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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323731/thymic-carcinoma-with-endobronchial-metastasis-a-case-report
#1
Makoto Nagamata, Yusuke Okuma, Yukio Hosomi, Tsunekazu Hishima
Thymic carcinoma is a rare cancer, accounting for only 1% to 4% of thymic epithelial tumors. Endobronchial metastasis is a rare presentation of these tumors. A 64-year-old man presented with a cough. Lung cancer was suspected because a chest radiograph showed a 7-cm mass in the left pulmonary hilum. Computed tomography showed a mass in the anterior mediastinum and an infiltrate in the upper lobe of the left lung. Bronchoscopy demonstrated bilateral polypoid tumors in the left B bronchus and the right B bronchus...
April 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285814/thymic-determinants-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-differentiation
#2
REVIEW
Miguel Muñoz-Ruiz, Nital Sumaria, Daniel J Pennington, Bruno Silva-Santos
γd T cells have emerged as major sources of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) in multiple models of infection, cancer and autoimmune disease. However, unlike their αβ T cell counterparts that require peripheral activation for effector cell differentiation, γδ T cells instead can be 'developmentally programmed' in the thymus to generate discrete γδ T cell effector subsets with distinctive molecular signatures. Nonetheless, recent studies have presented conflicting viewpoints on the signals involved in thymic γδ T cell development and differentiation, namely on the role of both T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent and TCR-independent factors...
March 9, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275684/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-to-cut-a-long-story-short
#3
REVIEW
Katerina Tsilingiri, Giulia Fornasa, Maria Rescigno
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was identified more than 20 years ago as a secreted factor of a mouse thymic stromal cell line; later, a human orthologue was also identified. The signaling pathway triggered by TSLP has been extensively studied, and upregulation of the cytokine itself is linked to the pathogenesis of numerous Th2-related diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic responses, as well as certain types of cancers. On the other hand, TSLP mediates several immune homeostatic functions in both the gut and the thymus...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261208/t-cell-subpopulations-in-healthy-elderly-and-lung-cancer-patients-insights-from-cuban-studies
#4
REVIEW
Danay Saavedra, Beatriz Garcia, Agustin Lage
The senescence of the immune system and the risk of cancer increase with aging. Age itself entails changes in the immune system, which are related to a decrease in thymic output of naïve lymphocytes, an accumulation of chronic antigenic load, notably chronic viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), and replicative senescence of lymphocytes. These changes could eventually contribute to cancer risk and affect the response to cancer treatment. However, several confounding factors make it difficult to draw a picture of causal relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258440/comprehensive-characterization-of-genes-associated-with-the-tp53-signal-transduction-pathway-in-various-tumors
#5
Shumpei Ohnami, Keiichi Ohshima, Takeshi Nagashima, Kenichi Urakami, Yuji Shimoda, Junko Saito, Akane Naruoka, Keiichi Hatakeyama, Tohru Mochizuki, Masakuni Serizawa, Sumiko Ohnami, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Ken Yamaguchi
The TP53 signal transduction pathway is an attractive target for cancer treatments. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 907 patients with cancer in Japan to identify genomic alterations in the TP53 pathway. TP53 mutations were frequently detected in many cancers, except melanoma, thymic tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and renal cancers. The frequencies of non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the TP53 family members TP63 and TP73 were relatively low, although genes with increased frequencies of SNVs were as follows: PTEN (11...
March 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231294/association-of-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-and-t-lymphocytes-with-the-pathogenesis-and-progression-of-hbv-associated-primary-liver-cancer
#6
Xiaoli Liu, Lingling He, Junyan Han, Lijia Wang, Mengge Li, Yuyong Jiang, Xianbo Wang, Zhiyun Yang
BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a new prognostic predictor for patients with liver cancer. The association of NLR and T lymphocytes with the pathogenesis and progression of liver cancer is poorly understood. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated primary liver cancer (HBV-PLC), 50 patients with HBV-associated liver cirrhosis (HBV-LC) and 37 patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB) were prospectively enrolled from July 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014 in Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University (Beijing, China)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162296/-efficacy-of-pd-1-pd-l1%C3%A2-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-pd-l1%C3%A2-testing-in-thoracic-cancers
#7
Michaël Duruisseaux, Isabelle Rouquette, Julien Adam, Alexis Cortot, Aurélie Cazes, Laure Gibault, Diane Damotte, Sylvie Lantuejoul
Tumoral immune environment is a major component of cancer. Its composition and its organization represent a reproducible characteristic of tumors and a validated prognostic factor. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), cytotoxic T CD8+ lymphocyte density, associated with a Th1 environment and tertiary lymphoid structures impacts survival. Tumor cell-immune cell interaction is targeted by PD1/PD-L1 inhibitors. In advanced NSCLC, PD1/PD-L1 inhibitors are more effective than second-line chemotherapy. Pembrolizumab outperforms first-line chemotherapy in NSCLC strongly positive for PD-L1...
