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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120527/castle-tumor-of-the-parotid-first-documented-case-literature-review-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-cancer
#1
Eugene Hung Chih Wong, Nora Tetter, Alexandar Tzankov, Laurent Muller
BACKGROUND: Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare tumor that normally affects the thyroid gland and was thought to arise from either the remnants of the branchial pouch or the ectopic cervical thymic tissue. These tumors show strong immunopositivity for CD5, P63, and CD117. Most CASTLE of the thyroid gland is treated with surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy. METHOD: A 55-year-old woman presented with a slow-growing right parotid mass...
November 9, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116372/tumor-derived-high-mobility-group-box-1-and-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-are-involved-in-modulating-dendritic-cells-to-activate-t-regulatory-cells-in-a-mouse-model
#2
Yi Zhang, Zuqiang Liu, Xingxing Hao, Ang Li, Jiying Zhang, Cara D Carey, Louis D Falo, Zhaoyang You
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is involved in the tumor-associated activation of regulatory T cells (Treg), but the mechanisms remain unknown. In a mouse tumor model, silencing HMGB1 in tumor cells or inhibiting tumor-derived HMGB1 not only dampened the capacity of tumor cells to produce thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), but also aborted the tumor-associated modulation of Treg-activating DC. Tumor-derived HMGB1 triggered the production of TSLP by tumor cells. Importantly, both tumor-derived HMGB1 and TSLP were necessary for modulating DC to activate Treg in a TSLP receptor (TSLPR)-dependent manner...
November 7, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114386/suppression-of-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-by-a-hookworm-recombinant-protein-in-experimental-colitis
#3
Ivana B Ferreira, Darren A Pickering, Sally Troy, John Croese, Alex Loukas, Severine Navarro
Gastrointestinal parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts when present in small numbers, allowing them to establish chronic infections for decades. They do so by creating an immunoregulatory environment that promotes their own survival, but paradoxically also benefits the host by protecting against the onset of many inflammatory diseases. To harness the therapeutic value of hookworms without using live parasites, we have examined the protective properties of the recombinant protein anti-inflammatory protein (AIP)-1, secreted in abundance by hookworms within the intestinal mucosa, in experimental colitis...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106410/generation-of-higher-affinity-t-cell-receptors-by-antigen-driven-differentiation-of-progenitor-t-cells-in-vitro
#4
Thomas M Schmitt, David H Aggen, Kumiko Ishida-Tsubota, Sebastian Ochsenreither, David M Kranz, Philip D Greenberg
Many promising targets for T-cell-based cancer immunotherapies are self-antigens. During thymic selection, T cells bearing T cell receptors (TCRs) with high affinity for self-antigen are eliminated. The affinity of the remaining low-avidity TCRs can be improved to increase their antitumor efficacy, but conventional saturation mutagenesis approaches are labor intensive, and the resulting TCRs may be cross-reactive. Here we describe the in vitro maturation and selection of mouse and human T cells on antigen-expressing feeder cells to develop higher-affinity TCRs...
November 6, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068978/treatment-prognostic-markers-and-survival-in-thymic-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-single-center-experience-of-41-patients
#5
Kefeng Ma, Yi Liu, Zhiqiang Xue, Xiangyang Chu
Neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus (NETTs) are rare but aggressive, and lead to poor overall survival. This retrospective study was designed to analyze factors that correlate with the prognosis of patients with NETTs.From 1999 to 2015, 41 ongoing patients with NETTs were enrolled in this study. The clinical data and outcome were compiled. Overall survival (OS) rate was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method in univariate analysis and the Cox-model was used in multivariate analysis.Of the 41 NETTs patients analyzed (31 male and 10 female), 12 were typical carcinoma, 14 were atypical carcinoma, 14 were small-cell carcinoma and, 1 was large-cell carcinoma...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063371/prognostic-significance-of-the-preoperative-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-for-complete-resection-of-thymoma
#6
Masahiro Yanagiya, Jun-Ichi Nitadori, Kazuhiro Nagayama, Masaki Anraku, Masaaki Sato, Jun Nakajima
PURPOSE: The preoperative peripheral neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with a poor prognosis for various cancers. We evaluated the prognostic role of the preoperative NLR in patients with thymoma. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 254 patients who underwent resection of thymic epithelial tumors at our institution. Patients were excluded if they had received steroid therapy, neoadjuvant therapy, or incomplete resection, or if they had thymic carcinoma or Good's syndrome, recurrence of thymoma, or missing data...
