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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909574/the-possible-antidiabetic-effects-of-vitamin-d-receptors-agonist-in-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
Wafaa M Abdel-Rehim, Rasha A El-Tahan, Mennatullah A El-Tarawy, Rowaida R Shehata, Maher A Kamel
Vitamin D3 deficiency was found to be tightly linked to many health problems including metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our study, we tested the possible antidiabetic effects of one of vitamin D3 analogs, alfacalcidol, solely or in a combination with metformin on type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic model rats were induced by feeding high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. In addition to the control group, the diabetic rats were divided into four groups: untreated, metformin-treated, alfacalcidol-treated, and combination-treated group (metformin + alfacalcidol) for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909573/efficient-removal-of-atrazine-from-aqueous-solutions-using-magnetic-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-bionanomaterial
#2
Xin Wu, Huijun He, William L Yang, Jiaping Yu, Chunping Yang
A novel bionanomaterial comprising Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in a sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (SA-PVA) matrix was synthesized for the efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions. The effects of the operating parameters, nitrogen source, and glucose and Fe3+ contents on atrazine removal were investigated, and the intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the synthesized Fe3 O4 particles were characterized by XRD, EDX, HR-TEM, FTIR, and hysteresis loops, and the bionanomaterial was characterized by SEM...
June 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909550/methods-for-measuring-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-in-youth-the-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-ogtt
#3
REVIEW
Melinda E Chen, Rebecca S Aguirre, Tamara S Hannon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used both in clinical practice and research to assess glucose tolerance. In addition, the OGTT is utilized for surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity and the insulin response to enteral glucose and has been widely applied in the evaluation of β-cell dysfunction in obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Here we review the use of the OGTT and the OGTT-derived indices for measurement of risk markers for type 2 diabetes in youth...
June 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909519/growth-performance-and-plasma-metabolites-in-juvenile-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii-brandt-1869-subjected-to-various-feeding-strategies-at-different-sizes
#4
Naghmeh Jafari, Bahram Falahatkar, Mir Masoud Sajjadi
The effect of various feeding strategies was evaluated on growth performance and biochemical parameters in two sizes of Siberian sturgeon (465.75 ± 11.18 and 250.40 ± 12 g) during 45 days. Fish were distributed into six experimental treatments including large fish with satiation feeding (LA), small fish with satiation feeding (SA), large fish with 50% satiation feeding (LR), small fish with 50% satiation feeding (SR), large starved fish (LS), and small starved fish (SS). Differences in final weight between LA and LR treatments were not noticeable, whereas SA and SR treatments showed significant differences...
June 16, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909496/transplantation-of-macroencapsulated-insulin-producing-cells
#5
REVIEW
Albert J Hwa, Gordon C Weir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is considerable interest in using macroencapsulation devices as a delivery strategy for transplanting insulin-producing cells. This review aims to summarize recent advances, to highlight remaining challenges, and to provide recommendations for the field. RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of new device designs have been reported to improve biocompatibility and to provide protection for islet/beta cells from immune destruction while allowing continuous secretion of insulin...
June 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909471/pet-ct-and-prediction-of-thyroid-cancer-in-patients-with-follicular-neoplasm-or-atypia
#6
Thao T Nguyen, Natascha G E Lange, Anne L Nielsen, Anders Thomassen, Helle Døssing, Christian Godballe, Max Rohde
PURPOSE: To examine whether addition of 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) would improve prediction of thyroid cancer in patients with FNAB-derived follicular neoplasm or atypia, classified according to focal, multifocal, diffuse, or no FDG uptake. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with FNAB-derived follicular neoplasm or atypia planned for surgery from September 2013 to March 2016 were prospectively included and considered for analysis...
June 16, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909454/inhibition-of-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr-4-improves-neurobehavioral-outcomes-after-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-diabetic-rats-possible-role-of-vascular-endothelial-tlr-4
#7
Yasir Abdul, Mohammed Abdelsaid, Weiguo Li, R Clinton Webb, Jennifer C Sullivan, Guangkuo Dong, Adviye Ergul
Diabetes increases the risk of occurrence and poor functional recovery after ischemic stroke injury. Previously, we have demonstrated greater hemorrhagic transformation (HT), edema, and more severe functional deficits after stroke in diabetic animals that also presented with cerebral vasoregression and endothelial cell death in the recovery period. Given that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) activation in microvascular endothelial cells triggers a robust inflammatory response, we hypothesized that inhibition of TLR-4 signaling prevents endothelial cell death and improves outcomes after stroke...
