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thymic cancer

Nuray Erin, Nur Ogan, Azmi Yerlikaya
PURPOSE: Metastatic breast cancer is resistant to many conventional treatments and novel therapeutic targets are needed. We previously isolated subsets of 4T1 murine breast cancer cells which metastasized to liver (4TLM), brain (4TBM), and heart (4THM). Among these cells, 4TLM is the most aggressive one, demonstrating mesenchymal phenotype. Here we compared secreted proteins from 4TLM, 4TBM, and 4THM cells and compared with that of hardly metastatic 67NR cells to detect differentially secreted factors involved in organ-specific metastasis...
March 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Andrea Farolfi, Francesco Ceci, Tiziano Graziani, Alessandro Lambertini, Veronica Cervati, Gian Luca Basilico, Tullio Biraghi, Alberto Briganti, Paolo Castellucci, Stefano Fanti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Feng Zhu, Yinling Hu
A pathogenic connection between autoreactive T cells, fungal infection, and carcinogenesis has been demonstrated in studies of human autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) as well as in a mouse model in which kinase-dead Ikkα knock-in mice develop impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cell-mediated autoimmunity, chronic fungal infection, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which recapitulates APECED. IκB kinase α (IKKα) is one subunit of the IKK complex required for NF-κB activation...
March 9, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Andrew G Nicholson, Ming S Tsao, William D Travis, Deepa T Patil, Francoise Galateau-Salle, Mirella Marino, Sanja Dacic, Mary Beth Beasley, Kelly J Butnor, Yasushi Yatabe, Harvey I Pass, Valerie W Rusch, Frank C Detterbeck, Hisao Asamura, Thomas W Rice, Ramon Rami-Porta
CONTEXT: - The Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, in conjunction with the International Mesothelioma Interest Group, the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group, and the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration, developed proposals for the 8th edition of their respective tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging classification systems. OBJECTIVE: - To review these changes and discuss issues for the reporting pathologist...
February 26, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Tadashi Sakane, Takayuki Murase, Katsuhiro Okuda, Hisashi Takino, Ayako Masaki, Risa Oda, Takuya Watanabe, Osamu Kawano, Hiroshi Haneda, Satoru Moriyama, Yushi Saito, Takeshi Yamada, Ryoichi Nakanishi, Hiroshi Inagaki
Currently, four immunohistochemical assays are registered with the US Food and Drug Administration to detect the expression of PD-L1. We investigated the PD-L1 expression in thymic carcinomas using these four diagnostic assays. The cases of 53 patients were reviewed and their specimens were subjected to four PD-L1 assays with different antibodies (SP142, SP263, 22C3, and 28-8). The PD-L1 expression in tumor cells (TCs) and immune cells (ICs) was evaluated. In TCs, the four assays showed similar scores in each case...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Loretta Ma, AnneMarie Gagnon, Anne Landry, Timothea Le, Fengxia Xiao, Cathy Sun, Heather A Lochnan, Dylan Burger, Alexander Sorisky
When recombinant human (rh) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is administered to thyroid cancer survivors, an acute extra-thyroidal effect raises pro-inflammatory cytokines and activates platelets. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine recently implicated in platelet activation. Our aim was to measure platelet microparticle levels after rhTSH stimulation in vivo, and to investigate TSLP expression in TSH-stimulated human adipocytes in culture. Blood samples for total and platelet microparticle analysis were obtained from thyroid cancer survivors before (day 1) and after rhTSH administration (day 5)...
February 19, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Myoung-Schook Yoou, Sun-Young Nam, Kyoung Wan Yoon, Hyun-Ja Jeong, Hyung-Min Kim
Bamboo salt (BS) is a traditional Korean food, and has been reported to have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic effects. However, the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) activity of BS has not been described yet. In the present study, we examined the preventive effect of BS on AD. The effect of oral administration of BS was tested in a 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced AD animal model, by histological analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, caspase-1 assay, and Western blotting analysis...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Alexander Brobeil, Florian Wagenlehner, Stefan Gattenlöhner
Seminomas are the most frequent testicular tumors and in spite of specific markers some histological subtypes can be diagnostically challenging due to the potential overlap of morphologic features and a variant antigen expression. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is a DNA polymerase present in hematogones, thymic T cells, lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (LBL), and in some cases of acute myeloid leukemia but so far has not been described to be expressed in seminomas. After observing a reactivity of TdT in one case of seminoma, we analyzed ten additional tumors by immunohistochemistry to determine their spectrum of reactivity for TdT...
