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Neuroendocrine tumor

Hideki Ushiku, Keishi Yamashita, Hiroshi Kawamata, Mina Waraya, Hiroshi Katoh, Keigo Yokoi, Toshimichi Tanaka, Satoru Ishii, Nobuyuki Nishizawa, Mariko Kikuchi, Naoko Minatani, Ken Kojo, Hiroshi Tajima, Ryo Nishiyama, Takashi Kaizu, Yusuke Kumamoto, Masahiko Watanabe
OBJECTIVES: We have identified homeobox-only protein (HOPX) as a tumor suppressor gene in various human cancer, and its expression was reduced by promoter DNA hypermethylation. Homeobox-only protein is strongly expressed on pancreatic islet cells; however, clinical relevance of HOPX expression has remained elusive in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET). METHODS: We investigated 36 patients with pNET who undertook surgical resection between 1988 and 2012 for HOPX expression and DNA methylation to reveal its clinical significance...
October 2016: Pancreas
Joyce Hsu, Leo Jia, Darko Pucar, Hadyn Williams, Jayanth Keshavamurthy
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare form of preinvasive lung lesion associated with indolent carcinoid tumor formation. This disease is characterized by multiple small pulmonary nodules with low SUVmax on F-FDG PET. Biopsy and immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers confirm diagnosis. There is no consensus for treatment, which typically involves surgical excision or management of symptoms with steroid-based therapies. We report an unusual case of DIPNECH colocalizing with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation mimicking high-grade aggressive malignancy on FDG-PET and a typical case of DIPNECH for comparison with low FDG avidity...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Tessa Brabander, Jaap Teunissen, Dik Kwekkeboom
PURPOSE: Physiological uptake in the uncinate process or pancreatic head has been described with Ga-labeled PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging. In-DTPA-octreotide is the only registered radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. We studied the uptake in this region of the pancreatic head on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using In-DTPA-octreotide in a large group of patients. Furthermore, known physiological and clinical characteristics are discussed in an attempt to elucidate this phenomenon...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Ofer Nathan Gofrit, Stephen Frank, Amichay Meirovitz, Hovav Nechushtan, Marina Orevi
AIM: Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) often shows histological evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation (NED). To evaluate the extent of NED in patients with CRPC, we used PET/CT with Ga-[DOTA-Tyr]-octreotate (Ga-DOTA-TATE), a somatostatin analog that binds somatostatin receptor 2 with high affinity. This radiotracer is used in imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. METHODS: Twelve patients (mean age, 65 [SD, 12] years) with CRPC were studied. Their mean prostate-specific antigen level at scanning was 85...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
A Puzserova, I Bernatova
Stress is considered a risk factor associated with the development of various civilization diseases including cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors and mental disorders. Research investigating mechanisms involved in stress-induced hypertension have attracted much attention of physicians and researchers, however, there are still ambiguous results concerning a causal relationship between stress and long-term elevation of blood pressure (BP). Several studies have observed that mechanisms involved in the development of stress-induced hypertension include increased activity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS), glucocorticoid (GC) overload and altered endothelial function including decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
F Chen, Y Zhang, E Parra, J Rodriguez, C Behrens, R Akbani, Y Lu, J M Kurie, D L Gibbons, G B Mills, I I Wistuba, C J Creighton
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) demonstrates remarkable molecular diversity. With the completion of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), there is opportunity for systematic analyses of the entire TCGA NSCLC cohort, including comparisons and contrasts between different disease subsets. On the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive molecular characterization (including DNA methylation and copy, and RNA and protein expression), 1023 NSCLC cases-519 from TCGA adenocarcinoma (AD) project and 504 from TCGA squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) project-were classified using a 'cluster-of-clusters' analytic approach...
