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Human bonding

Joan B Silk, Robert M Seyfarth, Dorothy L Cheney
Although vocal production in non-human primates is highly constrained, individuals appear to have some control over whether to call or remain silent. We investigated how contextual factors affect the production of grunts given by wild female chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, during social interactions. Females grunted as they approached other adult females 28% of the time. Supporting previous research, females were much more likely to grunt to mothers with young infants than to females without infants. Grunts also significantly increased the likelihood of affiliative interactions among all partners...
2016: PloS One
Huabing Wang, Lisa Lang, Derek Thomas Logan, Jens Danielsson, Mikael Oliveberg
Despite continuing interest in partly unfolded proteins as precursors for aggregation and adverse gain-of-function in human disease, there is yet little known about the local transitions of native structures that possibly lead to such intermediate states. To target this problem, we present here a protein-design strategy that allows real-time detection of rupture and swapping of complete secondary-structure elements in globular proteins: molecular events that have previously been inaccessible experimental analysis...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
L R Santis, T M Silva, B A Haddad, L L Gonçalves, S E P Gonçalves
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dentin thickness and pulpal pressure simulation (PPS) on the variation of intrapulpal temperature (∆T) when submitted to an adhesive technique using laser irradiation. Sixty sound human molars were sectioned and randomly divided into two groups (n = 30): group 1-1 mm of dentin thickness; group 2-2 mm of dentin thickness. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 15): subgroup A-absence of PPS; subgroup P-presence of PPS (15 cm H2O), sequentially treated with the following: 37 % phosphoric acid, adhesive system (Adper Single Bond), irradiation with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 Hz, 60 s) using 60, 80, and 100 mJ/pulse energy parameters and light-curing (10 s)...
October 24, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Kalyan Kong, Noriko Hiraishi, Mohannad Nassar, Masayuki Otsuki, Cynthia K Y Yiu, Junji Tagami
PURPOSE: Phytic acid (IP6) works well as an etchant in dentin bonding to remove the smear layer due to its acidity and chelating effect. This study compared the etching effect of IP6 with phosphoric acid (PA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on resin-dentin bond strength, micromorphology of the etched dentin surface and nanoleakage formation along resin-dentin interfaces and compared the protecting effect against collagen degradation. METHODS: Dentin disks and flat dentin surfaces were obtained from extracted human teeth...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
Xiaozhe Xiong, Tatyana Panchenko, Shuang Yang, Shuai Zhao, Peiqiang Yan, Wenhao Zhang, Wei Xie, Yuanyuan Li, Yingming Zhao, C David Allis, Haitao Li
Recognition of histone covalent modifications by 'reader' modules constitutes a major mechanism for epigenetic regulation. A recent upsurge of newly discovered histone lysine acylations, such as crotonylation (Kcr), butyrylation (Kbu), and propionylation (Kpr), greatly expands the coding potential of histone lysine modifications. Here we demonstrate that the histone acetylation-binding double PHD finger (DPF) domains of human MOZ (also known as KAT6A) and DPF2 (also known as BAF45d) accommodate a wide range of histone lysine acylations with the strongest preference for Kcr...
October 24, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Christian Helbing, Robert Stößel, Dominik A Hering, Matthias Michael Lothar Arras, Jörg Bossert, Klaus D Jandt
Nanostructured surfaces have the potential to influence the assembly as well as the orientation of adsorbed proteins and may, thus, strongly influence the biomaterials performance. For the class of polymeric (bio)materials a reproducible and well characterized nanostructure is the ordered chain folded surface of a polyethylene single crystal (PE-SC). We tested the hypothesis that the trinodal-rod shaped protein human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) adsorbs on the (001) surface of PE-SCs along specific crystallographic directions...