February 18, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Milan Radovich, Curtis R Pickering, Ina Felau, Gavin Ha, Hailei Zhang, Heejoon Jo, Katherine A Hoadley, Pavana Anur, Jiexin Zhang, Mike McLellan, Reanne Bowlby, Thomas Matthew, Ludmila Danilova, Apurva M Hegde, Jaegil Kim, Mark D M Leiserson, Geetika Sethi, Charles Lu, Michael Ryan, Xiaoping Su, Andrew D Cherniack, Gordon Robertson, Rehan Akbani, Paul Spellman, John N Weinstein, D Neil Hayes, Ben Raphael, Tara Lichtenberg, Kristen Leraas, Jean Claude Zenklusen, Junya Fujimoto, Cristovam Scapulatempo-Neto, Andre L Moreira, David Hwang, James Huang, Mirella Marino, Robert Korst, Giuseppe Giaccone, Yesim Gokmen-Polar, Sunil Badve, Arun Rajan, Philipp Ströbel, Nicolas Girard, Ming S Tsao, Alexander Marx, Anne S Tsao, Patrick J Loehrer
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are one of the rarest adult malignancies. Among TETs, thymoma is the most predominant, characterized by a unique association with autoimmune diseases, followed by thymic carcinoma, which is less common but more clinically aggressive. Using multi-platform omics analyses on 117 TETs, we define four subtypes of these tumors defined by genomic hallmarks and an association with survival and World Health Organization histological subtype. We further demonstrate a marked prevalence of a thymoma-specific mutated oncogene, GTF2I, and explore its biological effects on multi-platform analysis...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Sam Palmer, Luca Albergante, Clare C Blackburn, T J Newman
For many cancer types, incidence rises rapidly with age as an apparent power law, supporting the idea that cancer is caused by a gradual accumulation of genetic mutations. Similarly, the incidence of many infectious diseases strongly increases with age. Here, combining data from immunology and epidemiology, we show that many of these dramatic age-related increases in incidence can be modeled based on immune system decline, rather than mutation accumulation. In humans, the thymus atrophies from infancy, resulting in an exponential decline in T cell production with a half-life of ∼16 years, which we use as the basis for a minimal mathematical model of disease incidence...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Martina Imbimbo, Jean-Michel Maury, Marina Garassino, Nicolas Girard
The management of patients with mesothelioma and thymic malignancy requires continuous multidisciplinary expertise at any step of the disease. A dramatic improvement in our knowledge has occurred in the last few years, through the development of databases, translational research programs, and clinical trials. Access to innovative strategies represents a major challenge, as there is a lack of funding for clinical research in rare cancers and their rarity precludes the design of robust clinical trials that could lead to specific approval of drugs...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Guangjian Zhang, Rui Gao, Yuanbo Wang, Yan Liu, Juan Li, Xi Jia, Yiqian Liang, Aimin Yang
Aims: To investigate the association between angiogenetic activity of hyperplastic thymus and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with thyroglobulin (Tg)-elevated Negative Iodine Scintigraphy (TENIS) Syndrome. Methods: A cohort of 30 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine ablation and had TENIS syndrome received integrin αvβ3 targeted imaging with 99mTc-HYNIC-PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2 (99mTc-3PRGD2)...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Thomas Schweiger, Konrad Hoetzenecker, Imme Roesner, Berit Schneider-Stickler, Doris-Maria Denk-Linnert, Walter Klepetko
OBJECTIVES: Bilateral vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is a severe complication after laryngotracheal (LT) surgery. The reduced glottic opening leads to significant respiratory distress immediately after the operation and requires the placement of a tracheostomy in most cases. Patients with a pre-existing unilateral VFP or expected recurrent nerve resection are at the highest risk for glottic failure. These patients might benefit from a pre-emptive glottic enlargement before LT surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients who received a pre-emptive glottis enlargement before LT surgery at the Medical University of Vienna from October 2011 to December 2016...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Narin Ozturk, Dilek Ozturk, Zeliha Pala-Kara, Engin Kaptan, Serap Sancar-Bas, Nurten Ozsoy, Suzan Cinar, Gunnur Deniz, Xiao-Mei Li, Sylvie Giacchetti, Francis Lévi, Alper Okyar
The circadian timing system controls many biological functions in mammals including xenobiotic metabolism, detoxification, cell proliferation, apoptosis and immune functions. Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, whose immunosuppressant properties are both desired in transplant patients and unwanted in cancer patients, where it is indicated for its antiproliferative efficacy. Here we sought whether everolimus circadian timing would predictably modify its immunosuppressive effects so as to optimize this drug through timing...
