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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352519/nafamostat-mesilate-attenuates-inflammation-and-apoptosis-and-promotes-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Hui-Quan Duan, Qiu-Li Wu, Xue Yao, Bao-You Fan, Hong-Yu Shi, Chen-Xi Zhao, Yan Zhang, Bo Li, Chao Sun, Xiao-Hong Kong, Xin-Fu Zhou, Shi-Qing Feng
AIM: Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe neural damage for which there is currently no effective treatment. Exploration of the neuroprotective effect among clinically approved drugs will speed up clinical translation of SCI. Nafamostat mesilate (NM) as a synthetic serine protease inhibitor has been used clinically in pancreatitis treatments. However, its effectiveness in SCI is unknown. The aim of this study was to confirm the efficacy of NM in ameliorating SCI. METHODS: Intraperitoneal administration of NM was performed on a contusion SCI model in Wistar rat...
January 19, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351877/rest-a-master-transcriptional-regulator-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#2
REVIEW
Jee-Yeon Hwang, R Suzanne Zukin
The restrictive element-1 silencing transcription factor)/NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencing factor (NRSF) is a transcriptional repressor which acts via epigenetic remodeling to silence target genes. Emerging evidence indicates that REST is a master transcriptional regulator of neuron-specific genes not only in neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, but also in differentiated neurons during the critical period in postnatal brain development, where it plays a role in fine-tuning of genes involved in synaptic plasticity, and in normal aging, where it promotes neuroprotection by repressing genes involved in oxidative stress and β-amyloid toxicity...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351829/inhibition-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-has-neuroprotective-effect-comparable-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-a-rat-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#3
Peng Wang, Yi Li, Zhengfei Yang, Tao Yu, Guanghui Zheng, Xiangshao Fang, Zitong Huang, Longyuan Jiang, Wanchun Tang
Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) regulates mitochondrial fission, it has been proven that inhibition of Drp1 by mdivi-1 improves survival and attenuates cerebral ischemic injury after cardiac arrest. In this study, we compared the effects of Drp1 inhibition with therapeutic hypothermia on post-resuscitation neurologic injury in a rat model of cardiac arrest. Rats were randomized into 4 groups: Mdivi-1 treatment group (n = 39), hypothermic group (n = 38), normothermic group (n = 41), and sham group (n = 12)...
January 8, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351805/neuroprotection-by-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-oxidative-stress-mediated-injury
#4
Bojun Chen, Jianming Li, Richard Ben Borgens
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is a critical component of nervous system secondary injury. Oxidative stress produces toxic chemical byproducts including reactive aldehydes that traverse intact membranes and attack neighboring healthy cells. This secondary damage often leads to further patho-biochemical cascades that exacerbate the original insult. In this work, we investigate the therapeutic effects of chitosan nanoparticles on cell cultures exposed to oxidative stress. RESULTS: We found chitosan nanoparticles can rescue BV-2 glial cells from death, but only for cells undergoing necrosis...
January 19, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351799/effect-of-the-replacement-of-dietary-vegetable-oils-with-a-low-dose-of-extravirgin-olive-oil-in-the-mediterranean-diet-on-cognitive-functions-in-the-elderly
#5
Elisa Mazza, Antonietta Fava, Yvelise Ferro, Stefania Rotundo, Stefano Romeo, Domenico Bosco, Arturo Pujia, Tiziana Montalcini
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the role of the monounsaturated fatty acid and other dietary factors in the prevention of cognitive decline but the short-term effect of a low dose of extravirgin olive oil on cognitive performances in the elderly have not still been investigated. Our aim was to investigate whether the replacement of all vegetable oils with a lower amount of extravirgin olive oil, in the contest of a Mediterranean Diet, would improve cognitive performances, among elderly Italian individuals...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351469/inhibition-of-mtor-protects-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#6
Candice E Van Skike, Jordan B Jahrling, Angela B Olson, Naomi L Sayre, Stacy A Hussong, Zoltan I Ungvari, James D Lechleiter, Veronica Galvan
An intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic blood-derived factors into the brain parenchyma. The BBB is damaged in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which contributes significantly to the progression of AD pathologies and cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms underlying BBB breakdown in AD remain elusive and no interventions are available for treatment or prevention. We and others recently established that inhibition of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway with rapamycin yields significant neuroprotective effects, improving cerebrovascular and cognitive function in mouse models of AD...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351454/detrimental-effects-of-2-arachidonoylglycerol-on-whole-blood-platelet-aggregation-and-on-cerebral-blood-flow-after-a-focal-ischemic-insult-in-rats
#7
Jennifer A Shearer, Susan J Coker, Hilary Victoria Carswell Carswell
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a major modulator of blood flow and platelet aggregation and a potential neuroprotectant. The present study investigated the effects of 2-AG on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the first critical hours during middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and on platelet aggregation for the first time in rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=30) underwent permanent MCAO under isoflurane anaesthesia and were randomly assigned to receive either 2-AG (6 mgkg-1, i.v.), monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 (10 mgkg-1, i...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351407/pedf-expression-affects-the-oxidative-and-inflammatory-state-of-choroidal-endothelial-cells
#8
Mitra Farnoodian, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among the elderly population, and is associated with severe macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Although the pathogenesis of AMD is associated with choroidal dysfunction and CNV, the detailed underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Altered production of pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), a neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic factor, contributes to CNV. Furthermore, exogenous PEDF mitigates angiogenesis in preclinical CNV models...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351056/remediation-of-radiation-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-through-oral-administration-of-the-neuroprotective-compound-nsi-189
#9
Barrett Allen, Munjal M Acharya, Celine Lu, Erich Giedzinski, Nicole Chmielewski, David Quach, Mike Hefferan, Karl K Johe, Charles L Limoli
Clinical management of primary and secondary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies frequently includes radiotherapy to forestall tumor growth and recurrence after surgical resection. While cranial radiotherapy remains beneficial, adult and pediatric brain tumor survivors suffer from a wide range of debilitating and progressive cognitive deficits. Although this has been recognized as a significant problem for decades, there remains no clinical recourse for the unintended neurocognitive sequelae associated with these types of cancer treatments...
