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Neuroprotective

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454116/neuroprotection-by-ifn-%C3%AE-via-astrocyte-secreted-il-6-in-acute-neuroinflammation
#1
Lijie Sun, Yan Li, Xiuzhi Jia, Qi Wang, Yue Li, Minghui Hu, Linlu Tian, Jinfeng Yang, Wenjing Xing, Weihua Zhang, Jingtao Wang, Hongwei Xu, Lihua Wang, Dekai Zhang, Huan Ren
Inflammation eliminates pathogenic infections while also threatening the integrity of the central nervous system. In this study, using in vivo and in vitro models of acute neuroinflammation, we investigated the mechanisms by which inflammation and astrocytes affect neuronal apoptosis. The in vitro model mimicked acute neuroinflammation by incubation in IFN-γ-containing media with primary cultured cerebellar granule neurons, with or without cultured astrocytes. This quickly induced neuronal apoptosis characterized by cleaved caspase-3 expression, Hoechst 33342 staining, and intercellular Ca2+ influx, whereas the presence of astrocytes significantly protected neurons from these effects...
April 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453930/the-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-is-associated-with-lower-selenium-levels-in-the-brain-implications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Barbara Rita Cardoso, Dominic J Hare, Monica Lind, Catriona A McLean, Irene Volitakis, Simon M Laws, Colin L Masters, Ashley I Bush, Blaine R Roberts
The antioxidant activity of selenium, which is mainly conferred by its incorporation into dedicated selenoproteins, has been suggested as a possible neuroprotective approach for mitigating neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease, although there is inconsistent information with respect to selenium levels in the Alzheimer's disease brain. We examined the concentration and cellular compartmentalization of selenium in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer's disease and control brain tissue. We found that Alzheimer's disease was associated with decreased selenium concentration in both soluble (i...
April 28, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453493/s-adenosylmethionine-attenuates-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-through-modulation-of-glutathione-metabolism
#3
Qian Li, Jing Cui, Chen Fang, Min Liu, Guowen Min, Liang Li
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are mainly involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-β (Aβ), the main component of senile plaques, is a kind of strong inducer of oxidative stress. Glutathione is an endogenous antioxidant protecting cells from oxidative injury. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) produced in the methionine cycle is the primary methyl donor and the precursor of glutathione. In this study, the Aβ intrahippocampal injection rat model and cultured SH-SY5Y cells were used to explore the neuroprotective effect of SAM...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453488/assessment-of-novel-curcumin-derivatives-as-potent-inhibitors-of-inflammation-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Johant Lakey-Beitia, Yisett González, Deborah Doens, David E Stephens, Ricardo Santamaría, Enrique Murillo, Marcelino Gutiérrez, Patricia L Fernández, K S Rao, Oleg V Larionov, Armando A Durant-Archibold
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population worldwide. Brain inflammation plays a key role in the progression of AD. Deposition of senile plaques in the brain stimulates an inflammatory response with the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as the neuroinflammatory cytokine. interleukin-6. Curcumin has been revealed to be a potential agent for treating AD following different neuroprotective mechanisms, such as inhibition of aggregation and decrease in brain inflammation...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453480/a-multifunctional-biocompatible-drug-candidate-is-highly-effective-in-delaying-pathological-signs-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-5xfad-mice
#5
Hadar Segal-Gavish, Ortal Danino, Yael Barhum, Tali Ben-Zur, Ella Shai, David Varon, Daniel Offen, Bilha Fischer
BACKGROUND: Metal-ion-chelation was suggested to prevent zinc and copper ions-induced amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation and oxidative stress, both implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In a quest for biocompatible metal-ion chelators potentially useful for AD therapy, we previously tested a series of nucleoside 5'-phosphorothioate derivatives as agents for decomposition of Cu(I)/Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Aβ-aggregates, and as inhibitors of OH radicals formation in Cu(I) or Fe(II) /H2O2 solution...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449565/effect-of-oxcarbazepine-on-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-bipolar-mania-an-exploratory-study
#6
Rituparna Maiti, Biswa Ranjan Mishra, Jaseem Jowhar, Debadatta Mohapatra, Sansita Parida, Debasis Bisoi
Objective: In bipolar disorder, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level decreases leading to dysfunctions of critical neurotrophic, cellular plasticity and neuroprotective processes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the change in serum BDNF level with oxcarbazepine monotherapy in bipolar mania. Methods: The present study is a prospective, interventional, open label clinical study conducted on 25 patients of bipolar mania and 25 healthy controls...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449086/a-coordinated-action-of-blood-borne-and-brain-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-in-the-response-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
A Santi, L Genis, I Torres Aleman
In response to injury, the brain produces different neuroprotective molecules, such as insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). However, IGF-I is also taken up by the brain from the circulation in response to physiological stimuli. Herein, we analyzed in mice the relative contribution of circulating and locally produced IGF-I to increased brain IGF-I levels after insult. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by a controlled impact resulted in increased IGF-I levels in the vicinity of the lesion, but mice with low serum IGF-I showed significantly lower increases...