October 24, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Patrick S Walsh, Karl N Blodgett, Carl McBurney, Samuel H Gellman, Timothy S Zwier
Gas-phase single-conformation spectroscopy is used to study Ac-Gln-Gln-NHBn in order to probe the interplay between sidechain hydrogen bonding and backbone conformational preferences. This small, amide-rich peptide offers many possibilities for backbone-backbone, sidechain-backbone, and sidechain-sidechain interactions. The major conformer observed experimentally features a type-I β-turn with a canonical 10-membered ring C=O-H-N hydrogen bond between backbone amide groups. In addition, the C=O group of each Gln sidechain participates in a seven-membered ring hydrogen bond with the backbone NH of the same residue...
October 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
ChunSik Choe, Jürgen Lademann, Maxim E Darvin
Confocal Raman microscopy has been used to measure depth-dependent profiles of human SC in vivo in the high wavenumber (HWN) region. In order to keep the linearity of HWN region boundaries and to not remove an informative signal from Raman spectra, a new baseline subtraction procedure has been introduced. After baseline subtraction, the HWN spectrum was deconvoluted using 10 Gaussian functions with individual chemical meanings. The results show that the hydrogen bound water molecule types contributed differently to the water diffusion process in the SC...
October 24, 2016: Analyst
Judith L Stella, Candace C Croney
Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Joachim Richter, Roya Ostovar
The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside (proto-)language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D) as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-)language...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Aymard Didier Tamafo Fouegue, Julius Numbonui Ghogomu, Désiré Bikélé Mama, Nyiang Kennet Nkungli, Elie Younang
The chelating ability of juglone and two of its derivatives towards Fe(2+)ion and the antioxidant activity (AOA) of the resulting chelates and complexes (in the presence of H2O and CH3OH as ligands) in gas phase is reported via bond dissociation enthalpy, ionization potential, proton dissociation enthalpy, proton affinity, and electron transfer enthalpy. The DFT/B3LYP level of theory associated with the 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-31G(d) Pople-style basis sets on the atoms of the ligands and the central Fe(II), respectively, was used...
2016: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Ion N Mihailescu, Dorota Bociaga, Gabriel Socol, George E Stan, Mariana-Carmen Chifiriuc, Coralia Bleotu, Marius A Husanu, Gianina Popescu-Pelin, Liviu Duta, Catalin R Luculescu, Irina Negut, Claudiu Hapenciuc, Cristina Besleaga, Irina Zgura, Florin Miculescu
We report on the selection by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition of Silver-doped Carbon structures with reliable physical-chemical characteristics and high efficiency against microbial biofilms. The investigation of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, bonding strength "pull-out" tests, and surface energy measurements. In vitro biological assays were carried out using a large spectrum of bacterial and fungal strains, i...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
S Fujisawa, Y Murakami
The active components in cloves are eugenol and isoeugenol. Eugenol has recently become a focus of interest because of its potential role in alleviating and preventing chronic diseases such as cancer, inflammatory reactions, and other conditions. The radical-scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities of eugenol have been shown to modulate chronic diseases in vitro and in vivo, but in humans, the therapeutic use of eugenol still remains to be explored. Based on a review of the recent literature, the antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities of eugenol and its related compounds are discussed in relation to experimentally determined antioxidant activity (stoichiometric factor n and inhibition rate constant) and theoretical parameters [phenolic O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization potential (IP according to Koopman's theorem), and electrophilicity (ω)], calculated using a density functional theory method...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Song Klapoetke, Michael Hongwei Xie
Protein-level partial reduction was investigated as a novel sample preparation technique to characterize proteins with cystine knots or complex disulfide linkages. Human Factor Xa containing twelve disulfide bonds was selected as a model protein to demonstrate this methodology. Five in twelve disulfide linkages were characterized through conventional non-reduced samples while the other seven disulfide linkages containing cystine knots were successfully characterized though partially reduced samples. Each disulfide linkage was confirmed through product ions generated by an UPLC-ESI QTOF MS system equipped with data independent collision-induced dissociation (CID) acquisition...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Letícia Couto Garcia, Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, Fabio de Oliveira Roque, Jose Manuel Ochoa-Quintero, William F Laurance
In November 2015, a large mine-tailing dam owned by Samarco Corporation collapsed in Brazil, generating a massive wave of toxic mud that spread down the Doce River, killing 19 people and affecting biodiversity across hundreds of kilometers of river, riparian lands, and Atlantic coast. Besides the disaster's serious human and socioeconomic tolls, we estimate the regional loss of environmental services to be ~US$5.21 billion/year. Although our estimate is conservative, it is still six times higher than the fine imposed on Samarco by Brazilian environmental authorities...