January 19, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350822/resveratrol-suppresses-rotenone-induced-neurotoxicity-through-activation-of-sirt1-akt1-signaling-pathway
#10
Hui Wang, Xiaoguang Dong, Zengxun Liu, Shaowei Zhu, Haili Liu, Wenchuang Fan, Yanlai Hu, Tao Hu, Yonghui Yu, Yizhao Li, Tianwei Liu, Chengjia Xie, Qing Gao, Guibao Li, Jing Zhang, Zhaoxi Ding, Jinhao Sun
Rotenone is a common pesticide and has been reported as one of the risk factors for Parkinson disease. Rotenone can cause neuronal death or apoptosis through inducing oxidative injury and inhibiting mitochondrial function. As a natural polyphenolic compound, resveratrol possesses the anti-oxidant capacity and neuroprotective effect. However, the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity remains elusive. Here, we treated PC12 cells with rotenone to induce neurotoxicity, and the neurotoxic cells were subjected to resveratrol treatment...
January 19, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350679/proangiogenic-functions-of-an-rgd-slay-containing-osteopontin-icosamer-peptide-in-huvecs-and-in-the-postischemic-brain
#11
Hahnbie Lee, Yin-Chuan Jin, Seung-Woo Kim, Il-Doo Kim, Hye-Kyung Lee, Ja-Kyeong Lee
Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein secreted into body fluids by various cell types. OPN contains arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) and serine-leucine-alanine-tyrosine (SLAY) motifs that bind to several integrins and mediate a wide range of cellular processes. In the present study, the proangiogenic effects of a 20-amino-acid OPN peptide (OPNpt20) containing RGD and SLAY motifs were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in a rat focal cerebral ischemia model. OPNpt20 exerted robust proangiogenic effects in HUVECs by promoting proliferation, migration and tube formation...
January 19, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349573/mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-manf-elevates-stimulus-evoked-release-of-dopamine-in-freely-moving-rats
#12
Juho-Matti Renko, Susanne Bäck, Merja H Voutilainen, T Petteri Piepponen, Ilkka Reenilä, Mart Saarma, Raimo K Tuominen
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) hold potential as disease-modifying therapies for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) have shown neuroprotective and restorative effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons in various animal models of Parkinson's disease. To date, however, their effects on brain neurochemistry have not been compared using in vivo microdialysis...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349290/a-novel-neuroprotective-mechanism-for-lithium-that-prevents-association-of-the-p75ntr-sortilin-receptor-complex-and-attenuates-prongf-induced-neuronal-death-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Shayri G Greenwood, Laura Montroull, Marta Volosin, Helen E Scharfman, Kenneth K Teng, Matthew Light, Risa Torkin, Fredrick Maxfield, Barbara L Hempstead, Wilma J Friedman
Neurotrophins play critical roles in the survival, maintenance and death of neurons. In particular, proneurotrophins have been shown to mediate cell death following brain injury induced by status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Previous studies have shown that pilocarpine-induced seizures lead to increased levels of proNGF, which binds to the p75NTR-sortilin receptor complex to elicit apoptosis. A screen to identify compounds that block proNGF binding and uptake into cells expressing p75 and sortilin identified lithium citrate as a potential inhibitor of proNGF and p75NTR-mediated cell death...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348887/rna-seq-expression-profiling-of-rat-mcao-model-following-reperfusion-orexin-a
#14
Chun-Mei Wang, Yan-You Pan, Ming-Hui Liu, Bao-Hua Cheng, Bo Bai, Jing Chen
Orexin-A is a neuropeptide with potent neuroprotective activity towards cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but few studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanism. Herein, we performed global gene expression profiling of the hippocampus following reperfusion with Orexin-A using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). RNA-seq identified 649 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the Orexin-A group compared with saline controls (I/R group), of which 149 were up-regulated and 500 were down-regulated. DEGs were confirmed using qRT-PCR, their molecular functions, biological processes and molecular components were explored using Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and 206 KEGG pathways were associated with Orexin-A treatment...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348841/activation-of-ampk-by-osu53-protects-spinal-cord-neurons-from-oxidative-stress
#15
Jun Xu, Liang Wu, Yiming Zhang, Huijie Gu, Zhongyue Huang, Kaifeng Zhou, Xiaofan Yin