October 23, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050375/interstitial-fluid-pressure-of-thymic-epithelial-tumours
#7
Takeshi Mori, Wataru Nishi, Tatsuya Yamada, Yamato Motooka, Koei Ikeda, Kenji Shiraishi, Makoto Suzuki
Tumours show an increased interstitial fluid pressure, which correlates with various pathophysiological features. Moreover, interstitial fluid pressure is a prognostic factor for cervical and lung cancer. However, there have been no reports on the usefulness of measuring interstitial fluid pressure in thymic epithelial tumours. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between interstitial fluid pressure and the clinicopathological characteristics of thymic epithelial tumours. Interstitial fluid pressure was prospectively measured at the centre of the tumour using a 1-Fr Mikro-Tip sensor catheter in 44 patients with thymic epithelial tumours, 40 with thymomas and 4 with thymic carcinomas...
August 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049806/results-of-treatment-for-thymic-neuroendocrine-tumours-multicentre-clinicopathological-study
#8
Naoko Ose, Hajime Maeda, Masayoshi Inoue, Eiichi Morii, Yasushi Shintani, Hiroshi Matsui, Hirohito Tada, Tositeru Tokunaga, Kenji Kimura, Yasushi Sakamaki, Yukiyasu Takeuchi, Kenjiro Fukuhara, Hiroshi Katsura, Teruo Iwasaki, Meinoshin Okumura
OBJECTIVES: A thymic neuroendocrine tumour (TNET) is rare, and few comprehensive reports of treatment results have been presented. To clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of TNET in affected patients, outcomes were retrospectively examined using cases accumulated in a multicentre survey. METHODS: Thirty patients (25 men and 5 women) who underwent surgical resection or biopsy procedures at 10 institutions of the Thoracic Surgery Study Group of Osaka University (TSSGO) between January 1986 and June 2015 and pathologically diagnosed with TNET were enrolled...
August 17, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036455/jlcs-medical-practice-guidelines-for-thymic-tumors-summary-of-recommendations
#9
Kohei Yokoi, Kazuya Kondo, Kiminori Fujimoto, Masaki Hara, Yoshihisa Kadota, Koji Kawaguchi, Hideo Kunitoh, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Jun Nakajima, Makoto Nishio, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Mitsugu Omasa
The Guideline Committee of the Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS) for Thymic Tumors published the Medical Practice Guideline for Thymic Tumors in Japanese as Chapter 3 of the Medical Practice Guidelines for Lung Cancers according to evidence-based medicine in December 2016. This medical practice guideline is the first for thymic epithelial tumors in Japan, and comprises a set of recommendations covering clinical diagnosis, treatment and pathological diagnosis. Thymic epithelial tumors include thymoma, thymic carcinoma and thymic neuroendocrine tumor...
September 21, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982856/gtf2i-mutations-are-common-in-thymic-epithelial-tumors-but-not-in-hematological-malignancies
#10
Giulia Tarrini, Elena Ciabatti, Simone Pacini, Sara Galimberti, Iacopo Petrini
BACKGROUND: Mutation of general transcription factor IIi (GTF2I) (chromosome 7 c.74146970T>A) is common in thymic epithelial tumors and is a candidate driver aberration for cancer growth. To our knowledge, this mutation has not been described in other diseases. We evaluated the presence of GTF2I mutation in hematological malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sequenced samples from 31 patients with acute leukemia, 29 with chronic leukemia and 12 with myelodysplastic syndrome...
