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P Abreu, K F Vitzel, I C C R Monteiro, T I Lima, A N Queiroz, J H Leal-Cardoso, S M Hirabara, V M Ceccatto
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Han Na Kwon, Hyunjung Lim
Serum vitamin D status has been associated with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence for the increased risk of metabolic disorders in individuals with prediabetes and a low vitamin D status is limited and uncertain. Furthermore, it has not been confirmed whether this possible relationship occurs in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and metabolic risk factors in Korean adults with prediabetes...
2016: PloS One
Henk J van Lingen, Caroline M Plugge, James G Fadel, Ermias Kebreab, André Bannink, Jan Dijkstra
Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA). Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH2), has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, methanogenesis and NADH oxidation in rumen microbes...
2016: PloS One
Paola Sebastiani, Bharat Thyagarajan, Fangui Sun, Lawrence S Honig, Nicole Schupf, Stephanie Cosentino, Mary F Feitosa, Mary Wojczynski, Anne B Newman, Monty Montano, Thomas T Perls
OBJECTIVES: To determine reference values for laboratory tests in individuals aged 85 and older. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: International. PARTICIPANTS: Long Life Family Study (LLFS) participants (N~5,000, age: range 25-110, median 67, 45% male). MEASUREMENTS: Serum biomarkers were selected based on association with aging-related diseases and included complete blood count, lipids (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3, vitamin D epi-isomer, diabetes mellitus-related biomarkers (adiponectin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproduct), kidney disease-related biomarkers (albumin, creatinine, cystatin), endocrine biomarkers (dehydroepiandrosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin, testosterone), markers of inflammation (interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide), ferritin, and transferrin...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Eveline P C J Janssen, Sebastian Köhler, Coen D A Stehouwer, Nicolaas C Schaper, Pieter C Dagnelie, Simone J S Sep, Ronald M A Henry, Carla J H van der Kallen, Frans R Verhey, Miranda T Schram
OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychometric properties and identify the best cutoff value of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depression screening in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN: Observational population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Maastricht Study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with and without T2DM (mean age 58.6 ± 8.1, 44.6% male) according to an oral glucose tolerance test (N = 2,997)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Funda Yavanoglu Atay, Turan Derme, Nurdan Uras, Gulay Ceylaner, Serdar Ceylaner, Fatma Nur Sari, Serife Suna Oguz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Giuseppe Ianiri, Kylie J Boyce, Alexander Idnurm
Discovering the genes underlying fundamental processes that enable cells to live and reproduce is a technical challenge, because loss of gene function in mutants results in organisms that cannot survive. This study describes a forward genetics method to identify essential genes in fungi, based on the propensity for Agrobacterium tumefaciens to insert T-DNA molecules into the promoters or 5' untranslated regions of genes and by placing a conditional promoter within the T-DNA. Insertions of the promoter of the GAL7 gene were made in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans...
October 25, 2016: Current Genetics
Simran Chahal, Kanchan Vohra, Ashit Syngle
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. Autonomic neuropathy is a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Sudomotor dysfunction is well established in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and reflects small fibre neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and peripheral sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. However, the relationship between sudomotor dysfunction and PAD remains unexplored...
October 25, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Jennifer Hochheim, Angela Kranz, Karin Krumbach, Sascha Sokolowsky, Lothar Eggeling, Stephan Noack, Marco Bocola, Michael Bott, Jan Marienhagen
OBJECTIVES: To explore systemic effects of mutations in the UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanyl-D-glutamate 2,6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE) of Corynebacterium glutamicum, that leads to extracellular L-lysine accumulation by this bacterium. RESULTS: The analysis of a mutant cohort of C. glutamicum strains carrying all possible 20 amino acids at position 81 of MurE revealed unexpected effects on cellular properties. With increasing L-lysine accumulation the growth rate of the producing strain is reduced...
October 25, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Yang Chen, Lei Wang, Ashley L Pitzer, Xiang Li, Pin-Lan Li, Yang Zhang
: Recent studies indicate that inflammasomes serve as intracellular machinery to initiate classical cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses and play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. However, whether or not the activation of endothelial inflammasomes directly causes cell dysfunction or tissue injury without recruitment of inflammatory cells is unknown. We explored the role of endothelial cell inflammasome activation in mediating tight junction disruption, a hallmark event of endothelial barrier dysfunction leading to endothelial hyperpermeability in diabetes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Christian Brinkmann, Benedikt Schulte-Körne, Marijke Grau, Sinja Obels, Roman Kemmerling, Thorsten Schiffer, Wilhelm Bloch, Klara Brixius
BACKGROUND: Increases in the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and abnormal production of nitric oxide (NO) in skeletal muscle have been suggested to be associated with peripheral insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This pilot study analyzed whether a 3-month endurance training can affect iNOS protein and NO metabolite levels in the vastus lateralis muscle of insulin-independent T2DM men, thereby affecting the patients` glycemic control...