October 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Aisha Bibi, Huangxian Ju
This work presents an efficient and selective enrichment method for glycoprotein/glycopeptides with sulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica (SBA-15-SO3H), which is synthesized via simple oxidation of -SH groups with H2O2. The functionalized SBA-15 shows large surface area and accessible pores, and can selectively adsorb glycopeptides via hydrogen bond and hydrophilic interaction. Upon the selective enrichment prior to the mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, the signals of glycopeptides are significantly enhanced, which leads to the identifiable signals of 21 glycopeptides from the digest of HRP, 16 glycopeptides from the digest of human IgG, and 16 glycopeptides from the digest of chicken avidin...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Yan Zhang, Jingjing Jiang, Min Li, Pengfei Gao, Ying Zhou, Guomei Zhang, Shaomin Shuang, Chuan Dong
Herein, a novel, high sensitive, and specific colorimetric sensor for cysteine (Cys) based on pectinase protected gold nanoparticles (P@AuNPs) has been demonstrated for the first time. The P@AuNPs were synthesized by "MW-assisted heat method" and were characterized by UV-vis, TEM, FT-IR and zeta potential techniques. Cys could cause the aggregation of P@AuNPs due to formation of the strong covalent Au-S bond and electrostatic binding. As the Cys concentration increased, the color of the solutions gradually changed from wine-red to blue as well as the large absorption band shifted from 523 to 650nm upon P@AuNPs aggregation...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Man Wang, Ping Ma, Xiaonan Xi, Lei Liu, Yabin Wen, Kangning Liu, Liang Sun, Yaxin Lu, Zheng Yin
The bioanalysis and especially the sample preparation of nucleoside drugs in complex media, such as human plasma, has been challenging due to the high polarity and high solubility of these drugs in water. Online solid phase extraction (SPE) offers significant advantages, such as automation and timesaving. Thus, several types of SPE columns have been developed for compounds with different polarities. In this study, SPE was applied to overcome the issue of sample pretreatment of nucleoside drugs in human plasma, with the final aim of establishing a robust analytical platform for drugs with similar structures...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Li-Qiang Han, Xia Yuan, Xing-Yu Wu, Ri-Dong Li, Bo Xu, Qing Cheng, Zhen-Ming Liu, Tian-Yan Zhou, Hao-Yun An, Xin Wang, Tie-Ming Cheng, Ze-Mei Ge, Jing-Rong Cui, Run-Tao Li
A novel class of urea-containing peptide boronic acids as proteasome inhibitors was designed by introducing a urea scaffold to replace an amido bond. Compounds were synthesized and their antitumor activities were evaluated. After two rounds of optimizations, the compound I-14 was found to be a potent proteasome inhibitor. Compared with Bortezomib, I-14 showed higher potency against the chymotrypsin-like activity of human 20S proteasome (IC50 < 1 pM), similar potency against four different cancer cell lines (IC50 < 10 nM), and better pharmacokinetic profile...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Joan B Broderick, James D Moody
The human gut microbiome is the source of not only microbial diversity, but also of interesting chemical reactions and enzymology. An excellent example of this is CutC, an enzyme that makes trimethylamine (TMA). In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Bodea et al. (2016) show how CutC uses a glycyl radical to perform C-N bond cleavage needed for TMA production.
October 20, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
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