October 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978087/fir-haplodeficiency-promotes-splicing-to-pyruvate-kinase-m2-in-mice-thymic-lymphoma-tissues-revealed-by-six-plex-tandem-mass-tag-quantitative-proteomic-analysis
#11
Asako Kimura, Kouichi Kitamura, Guzhanuer Ailiken, Mamoru Satoh, Toshinari Minamoto, Nobuko Tanaka, Fumio Nomura, Kazuyuki Matsushita
The switch of pyruvate kinase (PK) M1 to PKM2 is pivotal for glucose metabolism in cancers. The PKM1/M2 shift is controlled by the alternative splicing of two mutually exclusive exons in the PKM gene. PKM1 is expressed in differentiated tissues, whereas PKM2 is expressed in cancer tissues. This study revealed that the haplodeficiency of FUSE-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor (FIR), a transcriptional repressor of the c-myc gene, contributed to the splicing of PKM1 to PKM2 in mice thymic lymphoma and/or T-cell type acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) using six-plex tandem mass tag (TMT) quantitative proteomic analysis...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968686/the-genomic-and-epigenomic-landscape-in-thymic-carcinoma
#12
Motonobu Saito, Yutaka Fujiwara, Tetsuhiko Asao, Takayuki Honda, Yoko Shimada, Yae Kanai, Koji Tsuta, Koji Kono, Shunichi Watanabe, Yuichiro Ohe, Takashi Kohno
Thymic carcinoma (TC) is a rare cancer whose genomic features have been examined in only a limited number of patients of European descent. Here, we characterized both genomic and epigenomic aberrations by whole exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, methylation array and copy number analyses in TCs from Asian patients and compared them with those in TCs from USA/European patients. Samples analyzed were 10 pairs of snap-frozen surgical specimens of cancerous and non-cancerous thymic tissue. All 10 cases were Japanese patients treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan, between 1994 and 2010...
October 26, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943948/analysis-of-the-expression-level-and-methylation-of-tumor-protein-p53-phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-and-muts-homolog-2-in-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-thymic-lymphoma-in-c57bl-6-mice
#13
Xueyun Huo, Zhenkun Li, Shuangyue Zhang, Changlong Li, Meng Guo, Jing Lu, Jianyi Lv, Xiaoyan Du, Zhenwen Chen
Tumorigenesis is often caused by somatic mutation or epigenetic changes in genes that regulate aspects of cell death, proliferation and survival. Although the functions of multiple tumor suppressor genes have been well studied in isolation, how these genes cooperate during the progression of a single tumor remains unclear in numerous cases. The present study used N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), one of the most potent mutagenic nitrosourea compounds, to induce thymic lymphoma in C57BL/6J mice. Subsequently, the protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), transformation protein 53 and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) were evaluated concomitantly in the thymus, liver, kidney and spleen of MNU-treated mice by western blotting...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921690/tissue-specific-and-time-dependent-clonal-expansion-of-enu-induced-mutant-cells-in-gpt-delta-mice
#14
Takafumi Nakayama, Tomoko Sawai, Ikuko Masuda, Shinya Kaneko, Kazumi Yamauchi, Benjamin J Blyth, Yoshiya Shimada, Akira Tachibana, Shizuko Kakinuma
DNA mutations play a crucial role in the origins of cancer, and the clonal expansion of mutant cells is one of the fundamental steps in multistage carcinogenesis. In this study, we correlated tumor incidence in B6C3F1 mice during the period after exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) with the persistence of ENU-induced mutant clones in transgenic gpt delta B6C3F1 mice. The induced gpt mutations afforded no selective advantage in the mouse cells and could be distinguished by a mutational spectrum that is characteristic of ENU treatment...
