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Anastasia Asimakopoulou, Sabine Weiskirchen, Ralf Weiskirchen
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secreted protein that belongs to the Lipocalins, a group of transporters of small lipophilic molecules such as steroids, lipopolysaccharides, iron, and fatty acids in circulation. Two decades after its discovery and after a high variety of published findings, LCN2's altered expression has been assigned to critical roles in several pathological organ conditions, including liver injury and steatosis, renal damage, brain injury, cardiomyopathies, muscle-skeletal disorders, lung infection, and cancer in several organs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Lilia Rodarte-Cuevas, Roxana Araujo-Espino, Perla María Trejo-Ortiz, José González-Tovar
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the conditions of quality of working life, the presence of muscle- skeletal disorders and the association between these variables in nursing staff of a public hospital in Zacatecas, Mexico. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with descriptive-correlational scope was designed. A stratified random sampling per shift was used in 107 cases. The Questionnaire Professional Quality of Life (CVP-35) was applied as well as the Nordic Questionnaire Standardized for musculoskeletal pain and work-related risk factors questionnaire...
October 3, 2016: Enfermería Clínica
Melissa L Erickson, Terence E Ryan, Deborah Backus, Kevin K McCully
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in skeletal muscle atrophy, increases in intramuscular fat, and reductions in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Endurance training elicited with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may reverse these changes and lead to improvement in muscle metabolic health. METHODS: Fourteen participants with complete SCI performed 16 weeks of home-based endurance NMES training of knee extensors muscles. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, muscle composition, and blood metabolic and lipid profiles were assessed pre- and post-training...
August 31, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Edda Maria Capodaglio
The working posture is part of the risk factors for the development of muscle-skeletal disorders. Compared to postural problems of the trunk and upper limbs, those related to the lower limbs have been so far undervalued in the context of preventive medicine and ergonomics. The risk assessment tools for the lower limbs posture are inhomogeneous and incomplete. The classification of postures, the quantification of the risk, the correlation with organizational and individual aspects, and interventions for the prevention and management of the risk are aspects yet to be explored...
April 2016: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Dustin R Masser, Nicholas W Clark, Holly Van Remmen, Willard M Freeman
Mitochondria contain multiple copies of the circular mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) that encodes ribosomal RNAs and proteins locally translated for oxidative phosphorylation. Loss of mtDNA integrity, both altered copy number and increased mutations, is implicated in cellular dysfunction with aging. Published data on mtDNA copy number and aging is discordant which may be due to methodological limitations for quantifying mtDNA copy number. Existing quantitative PCR (qPCR) mtDNA copy number quantification methods provide only relative abundances and are problematic to normalize to different template input amounts and across tissues/sample types...
August 2016: Age (2005-)
Murat Kurudirek
PURPOSE: To compare some biological materials in respect to the water and tissue equivalence properties for photon, electron, proton and alpha particle interactions as means of the effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Ne). METHODS: A Z-wise interpolation procedure has been adopted for calculation of Zeff using the mass attenuation coefficients for photons and the mass stopping powers for charged particles. RESULTS: At relatively low energies (100 keV-3 MeV), Zeff and Ne for photons and electrons were found to be constant while they vary much more for protons and alpha particles...
September 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Alireza Mahboub-Ahari, Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Mahmoud Yusefi, Ashraf Velayati
BACKGROUND: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. METHODS: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
M C D Agostino, R Frairia, P Romeo, E Amelio, L Berta, V Bosco, S Gigliotti, C Guerra, S Messina, L Messuri, B Moretti, A Notarnicola, G Maccagnano, S Russo, R Saggini, M C Vulpiani, P Buselli
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT), after its first medical application in the urological field for lithotripsy, nowadays represents a valid therapeutical tool also for many musculoskeletal diseases, as well as for regenerative medicine applications. This is possible thanks to its mechanisms of action, which in the non-urological field are not related to mechanical disruption (as for renal stones), but rather to the capacity, by mechanotransduction, to induce neoangiogenesis, osteogenesis and to improve local tissue trophism, regeneration and remodeling, through stem cell stimulation...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Paul J Buchanan, Karen D McCloskey
The importance of ion channels in the hallmarks of many cancers is increasingly recognised. This article reviews current knowledge of the expression of members of the voltage-gated calcium channel family (CaV) in cancer at the gene and protein level and discusses their potential functional roles. The ten members of the CaV channel family are classified according to expression of their pore-forming α-subunit; moreover, co-expression of accessory α2δ, β and γ confers a spectrum of biophysical characteristics including voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, current amplitude and activation/inactivation kinetics...
June 24, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Anders Gudiksen, Camilla Lindgren Schwartz, Lærke Bertholdt, Ella Joensen, Jakob G Knudsen, Henriette Pilegaard
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate utilization. IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise in a duration dependent manner and has been reported to increase whole body fatty acid oxidation, muscle glucose uptake and decrease PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of fed mice. The aim of the present study was to examine whether muscle IL-6 contributes to exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) completed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 10, 60 or 120 min, with rested mice of each genotype serving as basal controls...