February 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134578/evolution-of-classification-of-thymic-epithelial-tumors-in-the-era-of-dr-thomas-v-colby
#8
REVIEW
Anja C Roden
CONTEXT: -Numerous histomorphologic and staging classifications of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) have been proposed during the last century, suggesting that the classification of these tumors is challenging and controversial. Difficulties of classifying TETs include various combinations of epithelial cells and lymphocytes and the paucity of these tumors. The prognostic significance, specifically of the histomorphologic classifications, has been debated. Early classifications were also challenged by the uncertainty of the neoplastic component(s) of the tumor...
February 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126540/the-impact-of-postoperative-radiotherapy-for-thymoma-and-thymic-carcinoma
#9
Matthew W Jackson, David A Palma, D Ross Camidge, Bernard L Jones, Tyler P Robin, David J Sher, Matthew Koshy, Brian D Kavanagh, Laurie E Gaspar, Chad G Rusthoven
INTRODUCTION: The optimal role for postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for thymoma and thymic carcinoma remains controversial. We used the National Cancer Data Base to investigate the impact of PORT on overall survival (OS). METHODS: Patients who underwent an operation for thymoma or thymic carcinoma were categorized into Masaoka-Koga stage groups I to IIA, IIB, III, and IV. Patients who did not undergo an operation or those who received preoperative radiation were excluded...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119349/expression-of-pten-and-its-pseudogene-ptenp1-and-promoter-methylation-of-pten-in-non-tumourous-thymus-and-thymic-tumours
#10
Atsuko Masunaga, Mutsuko Omatsu, Toshiaki Kunimura, Shugo Uematsu, Yoshito Kamio, Akihiko Kitami, Yohei Miyagi, Kenzo Hiroshima, Takashi Suzuki
AIMS: Mutation or promoter methylation of the phosphatase tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 tumour suppressor gene (PTEN) promotes some cancers. Moreover, PTENP1 (PTEN pseudogene) transcript regulates PTEN expression and is thought to be associated with tumourigenesis in some cancers. Here, we investigated PTEN expression in thymic epithelium and thymic epithelial tumours. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of PTEN was performed on two non-tumourous thymus (NT) samples, 33 thymomas (three type A, eight type AB, 11 type B1, six type B2, and five type B3), and four thymic carcinomas (TCs)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106477/thymosin-alpha-1-and-hiv-1-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives
#11
Claudia Matteucci, Sandro Grelli, Emanuela Balestrieri, Antonella Minutolo, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Beatrice Macchi, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Carlo Federico Perno, Antonio Mastino, Enrico Garaci
In spite of the consistent benefits for HIV-1 infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy, a complete immune reconstitution is usually not achieved. Actually, antiretroviral therapy may be frequently accompanied by immunological unresponsiveness, persistent inflammatory conditions and inefficient cytotoxic T-cell response. Thymosin alpha 1 is a thymic peptide that demonstrates a peculiar ability to restore immune system homeostasis in different physiological and pathological conditions (i.e., infections, cancer, immunodeficiency, vaccination and aging) acting as multitasking protein depending on the host state of inflammation or immune dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072694/effect-of-hyperthermic-intrathoracic-chemotherapy-hithoc-on-the-malignant-pleural-effusion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Hua Zhou, Wei Wu, Xiaoping Tang, Jianying Zhou, Yihong Shen
BACKGROUND: Although hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been widely used to treat malignant ascites or as a preventive strategy for microscopic carcinomatosis following surgical resection of abdominal tumors, application of hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (HITHOC) in the treatment of malignant pleural effusion is limited. The objective of the current study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the application of HITHOC in the palliative treatment of malignant pleural effusion...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007263/thymic-and-mediastinal-lymph-node-metastasis-of-colon-cancer
#13
Yoko Yamamoto, Ken Kodama, Yoshihito Ide, Masashi Takeda
Most anterior mediastinal tumors are thymomas. Thymic metastasis from other primary cancers is extremely rare. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who developed thymic and mediastinal lymph node metastases of cecum cancer. He had undergone laparoscopic ileocecal resection with regional lymph node dissection for primary cecum cancer 15 months previously. Follow-up computed tomography revealed tumors in the anterior mediastinum. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed positive uptake in the tumors...
