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Francesco Carini, Margherita Mazzola, Chiara Fici, Salvatore Palmeri, Massimo Messina, Provvidenza Damiani, Giovanni Tomasello
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF WORK: posture is the position of the body in the space, and is controlled by a set of anatomical structures. The maintenance and the control of posture are a set of interactions between muscle-skeletal, visual, vestibular, and skin system. Lately there are numerous studies that correlate the muscle-skeletal and the maintenance of posture. In particular, the correction of defects and obstruction of temporomandibular disorders, seem to have an impact on posture. The aim of this work is to collect information in literature on posture and the influence of the stomatognathic system on postural system...
April 28, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Anders Gudiksen, Henriette Pilegaard
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether lack of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) affects the switch in substrate utilization from a fed to fasted state and the fasting-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1α knockout (MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls were fed or fasted for 24 h. Fasting reduced PDHa activity, increased phosphorylation of all four known sites on PDH-E1α and increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) protein levels, but did not alter total acetylation of PDH-E1α Lack of muscle PGC-1α did not affect the switch from glucose to fat oxidation in the transition from the fed to fasted state, but was associated with lower and higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in the fed and fasted state, respectively...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
Allison M Keeler, Donghai Liu, Marina Zieger, Lang Xiong, Jeffrey Salemi, Karl Bellve, Barry J Byrne, David D Fuller, Ronghua ZhuGe, Mai K ElMallah
Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) - an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing lysosomal glycogen. Deficiency of GAA leads to systemic glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes of skeletal muscle, motor neurons and smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle and motor neuron pathology are known to contribute to respiratory insufficiency in Pompe disease, but the role of airway pathology has not been evaluated. Here we propose that GAA enzyme deficiency disrupts the function of the trachea and bronchi, and this lower airway pathology contributes to respiratory insufficiency in Pompe disease...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Eva Sauer, Antje Extra, Philipp Cachée, Cornelius Courts
The identification of organ tissues in traces recovered from scenes and objects with regard to violent crimes involving serious injuries can be of considerable relevance in forensic investigations. Molecular genetic approaches are provably superior to histological and immunological assays in characterizing organ tissues, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs), due to their cell type specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, emerged as a promising molecular species for forensic analyses, with a range of tried and tested indicative markers...
February 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Patricia Blanco-Piñeiro, M Pino Díaz-Pereira, Aurora Martínez
OBJECTIVE: An analysis of the salient characteristics of research papers published between 1989 and 2015 that evaluate the relationship between postural quality during musical performance and various performance quality and health factors, with emphasis on musculoskeletal health variables. METHODS: Searches of Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar for papers that analysed the subject of the study objective. The following MeSH descriptors were used: posture; postural balance; muscle, skeletal; task performance and analysis; back; and spine and music...
January 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Urszula Chursa, Esther Nuñez-Durán, Emmelie Cansby, Manoj Amrutkar, Silva Sütt, Marcus Ståhlman, Britt-Marie Olsson, Jan Borén, Maria E Johansson, Fredrik Bäckhed, Bengt R Johansson, Carina Sihlbom, Margit Mahlapuu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle is essential for developing new strategies to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a critical regulator of liver steatosis, hepatic lipid metabolism and whole body glucose and insulin homeostasis. Here, we assessed the role of STK25 in control of ectopic fat storage and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle...
March 2017: Diabetologia
Lukasz Matuszewski, Damian Pietrzyk, Grzegorz Kandzierski, Michal Wilczynski
Unilateral congenital sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) contracture causing torticollis is well known. Although the unilateral muscular torticollis is quite often recognized, a bilateral contracture of SCM muscle is very rare. A review of the literature showed only three cases of bilateral congenital torticollis reported over the last two decades. We present a case report of a boy with congenital bilateral torticollis with 25 years of follow-up. Bilateral tenotomies of the right SCM were performed and the child was immobilized in Schanz's cervical orthosis...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
Julie R McMullen, Brian G Drew
The recent discovery that thousands of RNAs are transcribed by the cell but are never translated into protein, highlights a significant void in our current understanding of how transcriptional networks regulate cellular function. This is particularly astounding when we consider that over 75% of the human genome is transcribed into RNA, but only approximately 2% of RNA is translated into known proteins. This raises the question as to what function the other so-called 'non-coding RNAs' (ncRNAs) are performing in the cell...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Anastasia Asimakopoulou, Sabine Weiskirchen, Ralf Weiskirchen
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secreted protein that belongs to the Lipocalins, a group of transporters of small lipophilic molecules such as steroids, lipopolysaccharides, iron, and fatty acids in circulation. Two decades after its discovery and after a high variety of published findings, LCN2's altered expression has been assigned to critical roles in several pathological organ conditions, including liver injury and steatosis, renal damage, brain injury, cardiomyopathies, muscle-skeletal disorders, lung infection, and cancer in several organs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Lilia Rodarte-Cuevas, Roxana Araujo-Espino, Perla María Trejo-Ortiz, José González-Tovar
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the conditions of quality of working life, the presence of muscle- skeletal disorders and the association between these variables in nursing staff of a public hospital in Zacatecas, Mexico. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with descriptive-correlational scope was designed. A stratified random sampling per shift was used in 107 cases. The Questionnaire Professional Quality of Life (CVP-35) was applied as well as the Nordic Questionnaire Standardized for musculoskeletal pain and work-related risk factors questionnaire...