2016: PloS One
Mark A Chapman, Rachel Meza, Richard L Lieber
As the primary producer of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in skeletal muscle, fibroblasts play an important role providing structural support to muscle. Skeletal muscle ECM is vital for force transduction from muscle cells to tendons and bones to create movement. It is these ECM connections that allow the movement created in muscle to be transmitted to our skeleton. This review discusses how fibroblasts participate in maintaining this healthy ECM within skeletal muscle. Additionally, from a basic science perspective, we discuss current methods to identify and study skeletal muscle fibroblasts, as this is critical to bettering our understanding of these important cells...
June 6, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Marianne S Markussen, Marit B Veierød, Giske Ursin, Lene F Andersen
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether under-reporting of energy intake affects derived dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease. Diets of 6204 women aged 50-69 years participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were assessed using a 253-item FFQ. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis. According to the revised Goldberg cut-off method, women with a ratio of reported energy intake:estimated BMR<1·10 were classified as low energy reporters (n 1133, 18 %)...
August 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Juhui Qiu, Xiaoying Fan, Yixia Wang, Hongbin Jin, Yixiao Song, Yang Han, Shenghong Huang, Yaping Meng, Fuchou Tang, Anming Meng
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) replenish all types of blood cells. It is debating whether HSCs in adults solely originate from the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, more specifically, the dorsal aorta, during embryogenesis. Here, we report that somite hematopoiesis, a previously unwitnessed hematopoiesis, can generate definitive HSCs (dHSCs) in zebrafish. By transgenic lineage tracing, we found that a subset of cells within the forming somites emigrate ventromedially and mix with lateral plate mesoderm-derived primitive hematopoietic cells before the blood circulation starts...
August 2016: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
G E Mejía-Terrazas, V G López-Ruiz, G Infante-Cosío, A Carapia-Sadurni, E Hernández-Méndez-Villamil
Lyme disease is an emerging pathology in Mexico, producer of painful muscle skeletal either neurotic pain difficult to control. We present the case of a teenager girl who has complex regional pain type II of pelvic limb secondary to it, where it established a multidisciplinary management that finally was controlled with the placement of a spinal cord stimulator. We consider this as an unusual situation in an adolescent, as well as its evolution by 60 months where the literature only was reported in a few cases...
July 2015: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
Raquel Espín-Palazón, David Traver
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family is a crucial transcription factor group known mainly for its role in the regulation of the immune system and its response to infection in vertebrates. The signaling pathway leading to NF-κB activation and translocation to the nucleus to exert its function as a transcription factor is well conserved among Kingdom Animalia, which has helped to elucidate other roles that NF-κB plays in other biological contexts such as developmental biology. The manipulation of NF-κB members in a diverse range of animal models results in severe developmental defects during embryogenesis, very often leading to embryonic lethality...
July 2016: Experimental Hematology
Anna A Bulysheva, Nina Burcus, Cathryn Lundberg, Chelsea M Edelblute, Michael P Francis, Richard Heller
Gene electrotransfer (GET) is a proven and valuable tool for in vivo gene delivery to a variety of tissues such as skin, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and tumors, with controllable gene delivery and expression levels. Optimizing gene expression is a challenging hurdle in preclinical studies, particularly for skin indications, due to differences in electrical conductivity of animal compared to human dermis. Therefore, the goal of this study was to develop an ex vivo model for GET using recellularized human dermis to more closely mimic human skin...
2016: Biomedical Materials
M V Vygonskaya, E G Filatova
The paper is devoted to the most complicated aspects of low back pain. The differences between specific and nonspecific low back pain using the "red flags" system is highlighted. The authors consider the causes of pain chronification (the "yellow flags" system) and the necessity of using a biopsychosocial model. Main pathogenetic mechanisms of chronic muscle/skeletal pain are considered and the possible involvement of several mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic pain as well as the use of complex therapy is discussed...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
S M Li
Tyrosyl phosphorylation participates in various pathological and physiological processes, which are regulated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). The Src homology-2 domain containing phosphatase SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11) is an important phosphatase, which was found to be implicated in the regulation of genetic disease, development, metabolic, neurological, muscle, skeletal disease and cancer. Germline mutations in PTPN11 cause the Noonan Syndrome, LEOPARD syndrome and metachondromatosis...
January 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick
Elderly humans gradually lose strength and the capacity to repair skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle repair requires functional skeletal muscle satellite (or stem) cells (SMSCs) and progenitor cells. Diminished stem cell numbers and increased dysfunction correlate with the observed gradual loss of strength during aging. Recent reports attribute the loss of stem cell numbers and function to either increased entry into a presenescent state or the loss of self-renewal capacity due to an inability to maintain quiescence resulting in stem cell exhaustion...
April 2016: Rejuvenation Research
(no author information available yet)
Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus)...
2016: Progress in Drug Research. Fortschritte der Arzneimittelforschung. Progrès des Recherches Pharmaceutiques
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