October 24, 2016: Oncogene
Gerard Chaaya, Jonathan B Vasquez, Vania Zayat
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arising in the duodenum are rare neoplasms that are often classified as indolent and have a low potential to metastasize. Although rare, multiple reports cite an increasing incidence of duodenal NETs. Symptoms are usually nonspecific and the diagnosis is made via endoscopy. Endoscopic resection is the mainstay of therapy. The prognosis is usually favorable. We describe a case of a duodenal NET that presented with vague symptoms in order to increase the awareness of this rare but increasing in frequency entity...
September 21, 2016: Curēus
Sang Hwa Lee, Joo Young Kim, Soyeon An, Ki-Byung Song, Dae Wook Hwang, Song Cheol Kim, Eunsil Yu, Seung Mo Hong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Massimiliano Berretta, Raffaele Di Francia, Brigida Stanzione, Gaetano Facchini, Arben LLeshi, Paolo De Paoli, Michele Spina, Umberto Tirelli
The introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) into clinical practice has dramatically changed the outcome of HIV-infected patients by prolonging their survival. The increase in life expectancy has led to an increased risk of non-AIDS-related mortality and morbidity, including cardiovascular diseases, neurocognitive diseases, neuroendocrine dysfunctions and cancer. Areas Covered: The GICAT (Italian Cooperation Group on AIDS and Tumors) has demonstrated that patients who receive a multidisciplinary approach with the combination of anticancer agents (AC) and HAART can achieve better responses and survival rates than patients who receive AC alone...
October 22, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
D Donegan, N Singh Ospina, R Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Z Al-Hilli, G B Thompson, B L Clarke, W F Young
BACKGROUND: In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1), pancreaticoduodenal (PD) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are associated with early mortality, yet, the best treatment strategy, remains uncertain. AIM: To assess patient important outcomes (mortality and metastasis) of PD NETs and predictors of outcomes in patients with MEN-1. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients with MEN-1 who attended the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from 1997-2014...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Danielle E Jenkins, Dharshini Sreenivasan, Fiona Carman, Samal Babru, Lee E Eiden, Stephen J Bunn
The pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β/α modulate catecholamine secretion, and long-term gene regulation, in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Since interleukin-6 (IL6) also plays a key integrative role during inflammation, we have examined its ability to affect both tyrosine hydroxylase activity and adrenomedullary gene transcription in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. IL6 caused acute tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and serine/tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
S F Lax, L-C Horn, T Löning
In the 2014 WHO classification, squamous cell precursor lesions are classified as low-grade and high-grade intraepithelial lesions. LSIL corresponds to CIN1, HSIL includes CIN2 and CIN3. Only adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is accepted as precursor of adenocarcinoma and includes the stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE). Although relatively rare, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma can be mixed with a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Most cervical adenocarcinomas are low grade and of endocervical type...
October 21, 2016: Der Pathologe
Clement Chung
PURPOSE: Current strategies for managing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in adult patients are reviewed, with a focus on medication safety concerns. SUMMARY: NETs usually originate in the gastrointestinal or bronchopulmonary tract. Symptoms due to hormonal hypersecretion often occur in patients with foregut or midgut NETs or liver metastases. Surgical resection is recommended for most localized NETs, while systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy is typically used for high-grade and pancreatic tumors...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Daniel Edwards, Robert Gitman, Noah May, Melanie Amster
A 71 year-old female presented with a large, protuberant abdominal mass and was found to have both a left renal mass and a biopsy-proven neuroendocrine tumor of the ileocecal valve. Ultimately, right hemicolectomy revealed a well-differentiated and low-grade neuroendocrine tumor of the ileocecal valve, while left radical nephrectomy revealed a 23x22x15cm chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC-CT) weighing 3564g. RCC-CT represents a small portion of diagnosed RCC, and generally portends a more favorable prognosis than other variants...
