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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921690/tissue-specific-and-time-dependent-clonal-expansion-of-enu-induced-mutant-cells-in-gpt-delta-mice
#1
Takafumi Nakayama, Tomoko Sawai, Ikuko Masuda, Shinya Kaneko, Kazumi Yamauchi, Benjamin J Blyth, Yoshiya Shimada, Akira Tachibana, Shizuko Kakinuma
DNA mutations play a crucial role in the origins of cancer, and the clonal expansion of mutant cells is one of the fundamental steps in multistage carcinogenesis. In this study, we correlated tumor incidence in B6C3F1 mice during the period after exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) with the persistence of ENU-induced mutant clones in transgenic gpt delta B6C3F1 mice. The induced gpt mutations afforded no selective advantage in the mouse cells and could be distinguished by a mutational spectrum that is characteristic of ENU treatment...
September 16, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921451/distribution-of-malignant-lymphomas-in-the-anterior-mediastinum-a-single-institution-study-of-76-cases-in-japan-1997-2016
#2
Akiko Miyagi Maeshima, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Tomotaka Suzuki, Sayako Yuda, Kosuke Toyoda, Nobuhiko Yamauchi, Shinichi Makita, Suguru Fukuhara, Wataru Munakata, Dai Maruyama, Yukio Kobayashi, Kensei Tobinai
We analyzed the distribution of tumors and lymphomas of the anterior mediastinum diagnosed between 1997 and 2016 at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan. The median age of 283 patients with anterior mediastinal tumors was 48 (range 6-84) years, and 143 (51%) were male. The incidence of tumors was as follows: thymoma, 34%; thymic carcinoma, 16%; primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL), 13%; germ cell tumors, 10%; classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), 9%; thymic cyst, 7%; metastatic tumors, 3%; T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-LBL), 2%; other lymphomas, 3%; and others, 3%...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911826/immunoproteasome-selective-and-non-selective-inhibitors-a-promising-approach-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#3
REVIEW
Roberta Ettari, Maria Zappalà, Silvana Grasso, Caterina Musolino, Vanessa Innao, Alessandro Allegra
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the major non-lysosomal proteolytic system for the degradation of abnormal or damaged proteins no longer required. The proteasome is involved in degradation of numerous proteins which regulate the cell cycle, indicating a role in controlling cell proliferation and maintaining cell survival. Defects in the UPS can lead to anarchic cell proliferation and to tumor development. For these reasons UPS inhibition has become a significant new strategy for drug development in cancer treatment...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889760/an-analysis-of-clinical-characteristics-and-patient-outcomes-in-primary-mediastinal-sarcomas
#4
Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Published data concerning primary mediastinal sarcomas are limited to small-sized retrospective series.  This study reviewed the clinical outcomes of these cases from the SEER (surveillance, epidemiology and end results) database. METHODS: Primary mediastinal sarcomas (1988 - 2013) were assembled from the SEER database. The incidence and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates were compared to other primary mediastinal malignancies (thymic carcinoma, germ cell tumors, neurogenic tumors, Hodgkin / non Hodgkin lymphomas) as well as to non mediastinal sarcomas...