February 5, 2018: Chronobiology International
Giuseppe Giaccone, Chul Kim, Jillian Thompson, Colleen McGuire, Bhaskar Kallakury, Joeffrey J Chahine, Maria Manning, Robin Mogg, Wendy M Blumenschein, Ming T Tan, Deepa S Subramaniam, Stephen V Liu, Ian M Kaplan, Justine N McCutcheon
BACKGROUND: Treatment options are limited for patients with thymic carcinoma. These aggressive tumours are not typically associated with paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders, and strong PD-L1 expression has been reported in thymic epithelial tumours. We aimed to assess the activity of pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets PD-1, in patients with advanced thymic carcinoma. METHODS: We completed a single-arm phase 2 study of pembrolizumab in patients with recurrent thymic carcinoma who had progressed after at least one line of chemotherapy...
January 25, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Yoshiharu Ohno, Yuji Kishida, Shinichiro Seki, Hisanobu Koyama, Masao Yui, Kota Aoyagi, Takeshi Yoshikawa
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the interobserver agreements and diagnostic accuracies for IASLC/ITMIG (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group) thymic epithelial tumor staging of co-registered fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (FDG-PET/MRI), MRI, integrated fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), and conventional imaging examination...
January 22, 2018: Academic Radiology
Bing Zhang, Chun-Yan Wei, Kai-Kai Chang, Jia-Jun Yu, Wen-Jie Zhou, Hui-Li Yang, Jun Shao, Jin-Jin Yu, Ming-Qing Li, Feng Xie
Our previous study demonstrated that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) secreted by cervical cancer cells promotes angiogenesis and recruitment, and regulates the function of eosinophils (EOS). However, the function of TSLP in the crosstalk between EOS and vascular endothelial cells in cancer lesions remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EOS caused by TSLP in in vitro angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results of the present study revealed that recombinant human TSLP protein (rhTSLP) increased the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but not fibroblast growth factors, in HL-60-eosinophils (HL-60E)...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
Vidya Jha, Preeti Sharma, Ashish Kumar Mandal
Background: Mediastinum harbors a mixed bag of neoplastic lesions with varied therapeutic and prognostic implications. Distinguishing pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma from thymic carcinoma is a challenging task owing to rather nonspecific clinicoradiological features and a considerable overlap in histomorphological features. Thus, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of cluster of differentiation 5 (CD5) and CD117 immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing these tumors. Materials and Methods: The archives of department of histopathology were retrospectively reviewed from June 2012 to May 2016...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Roberto Ferrara, Laura Mezquita, Benjamin Besse
The treatment paradigm of NSCLC underwent a major revolution during the course of 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) brought remarkable improvements in response and overall survival both in unselected pretreated patients and in untreated patients with programmed death ligand 1 expression of 50% or more. Furthermore, compelling preliminary results were reported for new combinations of anti-programmed cell death 1/programmed death ligand 1 agents with chemotherapy or anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 inhibitors...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Brittany L Carroll, Joseph Bonica, Achraf A Shamseddine, Yusuf A Hannun, Lina M Obeid
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is a lipid kinase whose activity produces sphingosine 1-phosphate, a prosurvival lipid associated with proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasion. SK1 overexpression has been observed in numerous cancers. Recent studies have demonstrated that SK1 proteolysis occurs downstream of the tumor suppressor p53 in response to several DNA-damaging agents. Moreover, loss of SK1 in p53-knockout mice resulted in complete protection from thymic lymphoma, providing evidence that regulation of SK1 constitutes a major tumor suppressor function of p53...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
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