June 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909344/involvement-of-the-tgf%C3%AE-1-ilk-akt-signaling-pathway-in-the-effects-of-hesperidin-in-type-2-diabetic-nephropathy
#8
YingHui Zhang, Bing Wang, Feng Guo, ZhiZhen Li, GuiJun Qin
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the manifestations of systemic microangiopathy in diabetes. Hesperetin, a natural flavanone glycoside compound in citrus fruits, has been demonstrated to exert hypoglycemic effects and protect kidney in experimental diabetic animals. The current study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the hypoglycemic effects of hesperetin in high-fat/streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy. The results showed that mice in whom hesperetin was administered for 4 weeks attenuated the increased fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance ability that was observed in high-fat/STZ mice...
June 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909245/corrigendum-to-immunosuppressant-cytoprotection-correlates-with-hmgb1-suppression-in-primary-astrocyte-cultures-exposed-to-combined-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-pharmacol-rep-63-2011-392-402
#9
Bożena Gabryel, Anna Bielecka, Jacek Bernacki, Krzysztof Łabuzek, Zbigniew S Herman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909240/tissue-specific-expression-and-circulating-concentrations-of-nesfatin-1-in-domestic-animals
#10
K A Morton, L Hargreaves, S Mortazavi, L P Weber, A M Blanco, S Unniappan
Nesfatin-1 is a naturally occurring 82-amino acid protein encoded in the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) and has been implicated in multiple physiological functions, including food intake and blood glucose regulation. This study aimed to characterize nesfatin-1 in domestic species, especially cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Our in silico analysis demonstrated that the NUCB2/nesfatin-1 amino acid sequence, especially the bioactive core region of the peptide, is very highly conserved (more than 90% identity) in domestic animals...
May 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909238/autophagy-as-an-emerging-target-in-cardiorenal-metabolic-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-management
#11
REVIEW
Yingmei Zhang, Adam T Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers, Jun Ren
Although advances in medical technology and health care have improved the early diagnosis and management for cardiorenal metabolic disorders, the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and kidney disease remains high. Findings from numerous population-based studies, clinical trials, and experimental evidence have consolidated a number of theories for the pathogenesis of cardiorenal metabolic anomalies including resistance to the metabolic action of insulin, abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative and nitrosative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial damage, and inflammation...
June 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909198/wearable-robust-non-enzymatic-continuous-glucose-monitoring-system-and-its-in-vivo-investigation
#12
Hyosang Yoon, Xing Xuan, Sungkwan Jeong, Jae Y Park
Electroplating of nanoporous Pt (nPt) induces an extremely strong tensile stress, which results in the exfoliation of nPt on flexible polymer substrate despite plasma treatment to improve adhesion. Here, we overcame this challenge by modifying flexible stainless-steel, and developed wearable, robust, flexible, and non-enzymatic continuous glucose monitoring system. The flexible stainless-steel was highly effective in improving the adhesion between the metal layer and substrate. The developed wireless system included electrochemical analysis circuits, a microcontroller unit, and a wireless communication module...
June 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909196/bioelectronic-organ-based-sensor-for-microfluidic-real-time-analysis-of-the-demand-in-insulin
#13
R Perrier, A Pirog, M Jaffredo, J Gaitan, B Catargi, S Renaud, M Raoux, J Lang
On-line and real-time analysis of micro-organ activity permits to use the endogenous analytical power of cellular signal transduction algorithms as biosensors. We have developed here such a sensor using only a few pancreatic endocrine islets and the avoidance of transgenes or chemical probes reduces bias and procures general usage. Nutrient and hormone-induced changes in islet ion fluxes through channels provide the first integrative read-out of micro-organ activity. Using extracellular electrodes we captured this read-out non-invasively as slow potentials which reflect glucose concentration-dependent (3-15 mM) micro-organ activation and coupling...
June 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909161/-host-microbiota-crosstalk-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#14
Jacques Amar
When analyzing the microbiota-host crosstalk, we have to consider three participants in this dialogue: the gut microbiota, the intestinal barrier and bacterial translocation. Experimental data demonstrate that host microbiota crosstalk plays a causal on the regulation of blood pressure, glucose metabolism and the development of atherosclerosis. Host microbiota crosstalk is associated in humans with main cardiovascular risk factors notably hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Host microbiota crosstalk is associated in humans with the onset of cardiovascular diseases...