September 14, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877738/sclerosing-thymoma-like-thymic-amyloidoma-with-nephrotic-syndrome-a-case-report
#5
Yuto Kato, Miyuki Okuda, Koji Fukuda, Nobuya Tanaka, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Yoshinori Saika, Yoshisumi Haruna, Shouji Kitaguchi, Ryuji Nohara
BACKGROUND: Primary localized amyloidosis presenting as an isolated mediastinal mass is extremely rare, especially in the thymus. Sclerosing thymoma is also an extremely rare anterior mediastinal tumor, pathologically characterized by extensive sclerotic lesions with hyalinization and calcification. Only 14 cases of sclerosing thymoma and five cases of thymic amyloidosis have been reported to date. CASE PRESENTATION: A 78-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having sclerosing thymoma (Masaoka stage IVa pericardial dissemination)-like thymic amyloidoma...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874554/effects-of-thymic-selection-on-t-cell-recognition-of-foreign-and-tumor-antigenic-peptides
#6
Jason T George, David A Kessler, Herbert Levine
The advent of cancer immunotherapy has generated renewed hope for the treatment of many malignancies by introducing a number of novel strategies that exploit various properties of the immune system. These therapies are based on the idea that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) directly recognize and respond to tumor-associated neoantigens (TANs) in much the same way as they would to foreign peptides presented on cell surfaces. To date, however, nearly all attempts to optimize immunotherapeutic strategies have been empirical...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844590/surgical-approaches-anaesthetic-management-and-outcome-in-pediatric-superior-mediastinal-tumors
#7
Gehad Ahmed, Mohammed M Hegazy, Tarek Raafat, Hanafy Hafez, Sayed Fadel, Maged Elshafiey
BACKGROUND: Pediatric superior mediastinal tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors with marked variation in pathology and extension. We reviewed our experience with different surgical approaches to tumors originating from or extending to superior mediastinum in pediatrics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of all patients who had undergone resection for superior mediastinal tumors in Children's Cancer Hospital - Egypt, between January 2008 to December 2015, were reviewed for demographic data, clinico-pathological features, radiologic findings, operative techniques and outcome...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838380/frequent-silencing-of-rassf1a-by-dna-methylation-in-thymic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#8
Koichiro Kajiura, Hiromitsu Takizawa, Yuki Morimoto, Kiyoshi Masuda, Mitsuhiro Tsuboi, Reina Kishibuchi, Nuliamina Wusiman, Toru Sawada, Naoya Kawakita, Hiroaki Toba, Mitsuteru Yoshida, Yukikiyo Kawakami, Takuya Naruto, Issei Imoto, Akira Tangoku, Kazuya Kondo
OBJECTIVES: Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of tumour suppressor genes is a common epigenetic mechanism underlying cancer pathogenesis. The methylation patterns of thymic tumours have not been studied in detail since such tumours are rare. Herein, we sought to identify genes that could serve as epigenetic targets for thymic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genome-wide screening for aberrantly methylated CGIs was performed in three NET samples, seven thymic carcinoma (TC) samples, and eight type-B3 thymoma samples...
September 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819023/therapeutic-effects-of-xpo1-inhibition-in-thymic-epithelial-tumors
#9
Fabio Conforti, Xu Zhang, Guanhua Rao, Tommaso De Pas, Yoko Yonemori, Jose A Rodriguez, Justine N McCutcheon, Raneen Rahhal, Anna T Alberobello, Yisong Wang, Yu-Wen Zhang, Udayan Guha, Giuseppe Giaccone
Exportin 1 (XPO1) mediates nuclear export of many cellular factors known to play critical roles in malignant processes, and selinexor (KPT-330) is the first XPO1-selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound in advanced clinical development phase for cancer treatment. We demonstrated here that inhibition of XPO1 drives nuclear accumulation of important cargo tumor suppressor proteins (TSP) including transcription factor FOXO3a and p53 in thymic epithelial tumor (TET) cells and induces p53-dependent and -independent antitumor activity in vitro...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771103/overcoming-barriers-of-car-t-cell-therapy-in-patients-with-mesothelin-expressing-cancers
#10
Mark H O'Hara, Caitlin Stashwick, Gabriela Plesa, Janos L Tanyi
One obstacle to the application of immunotherapy to solid malignancies is to overcome the existing tolerance to self-antigens. Vaccine strategies aimed at harnessing endogenous antitumor T cells are limited by the T-cell receptor repertoire, which can be detected within the thymus as central tolerance or rendered nonfunctional by post-thymic mechanisms of peripheral tolerance. Adoptive immunotherapy can overcome these obstacles, since therapeutically effective T cells can be engineered to recognize tumors. Continued advancements in novel treatments, including immunotherapy, in solid malignancies are imperative...
