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thymic cancer

Francesca Bianchi, Michele Sommariva, Loris De Cecco, Tiziana Triulzi, Sandra Romero-Cordoba, Elda Tagliabue, Lucia Sfondrini, Andrea Balsari
The autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) plays a fundamental role in tolerance by promoting the expression of tissue-specific antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Recently, AIRE expression was detected also in human keratinocytes and in tumors originating in stratified epithelia. Here, we tested whether AIRE is expressed in cancer cells. We analyzed AIRE expression in cancer cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-seq dataset and we found association with better outcome. AIRE protein expression was verified by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 39 human breast cancer specimens and its prognostic relevance was confirmed in microarray-based gene expression dataset NKI-295 and KM-Plotter...
October 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Andrew G Nicholson, Frank Detterbeck, Alexander Marx, Anja C Roden, Alberto M Marchevsky, Kiyoshi Mukai, Gang Chen, Mirella Marino, Michael A den Bakker, Woo-Ick Yang, Meagan Judge, Lynn Hirschowitz
AIMS: The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) is a not-for-profit organisation formed by the Royal Colleges of Pathologists of Australasia and the United Kingdom, the College of American Pathologists, the Canadian Association of Pathologists-Association Canadienne des Pathologists (CAP-ACP) in association with the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC), and the European Society of Pathology (ESP). Its goal is to produce standardised, internationally agreed, evidence-based datasets for use throughout the world...
October 13, 2016: Histopathology
Jordi Remon, Nicolas Girard, Julien Mazieres, Eric Dansin, Eric Pichon, Laurent Greillier, Catherine Dubos, Colin R Lindsay, Benjamin Besse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Ishan Goswami, Sheryl Coutermarsh-Ott, Ryan G Morrison, Irving C Allen, Rafael V Davalos, Scott S Verbridge, Lissett R Bickford
Low-level electric fields have been demonstrated to induce spatial re-distribution of cell membrane receptors when applied for minutes or hours. However, there is limited literature on the influence on cell signaling with short transient high-amplitude pulses typically used in irreversible electroporation (IRE) for cancer treatment. Moreover, literature on signaling pertaining to immune cell trafficking after IRE is conflicting. We hypothesized that pulse parameters (field strength and exposure time) influence cell signaling and subsequently impact immune-cell trafficking...
September 25, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Ms Jun Du, Qin Shen, Honglin Yin, Qiu Rao, Mr Xiaojun Zhou
MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin that has been related to tumor progression and outcome in various malignancies. GLUT1 is a member of the mammalian facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) family of passive carriers that functions as an energy-independent system for transporting glucose. Both of them are useful markers for the diagnosis, progression, and prognosis of various tumors, especially those that are cancerous. However, the clinical significance of MUC1 and GLUT1 in thymic epithelial tumors remains uncertain due to a lack of quality specimen and studies at sufficient scale, both owing, in part, to the rarity of the tumors...
September 13, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Meinoshin Okumura
Nationwide databases of cases treated for thoracic disease have been established by several academic associations in Japan, which contain information showing trends and current status in regard to surgical treatment. The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS), Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS), Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS), Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy (JSRE) have maintained databases of lung cancer cases treated in Japan. In 1986, the number of general thoracic surgery cases was 15,544, which increased to 75,306 in 2013...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
David Altree-Tacha, Jillian Tyrrell, Faqian Li
Context .- High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas and carcinoids can arise in different sites such as lung, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, and skin. Classic neuroendocrine markers such as CD56, synaptophysin, and chromogranin cannot distinguish carcinoids from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. Recently, mouse monoclonal mASH1 has been shown to help discriminate carcinoids from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas in various neoplastic sites. To date, there have been no comprehensive immunohistochemistry studies with mASH1 on nonneuroendocrine neoplasms...
September 15, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Elizabeth Kaufman, Michelle Hunter-Behrend, Eric Leroux, Laleh Gharahbaghian, Viveta Lobo
We report a cardiac mass detected by point-of-care ultrasound performed within the emergency department on a 65-year-old male with thymic cancer who presented with chronic cough and fever. Results from the initial emergency workup, which included blood tests, urinalysis, and a computerized tomography with angiography scan with venous phasing of the chest, did not result in a definitive diagnosis. A point-of-care echocardiogram was performed to evaluate for possible infective endocarditis, but alternatively identified a large mass in the right atria and ventricle...
August 4, 2016: Curēus
Cristina Ghirelli, Benjamin Sadacca, Fabien Reyal, Raphaël Zollinger, Paula Michea, Philémon Sirven, Lucia Pattarini, Carolina Martínez-Cingolani, Maude Guillot-Delost, André Nicolas, Alix Scholer-Dahirel, Vassili Soumelis
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that primes dendritic cells for Th2 induction. It has been implicated in different types of allergic diseases. Recent work suggested that TSLP could play an important role in the tumor microenvironment and influence tumor progression, in particular in breast cancer. In this study we systematically assessed the production of TSLP at the mRNA and protein levels in several human breast cancer cell lines, large-scale public transcriptomics data sets, and primary human breast tumors...
