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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340439/co-production-of-functional-xylooligosaccharides-and-fermentable-sugars-from-corncob-with-effective-acetic-acid-prehydrolysis
#1
Hongyu Zhang, Yong Xu, Shiyuan Yu
A novel and green approach for the coproduction of xylooligosaccharides (XOS), in terms of a series of oligosaccharide components from xylobiose to xylohexose, and fermentable sugars was developed using the prehydrolysis of acetic acid that was fully recyclable and environmentally friendly, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Compared to hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, acetic acid hydrolysis provided the highest XOS yield of 45.91% and the highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield. More than 91% conversion of cellulose was achieved in a batch-hydrolysis using only a cellulase loading of 20FPU/g cellulose and even a high solid loading of 20% without any special strategies...
February 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340367/insulin-resistance-is-associated-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-non-diabetic-subjects-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-elsa-brasil-cohort-baseline
#2
Itamar S Santos, Márcio S Bittencourt, Alessandra C Goulart, Maria Inês Schmidt, Maria de Fátima H S Diniz, Paulo A Lotufo, Isabela M Benseñor
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological studies have analyzed the association between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and insulin resistance, glucose levels or glycated hemoglobin with mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the association between CIMT and homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting and post-load plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. METHODS: We included 8028 participants (aged 35-74 years) without diabetes or overt cardiovascular disease who had complete CIMT data at baseline...
March 10, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340354/mechanism-of-substrate-translocation-in-an-alternating-access-transporter
#3
Naomi R Latorraca, Nathan M Fastman, A J Venkatakrishnan, Wolf B Frommer, Ron O Dror, Liang Feng
Transporters shuttle molecules across cell membranes by alternating among distinct conformational states. Fundamental questions remain about how transporters transition between states and how such structural rearrangements regulate substrate translocation. Here, we capture the translocation process by crystallography and unguided molecular dynamics simulations, providing an atomic-level description of alternating access transport. Simulations of a SWEET-family transporter initiated from an outward-open, glucose-bound structure reported here spontaneously adopt occluded and inward-open conformations...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340340/selective-chemical-inhibition-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-gluconeogenic-activity-ameliorates-type-2-diabetes
#4
Kfir Sharabi, Hua Lin, Clint D J Tavares, John E Dominy, Joao Paulo Camporez, Rachel J Perry, Roger Schilling, Amy K Rines, Jaemin Lee, Marc Hickey, Melissa Bennion, Michelle Palmer, Partha P Nag, Joshua A Bittker, José Perez, Mark P Jedrychowski, Umut Ozcan, Steve P Gygi, Theodore M Kamenecka, Gerald I Shulman, Stuart L Schreiber, Patrick R Griffin, Pere Puigserver
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic with a medical need for additional targeted therapies. Suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) effectively ameliorates diabetes and can be exploited for its treatment. We hypothesized that targeting PGC-1α acetylation in the liver, a chemical modification known to inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis, could be potentially used for treatment of T2D. Thus, we designed a high-throughput chemical screen platform to quantify PGC-1α acetylation in cells and identified small molecules that increase PGC-1α acetylation, suppress gluconeogenic gene expression, and reduce glucose production in hepatocytes...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340302/does-the-type-of-activity-break-from-prolonged-sitting-differentially-impact-on-post-prandial-blood-glucose-reductions-an-exploratory-analysis
#5
Robyn N Larsen, Paddy C Dempsey, Francis Dillon, Megan Grace, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Neville Owen, David W Dunstan
Frequent breaks in prolonged sitting are associated beneficially with glycaemic control. However, the contribution of energy expenditure to these relationships has not been well characterised. In this exploratory analysis, data from three laboratory trials that standardised test meals, cohort characteristics (overweight/obese, sedentary), and break frequency and duration were pooled. Higher energy expenditures of different types of breaks (standing, light- or moderate-intensity walking) were associated with lower post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in a dose-dependent manner...
March 24, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340043/very-long-term-outcome-following-transcatheter-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-are-results-maintained-after-10-years-of-follow-up
#6
Fiorenzo Gaita, Marco Scaglione, Alberto Battaglia, Mario Matta, Cristina Gallo, Michela Galatà, Domenico Caponi, Paolo Di Donna, Matteo Anselmino
Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) transcatheter ablation is a safe and effective procedure. However, outcome over 10 years of follow-up has never been reported. The aim of this study is to assess outcome, describe predictors of recurrences, and report on quality of life (QoL) the decade after an AF ablation. Methods and results: Patients referred for AF ablation in a single high volume centre from June 2004 to June 2006 were enrolled and followed in a prospective fashion by yearly clinical assessment and Holter monitoring...