January 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002319/response-of-mouse-thymic-cells-to-radiation-after-transfusion-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Hongmei Zhang, Ling Wang, Chunlong Guo, Zhimin Tong, Yue Liu, Xiangkuan Meng, Hu Feng, Yubing Chen
Thymic lymphoma is a highly invasive and even metastatic cancer. This study investigated the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfusion on cell cycle, cell proliferation, CD3 expression, mutation frequency of T cell receptor using mouse model of thymic lymphoma.C57BL/6J young mouse models of thymoma were injected with MSCs. Six months later, the thymus was taken for pathological examination and flow cytometry studies. The cells were labeled with anti-CD4, CD8, CD3, propidium iodide, or CFDA-SE, cell cycle, proliferation kinetics, and mutation frequency of T cell receptor, respectively...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999073/prognostic-impact-of-tumour-size-in-completely-resected-thymic-epithelial-tumours
#15
Takayuki Fukui, Koichi Fukumoto, Toshiki Okasaka, Koji Kawaguchi, Shota Nakamura, Shuhei Hakiri, Naoki Ozeki, Akihiro Hirakawa, Hisashi Tateyama, Kohei Yokoi
OBJECTIVES: The T descriptor of thymic epithelial tumours proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer and the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group as well as the Masaoka-Koga system is defined by the anatomical extent of primary tumours, regardless of their size. However, the prognostic significance of tumour size in thymic epithelial tumours has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: We evaluated the prognostic significance of tumour size in 154 consecutive patients with thymic epithelial tumours including 124 thymomas, 21 thymic carcinomas and 9 neuroendocrine tumours, who underwent complete resection between 2001 and 2014...
December 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997540/il-7-receptor-mutations-and-steroid-resistance-in-pediatric-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-genome-sequencing-study
#16
Yunlei Li, Jessica G C A M Buijs-Gladdines, Kirsten Canté-Barrett, Andrew P Stubbs, Eric M Vroegindeweij, Willem K Smits, Ronald van Marion, Winand N M Dinjens, Martin Horstmann, Roland P Kuiper, Rogier C Buijsman, Guido J R Zaman, Peter J van der Spek, Rob Pieters, Jules P P Meijerink
BACKGROUND: Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. T cell ALL (T-ALL) represents about 15% of pediatric ALL cases and is considered a high-risk disease. T-ALL is often associated with resistance to treatment, including steroids, which are currently the cornerstone for treating ALL; moreover, initial steroid response strongly predicts survival and cure. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying steroid resistance in T-ALL patients are poorly understood...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976427/effects-of-tslp-on-obstetrical-and-gynecological-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Yuan Zhang, Li-Ping Jin
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is produced mainly by epithelial cells and was originally found to stimulate the growth and activation of B cells, but it is now shown to function on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell lineages. Despite a number of studies focusing on the role of TSLP in Th2 response for allergic disorders, it is becoming increasingly evident that TSLP may also be involved in multiple other disease states. This review will focus on recent advances on the effects of TSLP on obstetrical and gynecological diseases, including pregnancy failure, endometriosis, and cervical cancer...
January 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942480/diagnostic-imaging-of-benign-and-malignant-neck-masses-in-children-a-pictorial-review
#18
REVIEW
Ruth Elizabeth Brown, Srikrishna Harave
Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Cross sectional imaging can be helpful for problem solving with CT being particularly useful for assessing the patient in more acute scenarios, for example when there is airway compromise...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924778/evaluation-of-anterior-mediastinal-solid-tumors-by-ct-perfusion-a-preliminary-study
#19
Selim Bakan, Sedat Giray Kandemirli, Atilla Süleyman Dikici, Ezel Erşen, Onur Yıldırım, Cesur Samancı, Şebnem Batur, Deniz Çebi Olgun, Fatih Kantarcı, Canan Akman
PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the role of computed tomography (CT) perfusion in differentiation of thymoma from thymic hyperplasia, lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and lung cancer invading anterior mediastinum. METHODS: In this study, 25 patients with an anterior mediastinal lesion underwent CT perfusion imaging from January 2015 to February 2016. Diagnoses included thymoma (n=7), thymic hyperplasia (n=8), lymphoma (n=4), thymic carcinoma (n=3), and invasive lung cancer (n=3)...
January 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902816/association-of-filaggrin-loss-of-function-and-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-variation-with-treatment-use-in-pediatric-atopic-dermatitis
#20
Joshua Chang, Nandita Mitra, Ole Hoffstad, David J Margolis
Importance: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common illness of childhood. Objective: To determine whether variations in FLG and TSLP genotype corresponded to differences in treatment use over time. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study recruited and followed a volunteer sample of 842 children enrolled in the Pediatric Eczema Elective Registry who provided saliva samples for DNA extraction for 10 years. Eligibility criteria included age 2 to 17 years, AD diagnosis without cancer, and prior pimecrolimus use...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
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