youth-accessing-reproductive-health-services-in-malawi-drivers-barriers-and-suggestions-from-the-perspectives-of-youth-and-parents
#9
Andrew Self, Samuel Chipokosa, Amos Misomali, Tricia Aung, Steven A Harvey, Mercy Chimchere, James Chilembwe, Lois Park, Chrissie Chalimba, Edson Monjeza, Fannie Kachale, Jameson Ndawala, Melissa A Marx
BACKGROUND: Malawi has made progress in increasing its overall modern contraceptive prevalence rate since 2000, resulting in a dramatic reduction in its total fertility rate. However, youth, 15-24 years, have not had the same successes. Teenage pregnancies are on the rise and little progress has been made in reducing unmet need for family planning among youth. With two-thirds of the population under the age of 25 and with Malawi's rapid population growth, reducing unmet need for family planning among youth remains a priority for the government's reproductive health agenda...
June 19, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921262/motivation-for-feedback-seeking-among-pediatric-residents-a-mixed-methods-study
#10
Duncan Henry, Travis Vesel, Christy Boscardin, Sandrijn van Schaik
BACKGROUND: For effective self-directed life-long learning physicians need to engage in feedback-seeking, which means fostering such behavior during training. Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that intrinsic motivation is fostered when the environment optimizes the individual's experience of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Educational settings meeting these psychological needs may foster intrinsic motivation in trainees, enhance their desire for feedback, and promote feedback-seeking...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921261/the-importance-of-scientific-competencies-in-german-medical-curricula-the-student-perspective
#11
Antonius Ratte, Simon Drees, Tabea Schmidt-Ott
BACKGROUND: Scientific competencies are of great importance for physicians; not only for conducting reliable research, but also for patient care. However, there is growing concern that a lack of scientific competencies among physicians may lead to a deterioration in the quality on biomedical research. This study aims at assessing medical students' perspectives on the implementation of scientific competency training in German medical curricula. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in order to collect German medical students' opinions on the importance of acquiring scientific competencies during their medical studies and to provide us with an assessment of their current levels of basic scientific competencies by having them conduct a self-evaluation...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921255/effectiveness-of-the-blended-care-lifestyle-intervention-perfectfit-a-cluster-randomised-trial-in-employees-at-risk-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
Tessa A Kouwenhoven-Pasmooij, Suzan J W Robroek, Roderik A Kraaijenhagen, Pieter H Helmhout, Daan Nieboer, Alex Burdorf, M G Myriam Hunink
BACKGROUND: Web-based lifestyle interventions at the workplace have the potential to promote health and work productivity. However, the sustainability of effects is often small, which could be enhanced by adding face-to-face contacts, so-called 'blended care'. Therefore, this study evaluates the effects of a blended workplace health promotion intervention on health and work outcomes among employees with increased cardiovascular risk. METHODS: In this multicentre cluster-randomised controlled trial (PerfectFit), 491 workers in 18 work units from military, police, and a hospital with increased cardiovascular risk were randomised into two intervention groups...
June 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917091/gender-differences-in-negative-affect-during-acute-tobacco-abstinence-differ-between-african-american-and-white-adult-cigarette-smokers
#13
Raina D Pang, Mariel S Bello, Madalyn M Liautaud, Andrea H Weinberger, Adam M Leventhal
Introduction: Prior studies have found heightened negative affect following tobacco abstinence in women compared to men. However, experimental work addressing whether these findings generalize across racial groups is scarce. The current study investigated whether race (Non-Hispanic White vs. Non-Hispanic African American) moderated gender differences in abstinence-induced negative affect and smoking behavior. Methods: Data were collected from 2010 to 2017 from two separate laboratory studies investigating experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence...
June 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916416/need-for-ethics-support-in-clinical-practice-and-suggestion-for-an-ethics-consultation-service-views-of-nurses-and-physicians-working-in-italian-healthcare-institutions
#14
Cinzia Leuter, Cristina Petrucci, Valeria Caponnetto, Carmen La Cerra, Loreto Lancia
INTRODUCTION: Ethics Consultation Services (ECS) and Ethical Committees manage several aspects of clinical ethical issues. In Italy there are only Ethical Committees, and, although they should also perform ethical consultations, their activity is limited to approving clinical trial protocols. AIM: To analyse the opinions of a sample of Nurses and Physicians about their motivations to ask for an ethical consultation. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Italian Nurses and Physicians...