October 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921451/distribution-of-malignant-lymphomas-in-the-anterior-mediastinum-a-single-institution-study-of-76-cases-in-japan-1997-2016
#15
Akiko Miyagi Maeshima, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Tomotaka Suzuki, Sayako Yuda, Kosuke Toyoda, Nobuhiko Yamauchi, Shinichi Makita, Suguru Fukuhara, Wataru Munakata, Dai Maruyama, Yukio Kobayashi, Kensei Tobinai
We analyzed the distribution of tumors and lymphomas of the anterior mediastinum diagnosed between 1997 and 2016 at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan. The median age of 283 patients with anterior mediastinal tumors was 48 (range 6-84) years, and 143 (51%) were male. The incidence of tumors was as follows: thymoma, 34%; thymic carcinoma, 16%; primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL), 13%; germ cell tumors, 10%; classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), 9%; thymic cyst, 7%; metastatic tumors, 3%; T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-LBL), 2%; other lymphomas, 3%; and others, 3%...
November 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911826/immunoproteasome-selective-and-non-selective-inhibitors-a-promising-approach-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#16
REVIEW
Roberta Ettari, Maria Zappalà, Silvana Grasso, Caterina Musolino, Vanessa Innao, Alessandro Allegra
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the major non-lysosomal proteolytic system for the degradation of abnormal or damaged proteins no longer required. The proteasome is involved in degradation of numerous proteins which regulate the cell cycle, indicating a role in controlling cell proliferation and maintaining cell survival. Defects in the UPS can lead to anarchic cell proliferation and to tumor development. For these reasons UPS inhibition has become a significant new strategy for drug development in cancer treatment...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889760/an-analysis-of-clinical-characteristics-and-patient-outcomes-in-primary-mediastinal-sarcomas
#17
Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Published data concerning primary mediastinal sarcomas are limited to small-sized retrospective series.  This study reviewed the clinical outcomes of these cases from the SEER (surveillance, epidemiology and end results) database. METHODS: Primary mediastinal sarcomas (1988 - 2013) were assembled from the SEER database. The incidence and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates were compared to other primary mediastinal malignancies (thymic carcinoma, germ cell tumors, neurogenic tumors, Hodgkin / non Hodgkin lymphomas) as well as to non mediastinal sarcomas...
November 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877738/sclerosing-thymoma-like-thymic-amyloidoma-with-nephrotic-syndrome-a-case-report
#18
Yuto Kato, Miyuki Okuda, Koji Fukuda, Nobuya Tanaka, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Yoshinori Saika, Yoshisumi Haruna, Shouji Kitaguchi, Ryuji Nohara
BACKGROUND: Primary localized amyloidosis presenting as an isolated mediastinal mass is extremely rare, especially in the thymus. Sclerosing thymoma is also an extremely rare anterior mediastinal tumor, pathologically characterized by extensive sclerotic lesions with hyalinization and calcification. Only 14 cases of sclerosing thymoma and five cases of thymic amyloidosis have been reported to date. CASE PRESENTATION: A 78-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having sclerosing thymoma (Masaoka stage IVa pericardial dissemination)-like thymic amyloidoma...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874554/effects-of-thymic-selection-on-t-cell-recognition-of-foreign-and-tumor-antigenic-peptides
#19
Jason T George, David A Kessler, Herbert Levine
The advent of cancer immunotherapy has generated renewed hope for the treatment of many malignancies by introducing a number of novel strategies that exploit various properties of the immune system. These therapies are based on the idea that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) directly recognize and respond to tumor-associated neoantigens (TANs) in much the same way as they would to foreign peptides presented on cell surfaces. To date, however, nearly all attempts to optimize immunotherapeutic strategies have been empirical...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844590/surgical-approaches-anaesthetic-management-and-outcome-in-pediatric-superior-mediastinal-tumors
#20
Gehad Ahmed, Mohammed M Hegazy, Tarek Raafat, Hanafy Hafez, Sayed Fadel, Maged Elshafiey
BACKGROUND: Pediatric superior mediastinal tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors with marked variation in pathology and extension. We reviewed our experience with different surgical approaches to tumors originating from or extending to superior mediastinum in pediatrics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of all patients who had undergone resection for superior mediastinal tumors in Children's Cancer Hospital - Egypt, between January 2008 to December 2015, were reviewed for demographic data, clinico-pathological features, radiologic findings, operative techniques and outcome...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
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