April 26, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448965/neuroprotective-treatments-after-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-evaluated-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#8
Hester Rijkje Berger, Eva Brekke, Marius Widerøe, Tora Sund Morken
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a major health problem. Adjuvant treatments that improve the neuroprotective effect of the current treatment, therapeutic hypothermia, are urgently needed. The growing knowledge about the complex pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) has led to the discovery of several important targets for neuroprotection. Early interventions should focus on the preservation of energy metabolism, the reduction of glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, and the prevention of apoptosis...
April 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448946/oral-administration-of-methysticin-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Athanassios Fragoulis, Stephanie Siegl, Markus Fendt, Sandra Jansen, Ulf Soppa, Lars-Ove Brandenburg, Thomas Pufe, Joachim Weis, Christoph Jan Wruck
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence for the involvement of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an anti-inflammatory transcription factor that regulates the oxidative stress defense. Our previous experiments demonstrated that kavalactones protect neuronal cells against Amyloid β (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress in vitro by Nrf2 pathway activation. Here, we tested an in vivo kavalactone treatment in a mouse model of AD...
April 19, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448247/oleuropein-isolated-from-fraxinus-rhynchophylla-inhibits-glutamate-induced-neuronal-cell-death-by-attenuating-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#10
Mi Hye Kim, Ju-Sik Min, Joon Yeop Lee, Unbin Chae, Eun-Ju Yang, Kyung-Sik Song, Hyun-Shik Lee, Hong Jun Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
Glutamate-induced neurotoxicity is related to excessive oxidative stress accumulation and results in the increase of neuronal cell death. In addition, glutamate has been reported to lead to neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.It is well known that Fraxinus rhynchophylla contains a significant level of oleuropein (Ole), which exerts various pharmacological effects. However, the mechanism of neuroprotective effects of Ole is still poorly defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether Ole prevents glutamate-induced toxicity in HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells...
April 27, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447863/lysophosphatidic-acid-and-amitriptyline-signal-through-lpa1r-to-reduce-p-glycoprotein-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#11
David B Banks, Gary Ny Chan, Rebecca A Evans, David S Miller, Ronald E Cannon
The blood-brain barrier is a microvascular network that (1) provides neuroprotection from metabolic and environmental toxins and (2) limits the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS). The ATP-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein contributes to the latter by actively pumping clinical substrates back into circulation before they can reach the brain parenchyma. Targeting P-glycoprotein has proven effective in increasing the delivery of therapeutics to their cerebral targets. We provide a novel mechanism to achieve this end in functioning, intact rat brain capillaries, whereby the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) amitriptyline reduce basal P-glycoprotein transport activity through a distinct lysophosphatidic acid 1 receptor-mediated signaling cascade that requires G-protein coupling, Src kinase, and ERK 1/2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447746/-retracted-regulatory-t-cells-exhibit-neuroprotective-effect-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Yunhu Yu, Fang Cao, Qishan Ran, Xiaochuan Sun
We would like to retract our article entitled 'Regulatory T cells exhibit neuroprotective effect in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury' published in Molecular Medicine Reports 14: 5556-5566, 2016. After careful consideration, we recognize that there was an undeclared conflict of interest on the part of certain of the authors. All the authors agree to this retraction. We sincerely apologize for any inconvenience that might result from the retraction of this article. [The original article was published in Molecular Medicine Reports 14: 5556-5566, 2016; DOI: 10...