August 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758089/diagnosis-of-churg-strauss-syndrome-presented-with-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-a-case-report
#11
Dayun Park, Ho Jun Lee, Kwang Hoon Lee, Bum Sun Kwon, Jin-Woo Park, Ki Yeun Nam, Kyoung Hwan Lee
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare systemic vasculitis that affect small and medium-sized blood vessels and is accompanied by asthma, eosinophilia, and peripheral neuropathy. This report describes a case of a 52-year-old man who had a history of sinusitis, asthma, and thymus cancer and who had complained of bilateral lower extremity paresthesia and weakness for a month. Peripheral neuropathy was detected by electrodiagnostic studies. Resection of a mediastinal mass, which was diagnosed as thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma, was performed five months before his visit...
June 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746835/genetic-ataxia-telangiectasia-porcine-model-phenocopies-the-multisystemic-features-of-the-human-disease
#12
Rosanna Beraldi, David K Meyerholz, Alexei Savinov, Attila D Kovács, Jill M Weimer, Jordan A Dykstra, Ryan D Geraets, David A Pearce
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a progressive multisystem autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene. Early onset AT in children is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, leading to motor impairment. Lung disease and cancer are the two most common causes of death in AT patients. Accelerated thymic involution may contribute to the cancer, and recurrent and/or chronic respiratory infections may be a contributing factor to lung disease in AT. AT patients have fertility issues, are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and they present oculocutaneous telangiectasia...
July 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731492/factors-causing-loss-of-normal-doppler-waveform-of-the-left-internal-jugular-vein-evaluation-on-chest-computed-tomography
#13
Min Cheol Ku, Myung Gyu Song, Tae-Seok Seo, Eun Young Kang, Hwan Seok Yong, Jae Wook Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate the presence and causes of left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV) steno-occlusive lesions in patients with loss of normal waveform in Doppler ultrasound of the left internal jugular vein (LIJV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed Doppler ultrasound of both internal jugular veins in 1912 patients who received an implantable venous access port from August 2013 to January 2016. Among them, 106 patients showed loss of normal Doppler waveforms of the LIJV (56 men and 50 women; mean age, 61...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723644/fir-haplodeficiency-promotes-splicing-to-pyruvate-kinase-m2-in-mice-thymic-lymphoma-tissues-revealed-by-six-plex-tandem-mass-tag-quantitative-proteomic-analysis
#14
Asako Kimura, Kouichi Kitamura, Guzhanuer Ailiken, Mamoru Satoh, Toshinari Minamoto, Nobuko Tanaka, Fumio Nomura, Kazuyuki Matsushita
The switch of pyruvate kinase (PK) M1 to PKM2 is pivotal for glucose metabolism in cancers. The PKM1/M2 shift is controlled by the alternative splicing of two mutually exclusive exons in the PKM gene. PKM1 is expressed in differentiated tissues, whereas PKM2 is expressed in cancer tissues. This study revealed that the haplodeficiency of FUSE-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor (FIR), a transcriptional repressor of the c-myc gene, contributed to the splicing of PKM1 to PKM2 in mice thymic lymphoma and/or T-cell type acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) using six-plex tandem mass tag (TMT) quantitative proteomic analysis...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721449/role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-undergoing-relapse-preventive-immunotherapy
#15
Frida Ewald Sander, Malin Nilsson, Anna Rydström, Johan Aurelius, Rebecca E Riise, Charlotta Movitz, Elin Bernson, Roberta Kiffin, Anders Ståhlberg, Mats Brune, Robin Foà, Kristoffer Hellstrand, Fredrik B Thorén, Anna Martner
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been proposed to dampen functions of anti-neoplastic immune cells and thus promote cancer progression. In a phase IV trial (Re:Mission Trial, NCT01347996, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ) 84 patients (age 18-79) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) received ten consecutive 3-week cycles of immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) and low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) to prevent relapse of leukemia in the post-consolidation phase. This study aimed at defining the features, function and dynamics of Foxp3(+)CD25(high)CD4(+) Tregs during immunotherapy and to determine the potential impact of Tregs on relapse risk and survival...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694035/assessment-of-the-itmig-statement-on-the-who-histological-classification-and-of-the-eighth-tnm-staging-of-thymic-epithelial-tumors-of-a-series-of-188-thymic-epithelial-tumors