October 26, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
I Raška, M Rašková, V Zikán, J Škrha
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased fracture risk; the underlying mechanism remains unexplained. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between body composition and bone and glucose metabolism in postmenopausal women with T2DM. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition. A total of 68 postmenopausal women with T2DM and 71 controls were eligible for the study. In contrast to normal BMD in T2DM, a similar prevalence of low-trauma fractures was observed in both groups...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Junjie Cao, Hongzhi Jia, Xinrong Shen, Shixin Jiang
An optical rotation measurement system based on digital signal processor, modulated laser, and step motor rotating stage is established. Centroid algorithm featured fast and simple calculation is introduced to process light signals with or without sample to obtain the optical rotating angle through the step difference between two centroids. The system performance is proved experimentally with standard quartz tubes and glucose solutions. After various measurements, the relative error and precision of the system are determined to 0...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Tai-Na Wu, Kun-Hsien Lin, Ying-Ta Wu, Jing-Rong Huang, Jung-Tung Hung, Jen-Chine Wu, Chien-Yu Chen, Kuo-Ching Chu, Nan-Horng Lin, Alice L Yu, Chi-Huey Wong
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) bearing the α-galactosyl head group and the acyl chain terminated with a phenyl derivative were found to be more potent than α-galactosyl ceramide (αGalCer) to stimulate both murine and human invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and to induce antibody isotope switch to IgG. In this study, we replaced the galactosyl group with glucose (αGlc) and its fluoro-analogs, and found that phenyl GSLs with αGlc (C34-Glc) and its fluoro-analog 6F-C34-Glc were stronger than those with αGal in stimulating human iNKT cells but weaker in mice...
October 26, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Yurena Vivas, Monica Díez-Hochleitner, Adriana Izquierdo-Lahuerta, Patricia Corrales, Daniel Horrillo, Ismael Velasco, Cristina Martínez-García, Mark Campbell, Julio Sevillano, Mercedes Ricote, Manuel Ros, Maria Pilar Ramos, Gema Medina-Gomez
Pregnancy requires the adaptation of maternal energy metabolism including expansion and functional modifications of adipose tissue. Insulin resistance (IR), predominantly during late gestation, is a physiological metabolic adaptation that serves to support the metabolic demands of fetal growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations are not fully understood and may contribute to gestational diabetes mellitus. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) controls adipogenesis, glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine
David P Hickey, Krysti L Knoche, Kelan Albertson, Carolina Castro, Ross D Milton, Shelley D Minteer
Here, we demonstrate the use of phospholipid micelles to enhance O2 concentrations by two-fold at the surface of a bilirubin oxidase biocathode. Specifically, 1,2-diarachidoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was used in a glucose enzymatic fuel cell to limit power losses due to O2 transport, even in a quiescent solution.
October 26, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Christine Langlois, Arkan Abadi, Jesus Peralta-Romero, Akram Alyass, Fernando Suarez, Jaime Gomez-Zamudio, Ana I Burguete-Garcia, Fereshteh T Yazdi, Miguel Cruz, David Meyre
Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in adult European populations. The contribution of these SNPs to FPG in non-Europeans and children is unclear. We studied the association of 15 GWAS SNPs and a genotype score (GS) with FPG and 7 metabolic traits in 1,421 Mexican children and adolescents from Mexico City. Genotyping of the 15 SNPs was performed using TaqMan Open Array. We used multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index standard deviation score, and recruitment center...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ying-Ying Gao, Li Chen, Tao Wang, Zheng-Wen Nie, Xia Zhang, Yi-Liang Miao
DNA methylation plays important roles in regulating many physiological behaviors; however, few studies were focused on the changes of DNA methylation during oocyte aging. Early studies showed that some imprinted genes' DNA methylation had been changed in aged mouse oocytes. In this study, we used porcine oocytes to test the hypothesis that oocyte aging would alter DNA methylation pattern of genes and disturb their expression in age oocytes, which affected the developmental potential of oocytes. We compared several different types of genes and found that the expression and DNA methylation of Neuronatin (NNAT) were disturbed in aged oocytes significantly...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shuangxi Liu, Yan Gao, Xiaoli Yu, Baoming Zhao, Lu Liu, Yin Zhao, Zhenzhao Luo, Jing Shi
Annexin-1 (ANXA1) has shown neuroprotective effects and microglia play significant roles during central nervous system injury, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study sought to determine whether ANXA1 regulates microglial response to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) treatment and to clarify the downstream molecular mechanism. In rat hippocampal slices, OGD/R treatment enhanced the ANXA1 expression in neuron, the formyl peptide receptor (FPRs) expression in microglia, and the microglial activation in the CA1 region (cornu ammonis 1)...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qian Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Zhixin Wang, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
An adverse intrauterine environment, induced by a chromium-restricted diet, is a potential cause of metabolic disease in adult life. Up to now, the relative mechanism has not been clear. C57BL female mice were time-mated and fed either a control diet (CD), or a chromium-restricted diet (CR) throughout pregnancy and the lactation period. After weaning, some offspring continued the diet diagram (CD-CD or CR-CR), while other offspring were transferred to another diet diagram (CD-CR or CR-CD). At 32 weeks of age, glucose metabolism parameters were measured, and the liver from CR-CD group and CD-CD group was analyzed using a gene array...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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