April 2018: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914859/young-people-s-experiences-of-viewing-the-fitspiration-social-media-trend-qualitative-study
#15
Stephanie Easton, Katherine Morton, Zara Tappy, Daniella Francis, Laura Dennison
BACKGROUND: Social media use has become ubiquitous in the lives of many people, especially young adults. A popular recent trend emerging on social media is that of posting and following 'Fitspirational' content - material that purports to motivate and showcase healthy lifestyle habits, particularly relating to exercise and diet. There is very limited existing literature on how engaging with this type of content influences people's psychological and physical heath. Initial studies have focused on concerns over potential negative effects on psychological wellbeing including body image, self-esteem and eating disorders...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914517/exploring-the-cross-sectional-association-between-outdoor-recreational-facilities-and-leisure-time-physical-activity-the-role-of-usage-and-residential-self-selection
#16
Joreintje D Mackenbach, Maria G Matias de Pinho, Eline Faber, Nicole den Braver, Rosa de Groot, Helene Charreire, Jean-Michel Oppert, Helga Bardos, Harry Rutter, Sofie Compernolle, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Jeroen Lakerveld
BACKGROUND: The availability of outdoor recreational facilities is associated with increased leisure-time physical activity (PA). We investigated how much of this association is attributable to selection effects, and explored whether usage of recreational facilities was an explanatory mechanism. METHODS: We analysed data from 5199 participants in the SPOTLIGHT survey residing in five European urban regions. Adults completed a survey and a Google Street View-based virtual audit was conducted to objectively measure the availability of outdoor recreational facilities in the residential neighbourhood...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914444/conversion-of-extrinsic-into-intrinsic-motivation-and-computer-based-testing-cbt
#17
Maral Hariri-Akbari, Behjat Shokrvash, Firooz Mahmoodi, Fatemeh Jahanjoo-Aminabad, Behzad Yousefi, Fariba Azabdaftari
BACKGROUND: Because computers are used in many aspects of today's life, it seems necessary to include them in teaching and assessment processes. METHOD: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to construct a multidimensional valid scale, to identify the factors that influenced the nature of student motivation on Computer Based Testing (CBT), to recognize how students self-regulated their activities around CBT, and to describe the efficiency of autonomous versus controlled situations on motivation...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914279/the-relationship-of-explicit-implicit-evaluative-discrepancy-to-exercise-dropout-in-middle-aged-adults
#18
Tanya R Berry, Wendy M Rodgers, Alison Divine, Craig Hall
Discrepancies between automatically activated associations (i.e., implicit evaluations) and explicit evaluations of motives (measured with a questionnaire) could lead to greater information processing to resolve discrepancies or self-regulatory failures that may affect behavior. This research examined the relationship of health and appearance exercise-related explicit-implicit evaluative discrepancies, the interaction between implicit and explicit evaluations, and the combined value of explicit and implicit evaluations (i...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914259/deprotection-induced-morphology-transition-and-immuno-activation-of-glyco-vesicles-a-strategy-of-smart-delivery-polymersomes
#19
Wenjing Qi, Yufei Zhang, Jue Wang, Guoqing Tao, Libin Wu, Zdravko Kochovski, Hongjian Gao, Guosong Chen, Ming Jiang
We proposed the deprotection-induced block copolymer self-assembly (DISA), that is, the deprotection of hydroxyl groups resulted in in situ self-assembly of glycopolymers. In the previous studies, block copolymers soluble in common organic solvents were employed as the starting material. In this paper, by using the protected glyco-block containing pre-assembled glyco-vesicles in water as the starting material, we moved forward and made two exceeding achievements. Firstly, we have observed a deprotection-induced morphology transition trigged by alkali in water...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913998/early-maladaptive-schemas-in-finnish-adult-chronic-male-and-female-pain-patients
#20
Tom H J Saariaho, Anita S I Saariaho, Irma A Karila, Matti I Joukamaa
Background and aims of the study The connection between chronic pain and traumatic experiences in childhood has been established in several studies. The association of emotional maltreatment with chronic pain has been studied, but to a lesser degree. Schema therapy [24] is an extension of cognitive therapy and presents the early maladaptive schema (EMS) concept. EMSs reflect early, mainly emotional maltreatment. The aim of the present study was to examine the existence of EMSs, the association between EMSs and pain variables and EMS driven patterns...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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