The present study tested the potential effect of OSU53, a novel AMPK activator, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced spinal cord neuron damages. Treatment with OSU53 attenuated H2O2-induced death and apoptosis of primary murine spinal cord neurons. OSU53 activated AMPK signaling, which is required for its actions in spinal cord neurons. The AMPK inhibitor Compound C or AMPKα1 siRNA almost abolished OSU53-mediated neuroprotection against H2O2. On the other hand, sustained-activation of AMPK by introducing the constitutive-active AMPKα1 mimicked OSU53's actions, and protected spinal cord neurons from oxidative stress...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348604/cromolyn-reduces-levels-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-associated-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-by-promoting-microglial-phagocytosis
#16
Can Zhang, Ana Griciuc, Eloise Hudry, Yu Wan, Luisa Quinti, Joseph Ward, Angela M Forte, Xunuo Shen, ChongZhao Ran, David R Elmaleh, Rudolph E Tanzi
Amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) deposition is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ deposition triggers both pro-neuroinflammatory microglial activation and neurofibrillary tangle formation. Cromolyn sodium is an asthma therapeutic agent previously shown to reduce Aβ levels in transgenic AD mouse brains after one-week of treatment. Here, we further explored these effects as well as the mechanism of action of cromolyn, alone, and in combination with ibuprofen in APPSwedish-expressing Tg2576 mice...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348106/report-palladium-glutathione-n-acetylcysteine-d-penicillamine-conjugation-chemistry
#17
Muhammad Mukhtiar, Syed Umer Jan, Muhammad Farid Khan, Naseem Ullah, Abid Hussain, Saifur Rehman, Muhammad Murtaza Qureshi
The metalloelement Palladium has a number of potential Pharmaco-clinical advantages. Palladium compounds have antiviral, antibacterial, neuroprotective and antitumor properties. However studies have also indicated some mild to serious toxic effects of Palladium metalloelements. Biothiols are important antioxidants that provide protection against metals toxicity. The interaction of metalloelements with biothiols can provide valuable information about the level of toxicity of the metalloelements and about the protective role of biothiols thereof...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346788/vitamin-d-classic-and-novel-actions
#18
Ángel Gil, Julio Plaza-Diaz, María Dolores Mesa
BACKGROUND: Classically, vitamin D has been implicated in bone health by promoting calcium absorption in the gut and maintenance of serum calcium and phosphate concentrations, as well as by its action on bone growth and reorganization through the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts cells. However, in the last 2 decades, novel actions of vitamin D have been discovered. The present report summarizes both classic and novel actions of vitamin D. SUMMARY: 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, the active metabolite of vitamin D, also known as calcitriol, regulates not only calcium and phosphate homeostasis but also cell proliferation and differentiation, and has a key a role to play in the responses of the immune and nervous systems...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346382/6-ohda-induced-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-is-promoted-by-the-engulfment-pathway-and-inhibited-by-the-transthyretin-related-protein-ttr-33
#19
Sarah-Lena Offenburger, Xue Yan Ho, Theresa Tachie-Menson, Sean Coakley, Massimo A Hilliard, Anton Gartner
Oxidative stress is linked to many pathological conditions including the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. The vast majority of disease cases appear to be caused by a combination of genetic mutations and environmental factors. We screened for genes protecting Caenorhabditis elegans dopaminergic neurons from oxidative stress induced by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and identified the transthyretin-related gene ttr-33. The only described C. elegans transthyretin-related protein to date, TTR-52, has been shown to mediate corpse engulfment as well as axon repair...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346273/report-on-the-symposium-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-neurodegeneration
#20
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Majel Cervantes-Llanos
The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases is currently a major concern in public health because of the lack of neuroprotective and neuroregenerative drugs. The symposium on Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Neurodegeneration held in Varadero, Cuba, updated the participants on the basic mechanisms of neurodegeneration, on the different approaches for drug discovery, and on early research results on therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease and in silico research were covered by many of the presentations in the symposium, under the umbrella of the "State of the Art of Non-clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases" International Congress, held from 20 to 24 June 2017...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
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