August 2016: Oncoimmunology
Maude Guillot-Delost, Lia Guilleré, Frédérique Berger, Aurore Ventre, Paula Michea, Philémon Sirven, Lucia Pattarini, Alix Scholer-Dahirel, Fatima-Zahra Kebir, Michel Huerre, Olfa Chouchane-Mlik, Emmanuelle Lappartient, José Rodriguez, Thomas Jouffroy, Jerzy Klijanienko, André Nicolas, Xavier Sastre-Garau, Sofia Honorio, Véronique Mosseri, Nelly Le Peltier, Marie-Paule Sablin, Christophe Le Tourneau, Éric Tartour, Cécile Badoual, Vassili Soumelis
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin (IL)-7-like cytokine expressed by epithelial cells during allergic inflammation, and activating dendritic cells (DC). Its expression and functional role in cancer remain controversial. We conducted retrospective (n = 89), and prospective studies including patients with untreated primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We found that TSLP was overexpressed by HNSCC tumor cells, and associated with a highly differentiated status. However, no significant difference in overall and recurrence-free survival was found between patients bearing a tumor with high and low TSLP levels, respectively...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
François Lemonnier, Tak W Mak
Thymic negative selection is a process that aims to eliminate autoreactive T cells by inducing the apoptosis of thymocytes expressing a T-cell receptor (TCR) with high affinity for self-MHC. In this issue, Trinquand and colleagues demonstrate that TCR engagement or anti-CD3 stimulation of TCR-expressing T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells results in their apoptosis. This cell death is reminiscent of thymic negative selection and has the potential for therapeutic exploitation. Cancer Discov; 6(9); 946-8. ©2016 AACR...
September 2016: Cancer Discovery
Emma Holliday, Clifton D Fuller, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Daniel Gomez, Andreas Rimner, Ying Li, Suresh Senan, Lynn D Wilson, Jehee Choi, Ritsuko Komaki, Charles R Thomas
OBJECTIVES: We sought to quantitatively determine the inter-observer variability of expert radiotherapy target-volume delineation for thymic cancers, as part of a larger effort to develop an expert-consensus contouring atlas. METHODS: A pilot dataset was created consisting of a standardized case presentation with pre- and post-operative DICOM CT image sets from a single patient with Masaoka-Koga Stage III thymoma. Expert thoracic radiation oncologists delineated tumor targets on the pre- and post-operative scans as they would for a definitive and adjuvant case, respectively...
March 2016: Journal of Radiation Oncology
Keitaro Hayashi, Promsuk Jutabha, Sumiko Maeda, Yothaisong Supak, Motoshi Ouchi, Hitoshi Endou, Tomoe Fujita, Masayuki Chida, Naohiko Anzai
L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, SLC7A5) incorporates essential amino acids into cells. Recent studies have shown that LAT1 is a predominant transporter in various human cancers. However, the function of LAT1 in thymic carcinoma remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that LAT1 is a critical transporter for human thymic carcinoma cells. LAT1 was strongly expressed in human thymic carcinoma tissues. LAT1-specific inhibitor significantly suppressed leucine uptake and growth of Ty82 human thymic carcinoma cell lines, suggesting that thymic carcinoma takes advantage of LAT1 as a quality transporter and that LAT1-specific inhibitor might be clinically beneficial in therapy for thymic carcinoma...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Dustin Boothe, Andrew Orton, Cameron Thorpe, Kristine Kokeny, Ying J Hitchcock
INTRODUCTION: Our purpose was to determine the overall survival (OS) benefit of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with advanced thymic malignancies and the associated predictors of PORT receipt. METHODS: We queried the National Cancer Data Base for all stage II to III thymic malignancies. Trends in PORT use over time were analyzed using least squares linear regression. Factors predictive of PORT and OS were identified by using multivariate logistic and Cox regression analysis, respectively...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Xinyu Qian, Zhengbo Song
PURPOSE: Due to the rarity of thymic epithelial tumors (TET), no standard chemotherapy regimen has been identified in the relapsed setting. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of a pemetrexed-based regimen in advanced TET as palliative treatment after failure of previous chemotherapy, and to detect its association with thymidylate synthetase (TS) level. METHODS: Patients with pathologically confirmed TET and treated with pemetrexed-based regimen were evaluated from 2006 to 2014 in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
P Samara, K Ioannou, O E Tsitsilonis
The thymus gland produces soluble molecules, which mediate significant immune functions. The first biologically active thymic extract was thymosin fraction V, the fractionation of which led to the isolation of a series of immunoactive polypeptides, including prothymosin alpha (proTα). ProTα displays a dual role, intracellularly as a survival and proliferation mediator and extracellularly as a biological response modifier. Accordingly, inside the cell, proTα is implicated in crucial intracellular circuits and may serve as a surrogate tumor biomarker, but when found outside the cell, it could be used as a therapeutic agent for treating immune system deficiencies...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
R King, C Tuthill
Thymosin alpha 1 (Ta1) is a peptide originally isolated from thymic tissue as the compound responsible for restoring immune function to thymectomized mice. Ta1 has a pleiotropic mechanism of action, affecting multiple immune cell subsets that are involved in immune suppression. Ta1 acts through Toll-like receptors in both myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, leading to activation and stimulation of signaling pathways and initiation of production of immune-related cytokines. Due to the immune stimulating effects of Ta1, the compound would be expected to show utility for treatment of immune suppression, whether related to aging or to diseases such as infection or cancer...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
Jinxing Xia, Zheng Hu, Satoshi Yoshihara, Yuying Li, Chun-Hui Jin, Shulian Tan, Wei Li, Qingfeng Chen, Megan Sykes, Yong-Guang Yang
The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse) model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system...
August 2016: EBioMedicine
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