March 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447713/tetramethylpyrazine-mediated-regulation-of-cxcr4-in-retinoblastoma-is-sensitive-to-cell-density
#13
Nandan Wu, Lijun Xu, Ying Yang, Na Yu, Zhang Zhang, Pei Chen, Jing Zhang, Mingjun Tang, Meng Yuan, Jian Ge, Keming Yu, Jing Zhuang
Retinoblastoma is the most common ocular tumor in children, and it causes extensive damage. Current treatment options for retinoblastoma include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the majority of chemotherapy medicines cause complications and side effects that lead to severe impairment of patient health. Previous studies have reported that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), which is an extract of the Chinese herbal medicine Chuanxiong, reduces the risk of multidrug resistance in chemotherapy and inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of various types of cancer cells...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447605/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Christopher S Ahuja, Jefferson R Wilson, Satoshi Nori, Mark R N Kotter, Claudia Druschel, Armin Curt, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has devastating consequences for the physical, social and vocational well-being of patients. The demographic of SCIs is shifting such that an increasing proportion of older individuals are being affected. Pathophysiologically, the initial mechanical trauma (the primary injury) permeabilizes neurons and glia and initiates a secondary injury cascade that leads to progressive cell death and spinal cord damage over the subsequent weeks. Over time, the lesion remodels and is composed of cystic cavitations and a glial scar, both of which potently inhibit regeneration...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447571/neuroprotective-effects-of-betulin-in-pharmacological-and-transgenic-c-elegans-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Chia-Wen Tsai, Rong-Tzong Tsai, Shih-Ping Liu, Chang-Shi Chen, Min-Chen Tsai, Shao-Hsuan Chien, Huey-Shan Hung, Shinn-Zong Lin, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Ru-Huei Fu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common degenerative disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly.It is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, as well as by motor dysfunction. Although the causes of PD are not well understood, aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons contributes to this disease. Currently, therapeutics for PD provide satisfactory symptom relief, but not a cure. Treatment strategies include attempts to identify new drugs that will prevent or arrest the progressive course of PD by correcting disease-specific pathogenic process...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447569/a-new-treatment-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-gut-brain-axis-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-pathway
#16
Dong Seok Kim, Ho-Il Choi, Yun Wang, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig
Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, arecritical for maintaining healthy brain function particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447514/neuroprotective-effects-of-ellagic-acid-on-cuprizone-induced-acute-demyelination-through-limitation-of-microgliosis-adjustment-of-cxcl12-il-17-il-11-axis-and-restriction-of-mature-oligodendrocytes-apoptosis
#17
Nima Sanadgol, Fereshteh Golab, Zakiyeh Tashakkor, Nooshin Taki, Samira Moradi Kouchi, Ali Mostafaie, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
CONTEXT: Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenol antioxidant with various therapeutic activities. However, the efficacy of EA has not been examined in neuropathologic conditions. OBJECTIVE: In vivo neuroprotective effects of EA on cuprizone (cup)-induced demyelination were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL/6 J mice were fed with chow containing 0.2% cup for 4 weeks to induce oligodendrocytes (OLGs) depletion predominantly in the corpus callosum (CC)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447311/attenuation-of-glutamate-induced-excitotoxicity-by-withanolide-a-in-neuron-like-cells-role-for-pi3k-akt-mapk-signaling-pathway
#18
Nawab John Dar, Naresh Kumar Satti, Prabhu Dutt, Abid Hamid, Muzamil Ahmad
Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is one of the major underlying mechanisms for neurodegenerative diseases. Efforts are being made to treat such conditions with an array of natural compounds that can modulate the release of glutamate or the underlying mechanisms associated with it. Withania somnifera extract has potent pharmacologic activity similar to that of Korean Ginseng tea and is used to treat several neuronal disorders. However, to date, little efforts have been made to evaluate individual constituents of this plant for neurodegenerative disorders...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447295/functional-expression-of-p-glycoprotein-and-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-understanding-transport-mechanisms-for-improved-cns-drug-delivery
#19
Wazir Abdullahi, Thomas P Davis, Patrick T Ronaldson
Drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is greatly limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Physical and biochemical properties of the BBB have rendered treatment of CNS diseases, including those with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component, extremely difficult. Targeting endogenous BBB transporters from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily (i.e., P-glycoprotein (P-gp)) or from the solute carrier (SLC) family (i.e., organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs in humans; Oatps in rodents)) has been suggested as a strategy that can improve delivery of drugs to the brain...
April 26, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447035/novel-therapeutic-approaches-rett-syndrome-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technology
#20
REVIEW
Mohan Gomathi, Vellingiri Balachandar
Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology target screening and discovering of therapeutic agents for the possible cure of human diseases. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are the right kind of platform for testing potency of specific active compounds. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine developed between 2,500 and 500 BC, is a science involving the intelligent formulations of herbs and minerals. It can serve as a "goldmine" for novel neuroprotective agents used for centuries to treat neurological disorders...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
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