February 28, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339953/genotype-phenotype-associations-for-low-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-activity-in-red-blood-cells
#7
Jennifer Powers, Hunter Best, David Grenache
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339807/differential-effects-of-carbohydrates-on-arabidopsis-pollen-germination
#8
Jörg Hirsche, José M García Fernández, Edith Stabentheiner, Dominik K Großkinsky, Thomas Roitsch
Pollen germination as a crucial process in plant development strongly depends on the accessibility of carbon as energy source. Carbohydrates, however, function not only as a primary energy source, but also as important signaling components. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed various aspects of the impact of 32 different sugars on in vitro germination of Arabidopsis pollen comprising about 150 variations of individual sugars and combinations. Twenty-six structurally different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, and sugar analogs were initially tested for their ability to support pollen germination...
February 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339792/interference-of-age-and-supplementation-of-direct-fed-microbial-and-essential-oil-in-the-activity-of-digestive-enzymes-and-expression-of-genes-related-to-transport-and-digestion-of-carbohydrates-and-proteins-in-the-small-intestine-of-broilers
#9
M F Fernandez-Alarcon, N Trottier, J P Steibel, R Lunedo, D M B Campos, A M Santana, J M Pizauro, R L Furlan, L R Furlan
The objectives of this study were to describe alterations that age and dietary inclusion of direct-fed microbial (DFM) Bacillus subtilis (BS) and a specific essential oil (EO) blend (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, cineol, and pepper extract) causes in the activity of digestive enzymes (maltase: MALT; aminopeptidase-N: APN; intestinal alkaline phosphate: IAP) and expression patterns of genes related to transport (oligopeptide transporter gene: SLC15A1; Na+-dependent glucose and galactose transporter gene: SLC5A1; Na+-independent glucose, galactose, and fructose transporter gene: SLC2A2; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting gene: ATP1A1) and digestion (aminopeptidase-N gene: ANPEP; maltase-glucoamylase gene: MGAM; Sucrase-isomaltase gene: SI) of carbohydrates and proteins in the small intestine of broilers...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339731/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-development-of-metabolic-cardiomyopathy2-3
#10
C Y Chen, Y F Huang, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339485/chronic-parp-1-inhibition-reduces-carotid-vessel-remodeling-and-oxidative-damage-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#11
Krisztian Eros, Klara Magyar, Laszlo Deres, Arpad Skazel, Adam Riba, Zoltan Vamos, Tamas Kalai, Ferenc Gallyas, Balazs Sumegi, Kalman Toth, Robert Halmosi
Vascular remodeling during chronic hypertension may impair the supply of tissues with oxygen, glucose and other compounds, potentially unleashing deleterious effects. In this study, we used Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats with or without pharmacological inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 by an experimental compound L-2286, to evaluate carotid artery remodeling and consequent damage of neuronal tissue during hypertension. We observed elevated oxidative stress and profound thickening of the vascular wall with fibrotic tissue accumulation induced by elevated blood pressure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339376/long-term-stability-of-vancomycin-hydrochloride-in-glucose-5-polyolefin-bags-the-brand-name-versus-a-generic-product
#12
Sophie Huvelle, Marie Godet, Jean-Daniel Hecq, Patricia Gillet, Jacques Jamart, Laurence M Galanti
The objectives of this study were to determine if the preparation of vancomycin hydrochloride in advance of infusion could improve the quality of the drug, time management of drug delivery, cost savings of drug delivery, and to investigate the long-term stability of vancomycin hydrochloride (brand name Vancocin®) infusion in glucose 5% polyolefin bags versus the generic (Vancomycine®) at 5°C ± 3°C. Five bags of each infusion 1 g/100 mL vancomycin hydrochloride in 5% glucose (Vancocin ® and Vancomycine®) were stored up to 57 days at 5°C ± 3°C...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339345/alanine-aminotransferase-is-a-marker-of-lipotoxicity-consequences-and-hyperandrogenemia-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#13
Matea Belan, Chloé Pelletier, Jean-Patrice Baillargeon
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported higher levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with control subjects. Plasma ALT levels are considered a marker of hepatic lipotoxicity because of their significant associations with different hepatic metabolic dysfunctions, such as hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. METHODS: Retrospective chart review aiming to assess, in PCOS women, the relationship between ALT levels and measures of lipotoxicity consequences that are available clinically, both during fasting and using the oral glucose tolerance test...