#16
Alexandra Meurgey, Nicolas Girard, Claire Merveilleux du Vignaux, Jean-Michel Maury, François Tronc, Françoise Thivolet-Bejui, Lara Chalabreysse
INTRODUCTION: Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are rare intrathoracic malignancies that are categorized histologically according to the WHO classification, which was recently updated in 2015 on the basis of a consensus statement of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG); at the same time, the standard Masaoka-Koga staging system is scheduled to be replaced by the eighth edition of the TNM staging classification by the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control consortium...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678778/an-immunogenic-personal-neoantigen-vaccine-for-patients-with-melanoma
#17
Patrick A Ott, Zhuting Hu, Derin B Keskin, Sachet A Shukla, Jing Sun, David J Bozym, Wandi Zhang, Adrienne Luoma, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Lauren Peter, Christina Chen, Oriol Olive, Todd A Carter, Shuqiang Li, David J Lieb, Thomas Eisenhaure, Evisa Gjini, Jonathan Stevens, William J Lane, Indu Javeri, Kaliappanadar Nellaiappan, Andres M Salazar, Heather Daley, Michael Seaman, Elizabeth I Buchbinder, Charles H Yoon, Maegan Harden, Niall Lennon, Stacey Gabriel, Scott J Rodig, Dan H Barouch, Jon C Aster, Gad Getz, Kai Wucherpfennig, Donna Neuberg, Jerome Ritz, Eric S Lander, Edward F Fritsch, Nir Hacohen, Catherine J Wu
Effective anti-tumour immunity in humans has been associated with the presence of T cells directed at cancer neoantigens, a class of HLA-bound peptides that arise from tumour-specific mutations. They are highly immunogenic because they are not present in normal tissues and hence bypass central thymic tolerance. Although neoantigens were long-envisioned as optimal targets for an anti-tumour immune response, their systematic discovery and evaluation only became feasible with the recent availability of massively parallel sequencing for detection of all coding mutations within tumours, and of machine learning approaches to reliably predict those mutated peptides with high-affinity binding of autologous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules...
July 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631887/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-is-expressed-in-human-corneal-stromal-cells-and-secreted-upon-protease-activated-receptor-1-activation
#18
Hongbo Yin, Yan Tian, Rongying Luo, Yingping Deng
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin-7 (IL-7) like cytokine that triggers inflammatory responses through activating dendritic cell. It is demonstrated to be involved in a number of disorders, including cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, and autoimmune diseases. In addition, TSLP is also found to be able to induce itch sensation by directly activating the itch sensory neurons. The expression of human TSLP is detected in various tissues such as heart, liver, testis, and prostate. In this study, we report that TSLP was expressed in the human corneal stromal cells, the highly specialized cells that are critical for the function of the cornea...
June 20, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625631/cd52-cd22-cd26-eg5-and-igf-1r-expression-in-thymic-malignancies
#19
J Remon, N Abedallaa, E Taranchon-Clermont, V Bluthgen, C R Lindsay, B Besse, V Thomas de Montpréville
BACKGROUND: Thymic epithelial tumours are rare cancers for which new treatment options are required. Identification of putative predictive markers is important for developing clinical trials. We studied the expression of five putative predictive biomarkers, potentially actionable by approved experimental drugs. METHODS: CD52, CD22, CD26, EG5, and IGF-1R expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed surgical samples of thymic epithelial tumour patients...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616734/di-2-pyridylketone-4-4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone-dp44mt-an-anticancer-agent-exerts-an-anti-inflammatory-effect-in-activated-human-mast-cells
#20
Sun-Young Nam, Na-Ra Han, Kyoung Wan Yoon, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation has been closely associated with the development and progression of cancer. Previously, we reported that mast cells play a critical role in tumor growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an anticancer agent, di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), on an activated human mast cell line, in this case HMC-1 cells. METHODS: We evaluated the effect and specific molecular mechanism of Dp44mT on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI) using HMC-1 cells...
June 14, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
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