October 18, 2016: Urology
Kathrin Fielitz, Kristina Althoff, Katleen De Preter, Julie Nonnekens, Jasmin Ohli, Sandra Elges, Wolfgang Hartmann, Günter Klöppel, Thomas Knösel, Marc Schulte, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Daniela Beisser, Henning Reis, Annette Eyking, Elke Cario, Johannes H Schulte, Alexander Schramm, Ulrich Schüller
Amplification or overexpression of MYCN is involved in development and maintenance of multiple malignancies. A subset of these tumors originates from neural precursors, including the most aggressive forms of the childhood tumors, neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. In order to model the spectrum of MYCN-driven neoplasms in mice, we transgenically overexpressed MYCN under the control of the human GFAP-promoter that, among other targets, drives expression in neural progenitor cells. However, LSL-MYCN;hGFAP-Cre double transgenic mice did neither develop neural crest tumors nor tumors of the central nervous system, but presented with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and, less frequently, the pituitary gland...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Ersin Özaslan, Halit Karaca, Sinan Koca, Alper Sevinç, Bekir Hacioğlu, Metin Özkan, Melike Özçelik, Ayşe O Duran, İlhan Hacibekiroğlu, Yaşar Yildiz, Özgür Tanriverdi, Serkan Menekşe, Asude Aksoy, Oktay Bozkurt, Semiha Urvay, Mükremin Uysal, Hacer Demir, Aydin Çiltaş, Faysal Dane
The objectives of this study were to compare progression-free survival (PFS) with somatostatin analog (SSA) versus chemotherapy (CTx) in first-line therapy and to determine the patient group in which these treatments were more effective in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with a Ki-67 index of 20% or less. Patients who received SSA or CTx and had unresectable locally advanced and metastatic NETs with a Ki-67 index of 20% or less were retrospectively selected from 13 centers in the Turkish database between 2000 and 2015...
October 20, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Sundhar Ramalingam, Adva Eisenberg, Wen Chi Foo, Jennifer Freedman, Andrew J Armstrong, Larry G Moss, Michael R Harrison
Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of a paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism) resulting from treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer - a highly aggressive and difficult disease to treat. A 51-year-old man was started on androgen deprivation therapy after presenting with metastatic prostate cancer, characterized by diffuse osseous metastasis. Shortly thereafter, he developed progressive disease with biopsy proven neuroendocrine prostate cancer as well as symptoms of increased skin pigmentation, hypokalemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia and profound weakness, consistent with ectopic Cushing's syndrome...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Sirong Chen, Shing Kee Cheung, Ka-Nin Wong, Kwok Kee Wong, Chi-Lai Ho
A bedridden 90-year-old man with fever and elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (49 ng/mL) was referred for differentiation between infection and tumor. F-FDG PET/CT was negative for infection, but Ga-PSMA PET/CT showed multiple lesions in prostate gland with infiltration to bladder wall and seminal vesicle, consistent with locally advanced prostate cancer. The lesion with the highest Ga-PSMA uptake was strongly avid for Ga-DOTATOC, suggesting neuroendocrine tumor differentiation. After hormonal therapy, PSA normalized, but chromogranin-A increased (from 251 to 398 ng/mL), inferring progression of neuroendocrine tumor differentiation...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Yalan Bi, Yinghui Deng, Shanqing Li, Xiaoyun Zhou, Yeye Chen, Dongjie Ma, Xinxin Mao, Yuzhou Guan, Jie Chen, Yunxiao Meng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the immunoreactivity of TTF-1 and PAX8 in neuroendocrine carcinoma of thymic (TNEC) and pulmonary origins (PNEC), and whether their immunophenotyping could be used to distinguish between NEC of the two sites, as well as prognosis of patients with TNEC. METHODS: Twenty-two cases of TNEC and 20 cases of PNEC were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using PAX8 and TTF-1. Clinical data and follow-up information were obtained for survival analyses...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Elisabeth Sterrer, Franz Windisch, Kurt Frey, Klaus Rettensteiner, Benjamin Loader
BACKGROUND: Middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation (MEA-ND), also known as carcinoid tumor of the middle ear, is an extremely rare neoplasm, especially when located within the tympanic cavity. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first pediatric case of a MEA-ND described in Europe. Excluding the present case, only three other pediatric cases of this disease have been published globally. CASE REPORT: We report on a 15-year-old female patient who presented with conductive hearing loss of the right ear...
October 19, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
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