April 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339090/inhibition-of-farnesyl-pyrophosphate-synthase-attenuates-high-glucose%C3%A2-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-proliferation
#14
Guo-Ping Chen, Xiao-Qin Zhang, Tao Wu, Jie Han, Dan Ye
The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the main features of atherosclerosis accelerated by hyperglycemia. Our previous studies found that farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS, EC 2.5.1.10), an essential enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, was upregulated in aorta media from diabetic mice along with the process of atherosclerosis. However, the exact role of FPPS in high glucose‑induced proliferation of VSMCs is largely unclear. In our study, we found that alendronate (an FPPS inhibitor) attenuated diabetic accelerated atherosclerosis in vivo and suppressed high glucose‑induced VSMCs proliferation in vitro...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339051/protective-effects-of-tacrolimus-on-podocytes-in-early-diabetic-nephropathy-in-rats
#15
Tao Peng, Xiangdi Chang, Jie Wang, Junhui Zhen, Xiangdong Yang, Zhao Hu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tacrolimus on early podocyte damage in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). A total of 38 normal male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control group (group N; n=8), DN group (n=10), tacrolimus (FK506) treatment group (group F; n=10), benazepril (Lotensin) treatment group (group L; n=10). The rats in groups DN, F and L were administered with streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection to establish the diabetic rat model...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338881/mdhb1-down-regulation-activates-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-the-white-fleshed-apple-cultivar-granny-smith
#16
Yonghua Jiang, Cuihua Liu, Dan Yan, Xiaohong Wen, Yanli Liu, Haojie Wang, Jieyu Dai, Yujie Zhang, Yanfei Liu, Bin Zhou, Xiaolin Ren
Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the flavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338880/the-yield-and-feasibility-of-integrated-screening-for-tb-diabetes-and-hiv-in-four-public-hospitals-in-ethiopia
#17
Degu Jerene, Nebiyu Hiruy, Ilili Jemal, Wondimu Gebrekiros, Tadesse Anteneh, Dereje Habte, Muluken Melese, Pedro Suarez, Gloria Sangiwa
Background: Our objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of integrated care for TB, HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) in a pilot project in Ethiopia. Methods: Healthcare workers in four hospitals screened patients with TB for HIV and DM; patients with HIV for DM and TB; and patients with DM for TB. Fasting and random plasma glucose (RPG) tests were used to confirm the diagnosis of DM. We used screening checklists for TB and DM, and additional risk scoring criteria to identify patients at risk of DM...
March 2, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338809/resveratrol-derivative-btm-0512-mitigates-obesity-by-promoting-beige-remodeling-of-subcutaneous-preadipocytes
#18
Qingqing Li, Kuansong Wang, Yipeng Ma, Chunxiang Qin, Changsheng Dong, Ping Jin, Yan Wu, Xiaoming Xiong, Niansheng Li, Changping Hu, Jun Peng, Zhichun Yang
Recent studies revealed that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and its agonist resveratrol showed anti-obesity effect. This study aims to determine whether BTM-0512, a novel derivative of resveratrol, acts as an antagonist of obesity and to explore its possible mechanisms. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were intragastrically administered with BTM-0512 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day) or resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day). It was found that the body weight, Lee's index, ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to body weight, and blood glucose were significantly reduced in BTM-0512-treated mice when compared with those in mice treated with resveratrol...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338771/blood-pressure-control-during-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#19
Seulbi Lee, Hyung Jung Oh, Eun-Kyung Lee, Oesook Lee, Eunhee Ha, Seung-Jung Kim, Duk-Hee Kang, Kyu Bok Choi, Dong-Ryeol Ryu
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major cause of end-stage renal disease, and blood pressure (BP) control is crucial in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is generally inadequately controlled in CKD patients. We investigated the prevalence of CKD patients with inadequate BP control and its related factors, based on the CKD stage. METHODS: We analyzed the health examination sample cohort database, which consisted of the randomly selected participants among all the citizens who received the health examination provided by National Health Insurance Service of Korea in 2012 and 2013...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338662/diabetes-pancreatic-glp1-is-involved-in-glucose-regulation
#20
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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