June 13, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909017/adropin-regulates-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-in-cardiac-cells-via-a-novel-gpcr-mapk-pdk4-signaling-pathway
#15
Dharendra Thapa, Michael W Stoner, Manling Zhang, Bingxian Xie, Janet R Manning, Danielle Guimaraes, Sruti Shiva, Michael J Jurczak, Iain Scott
Mitochondria supply ~90% of the ATP required for contractile function in cardiac cells. While adult cardiomyocytes preferentially utilize fatty acids as a fuel source for oxidative phosphorylation, cardiac mitochondria can switch to other substrates when required. This change is driven in part by a combination of extracellular and intracellular signal transduction pathways that alter mitochondrial gene expression and enzymatic activity. The mechanisms by which extracellular metabolic information is conveyed to cardiac mitochondria are not currently well defined...
June 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909012/structural-analysis-of-substrate-recognition-by-glucose-isomerase-in-mn-2-binding-mode-at-m2-site-in-s-rubiginosus
#16
Ji-Eun Bae, Kwang Yeon Hwang, Ki Hyun Nam
Glucose isomerase (GI) catalyzes the reversible enzymatic isomerization of d-glucose and d-xylose to d-fructose and d-xylulose, respectively. This is one of the most important enzymes in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and biofuel. We recently determined the crystal structure of GI from S. rubiginosus (SruGI) complexed with a xylitol inhibitor in one metal binding mode. Although we assessed inhibitor binding at the M1 site, the metal binding at the M2 site and the substrate recognition mechanism for SruGI remains the unclear...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909009/knockout-of-cnr1-prevents-metabolic-stress-induced-cardiac-injury-through-improving-insulin-resistance-ir-injury-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-by-promoting-ampk-alpha-activation
#17
Su-Juan Pei, Huai-Yuan Zhu, Jin-Hui Guo, Xin Zhang, Zhi-Jian Deng
Obesity and diabetes are associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the pathogenesis of DCM is not fully understood. Cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) has been a drug target for the treatment of obesity. Here, we reported that CNR1 expression was increased in high fat diet (HFD)-induced heart of mice. Following, the wild type (CNR1+/+ ) and CNR1-knockout (CNR1-/- ) mice were employed and subjected to HFD treatments for 16 weeks to further investigate the effects of CNR1 on DCM. The results indicated that CNR1 knockout mice after HFD feeding exhibited a significant decrease of body weight and lipid accumulation in serum...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909004/sglt2-inhibitors-and-the-kidney-effects-and-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
V Tsimihodimos, T D Filippatos, M S Elisaf
AIMS: Numerous clinical trials have shown that sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exert a favorable effect on the indices of renal function (albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate decline over time) and the incidence of hard renal endpoints such as renal death or time to initiation of renal replacement therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this review, we describe in detail the evidence regarding the nephroprotective mechanisms of SGLT2 inhibitors and describe the risk factors that may predispose to the development of acute kidney injury in patients receiving these drugs...
June 6, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908922/serum-angiopoietin-like-peptide-4-levels-in-patients-with-hepatic-steatosis
#19
Özgür Altun, Okan Dikker, Yücel Arman, Bilal Ugurlukisi, Orkide Kutlu, Eylem Ozgun Cil, Sengul Aydin Yoldemir, Murat Akarsu, Mustafa Ozcan, Semih Kalyon, Neslihan Ozsoy, Tufan Tükek
OBJECTIVES: Angiopoietin-like peptide 4 (ANGPTL-4) plays an important role in lipid metabolism by inhibiting the enzyme lipoprotein lipase. This effect of ANGPTL-4 results in suppression of the release of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids. Increase in fatty acid levels entering to the liver and abnormalities in their secretion is one of the main mechanisms in pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ANGPTL-4 in pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis by determining its levels in patients with fatty liver disease...
June 13, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908860/a-molecularly-imprinted-electrochemical-sensor-modified-with-nano-carbon-dots-with-high-sensitivity-and-selectivity-for-rapid-determination-of-glucose
#20
Wei Zheng, Haiyan Wu, Yan Jiang, Jicheng Xu, Xin Li, Wenchi Zhang, Fengxian Qiu
In this work, a novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor (MIECS) based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carbon dots (CDs) and chitosan (CS) for the determination of glucose was proposed for the first time. The use of the environmental-friendly CDs and CS as electrode modifications improved the active area and electron-transport ability substantially, while 3-aminobenzeneboronic acid was used as a functional monomer and glucose as template for the fabrication of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film to detect glucose via differential pulse voltammetry...
June 14, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
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