November 2016: Enfermería Clínica
Melissa L Erickson, Terence E Ryan, Deborah Backus, Kevin K McCully
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in skeletal muscle atrophy, increases in intramuscular fat, and reductions in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Endurance training elicited with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may reverse these changes and lead to improvement in muscle metabolic health. METHODS: Fourteen participants with complete SCI performed 16 weeks of home-based endurance NMES training of knee extensor muscles. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, muscle composition, and blood metabolic and lipid profiles were assessed pre- and post-training...
May 2017: Muscle & Nerve
Edda Maria Capodaglio
The working posture is part of the risk factors for the development of muscle-skeletal disorders. Compared to postural problems of the trunk and upper limbs, those related to the lower limbs have been so far undervalued in the context of preventive medicine and ergonomics. The risk assessment tools for the lower limbs posture are inhomogeneous and incomplete. The classification of postures, the quantification of the risk, the correlation with organizational and individual aspects, and interventions for the prevention and management of the risk are aspects yet to be explored...
April 2016: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Dustin R Masser, Nicholas W Clark, Holly Van Remmen, Willard M Freeman
Mitochondria contain multiple copies of the circular mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) that encodes ribosomal RNAs and proteins locally translated for oxidative phosphorylation. Loss of mtDNA integrity, both altered copy number and increased mutations, is implicated in cellular dysfunction with aging. Published data on mtDNA copy number and aging is discordant which may be due to methodological limitations for quantifying mtDNA copy number. Existing quantitative PCR (qPCR) mtDNA copy number quantification methods provide only relative abundances and are problematic to normalize to different template input amounts and across tissues/sample types...
August 2016: Age (2005-)
Murat Kurudirek
PURPOSE: To compare some biological materials in respect to the water and tissue equivalence properties for photon, electron, proton and alpha particle interactions as means of the effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Ne). METHODS: A Z-wise interpolation procedure has been adopted for calculation of Zeff using the mass attenuation coefficients for photons and the mass stopping powers for charged particles. RESULTS: At relatively low energies (100 keV-3 MeV), Zeff and Ne for photons and electrons were found to be constant while they vary much more for protons and alpha particles...
September 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Alireza Mahboub-Ahari, Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Mahmoud Yusefi, Ashraf Velayati
BACKGROUND: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. METHODS: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
M C D Agostino, R Frairia, P Romeo, E Amelio, L Berta, V Bosco, S Gigliotti, C Guerra, S Messina, L Messuri, B Moretti, A Notarnicola, G Maccagnano, S Russo, R Saggini, M C Vulpiani, P Buselli
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT), after its first medical application in the urological field for lithotripsy, nowadays represents a valid therapeutical tool also for many musculoskeletal diseases, as well as for regenerative medicine applications. This is possible thanks to its mechanisms of action, which in the non-urological field are not related to mechanical disruption (as for renal stones), but rather to the capacity, by mechanotransduction, to induce neoangiogenesis, osteogenesis and to improve local tissue trophism, regeneration and remodeling, through stem cell stimulation...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Paul J Buchanan, Karen D McCloskey
The importance of ion channels in the hallmarks of many cancers is increasingly recognised. This article reviews current knowledge of the expression of members of the voltage-gated calcium channel family (CaV) in cancer at the gene and protein level and discusses their potential functional roles. The ten members of the CaV channel family are classified according to expression of their pore-forming α-subunit; moreover, co-expression of accessory α2δ, β and γ confers a spectrum of biophysical characteristics including voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, current amplitude and activation/inactivation kinetics...
October 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Anders Gudiksen, Camilla Lindgren Schwartz, Lærke Bertholdt, Ella Joensen, Jakob G Knudsen, Henriette Pilegaard
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate utilization. IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise in a duration dependent manner and has been reported to increase whole body fatty acid oxidation, muscle glucose uptake and decrease PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of fed mice. The aim of the present study was to examine whether muscle IL-6 contributes to exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) completed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 10, 60 or 120 min, with rested mice of each genotype serving as basal controls...
2016: PloS One
Mark A Chapman, Rachel Meza, Richard L Lieber
As the primary producer of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in skeletal muscle, fibroblasts play an important role providing structural support to muscle. Skeletal muscle ECM is vital for force transduction from muscle cells to tendons and bones to create movement. It is these ECM connections that allow the movement created in muscle to be transmitted to our skeleton. This review discusses how fibroblasts participate in maintaining this healthy ECM within skeletal muscle. Additionally, from a basic science perspective, we discuss current methods to identify and study skeletal muscle fibroblasts, as this is critical to bettering our understanding of these important cells...
September 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Marianne S Markussen, Marit B Veierød, Giske Ursin, Lene F Andersen
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether under-reporting of energy intake affects derived dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease. Diets of 6204 women aged 50-69 years participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were assessed using a 253-item FFQ. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis. According to the revised Goldberg cut-off method, women with a ratio of reported energy intake:estimated BMR<1·10 were classified as low energy reporters (n 1133, 18 %)...
August 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
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