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Low-dose lithium

Terence A Ketter, Suresh Durgam, Ronald Landbloom, Mary Mackle, Xiao Wu, Maju Mathews
BACKGROUND: Asenapine (ASN) is approved in the United States as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy (to lithium or valproate) in adults with bipolar mania, and as monotherapy in pediatric patients with bipolar mania. This is the first long-term study evaluating safety and tolerability of ASN fixed doses in this population. METHODS: After completing a 3-week, randomized, placebo (PBO)-controlled acute trial, patients could enroll in this 26-week, fixed-dose (5 or 10mg twice daily), double-blind extension study...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Pegah Khaloo, Banafshe Sadeghi, Sattar Ostadhadi, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Samira Zolfagharie, Ahmad-Reza Dehpour
Major depressive disorder is disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Stressful events lead to depression and they can be used as a model of depression in rodents. In this study we aimed to investigate whether lithium modifies the stressed-induced depression through blockade of opioid receptors in mice. We used foot shock stress as stressor and forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) to evaluation the behavioral responses in mice. We also used naltrexone hydrochloride (as opioid receptor antagonist), and morphine (as opioid receptor agonist)...
August 12, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jonathan Baird-Gunning, Tom Lea-Henry, Lotte C G Hoegberg, Sophie Gosselin, Darren M Roberts
Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
M J Fartaria, C Reis, J Pereira, M F Pereira, J V Cardoso, L M Santos, C Oliveira, V Holovey, A Pascoal, J G Alves
The aim of this paper is the characterization of four thermoluminescence detectors (TLD), namely, LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Li2B4O7:Mn and Li2B4O7:Cu for the measurement of the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) in digital mammography examinations at hospitals and clinics. Low-energy x-ray beams in the typical energy ranges of mammography, produced with a tungsten target and additional 60 µm molybdenum filtration were implemented and characterized at the Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation at Instituto Superior Técnico...
September 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Theodore Lemuel Mathuram, Vilwanathan Ravikumar, Lisa M Reece, Selvaraju Karthik, Changam Sheela Sasikumar, Kotturathu Mammen Cherian
Neuroblastoma is the most common tumor amongst children amounting to nearly 15% of cancer deaths. This cancer is peculiar in its characteristics, exhibiting differentiation, maturation and metastatic transformation leading to poor prognosis and low survival rates among children. Chemotherapy, though toxic to normal cells, has shown to improve the survival of the patient with emphasis given more towards targeting angiogenesis. Recently, Tideglusib was designed as an 'Orphan Drug' to target the neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease and gained significant momentum in its function during clinical trials...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Tomoko Yoshikawa, Sato Honma
Lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the mechanisms how lithium exerts its mood stabilizing effects remain to be studied. The disorder in circadian pacemaking has been suggested as an underlying mechanism of the characteristic mood instability of the BD. Lithium is also known to lengthen the circadian periods. We recently proposed that chronic methamphetamine treatment induced circadian oscillation as a complex oscillator including multiple dopaminergic brain areas, and the complex oscillator regulates behavior rhythm independent from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
X Mu, A Kobler, D Wang, V S K Chakravadhanula, S Schlabach, D V Szabó, P Norby, C Kübel
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used intensively in investigating battery materials, e.g. to obtain phase maps of partially (dis)charged (lithium) iron phosphate (LFP/FP), which is one of the most promising cathode material for next generation lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. Due to the weak interaction between Li atoms and fast electrons, mapping of the Li distribution is not straightforward. In this work, we revisited the issue of TEM measurements of Li distribution maps for LFP/FP. Different TEM techniques, including spectroscopic techniques (energy filtered (EF)TEM in the energy range from low-loss to core-loss) and a STEM diffraction technique (automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM)), were applied to map the lithiation of the same location in the same sample...
July 11, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Rasoul Salehi, Javid Sadri Nahand, Ehsan Karimi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Hamed Mirzaei
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer...
April 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
M Deuschle, A Böhringer, A Meyer-Lindenberg, A Sartorius
Introduction: Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition with delirium, vegetative and neuromuscular symptoms as well as neural hyperexcitability. The main causes are combinations of serotonergic drugs, excessive dosages of serotonergic agents or the recreational use of certain drugs. Methods and Results: We report a case of a patient who started developing serotonin syndrome after a cumulative dose of only 900 mg lithium carbonate given in temporal association with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)...
July 26, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Faruk Uguz, Verinder Sharma
OBJECTIVE: This review examined the safety of mood stabilizers in exposed breastfed infants. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English language reports between 1 January 1995 and 30 August 2015 by using combinations of key words breastfeeding, lactation, postpartum period, puerperium, mood stabilizers, lithium, lamotrigine, valproate, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine. Case reports, case series, and prospective or cross-sectional studies including relevant data such as relative infant dose, milk-to-plasma ratio, infant drug plasma levels, and adverse events were identified...
June 2016: Bipolar Disorders
Shin-Ichi Miyatake, Shinji Kawabata, Ryo Hiramatsu, Toshihiko Kuroiwa, Minoru Suzuki, Natsuko Kondo, Koji Ono
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014...
July 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Yaping Wang, Xu Yang, Zhipeng Gu, Huanhuan Qin, Li Li, Jingwang Liu, Xixun Yu
Li-doped hydroxyapatite (LiHA) which is prepared through introducing low dose of Li into hydroxyapatite (HA) has been increasingly studied as a bone tissue-engineered scaffold. The degradation properties play a crucial role in the success of long-term implantation of a bone tissue-engineered construct. Herein, the in vitro degradation behaviors of LiHA scaffolds via two approaches were investigated in this study: solution-mediated degradation and osteoblast-mediated degradation. In solution-mediated degradation, after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for some time, some characteristics of these scaffolds (such as release of ionized lithium and phosphate, pH change, mechanical properties, cytocompatibility and SEM surface characterization) were systematically tested...
September 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Saleh Sandoughdaran, Hamed Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour
BACKGROUND: Lithium has been the treatment of choice for bipolar disorder (BD) for many years. Although erectile dysfunction is a known adverse effect of this drug, the mechanism of action by which lithium affects erectile function is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in modulatory effect of lithium on penile erection (PE). We further evaluated the possible role of Sildenafil in treatment of lithium-induced erectile dysfunction...
February 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Rujun Gong, Pei Wang, Lance D Dworkin
Lithium has been a valuable treatment for bipolar affective disorders for decades. Clinical use of lithium, however, has been problematic due to its narrow therapeutic index and concerns for its toxicity in various organ systems. Renal side effects associated with lithium include polyuria, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, proteinuria, distal renal tubular acidosis and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Histologically, chronic lithium nephrotoxicity is characterized by interstitial nephritis with microcyst formation and occasional focal segmental glomerulosclerosis...
April 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Robert C Twining, Christopher S Freet, Robert A Wheeler, Christian G Reich, Dennie A Tompers, Sarah E Wolpert, Patricia S Grigson
Rats avoid intake of a taste cue when paired with a drug of abuse or with the illness-inducing agent, lithium chloride (LiCl). Although progress has been made, it is difficult to compare the suppressive effects of abused agents and LiCl on intake of a gustatory conditioned stimulus (CS) because of the cross-laboratory use of different CSs, different unconditioned stimuli (USs), and different doses of the drugs, different conditioning regimens, and different restriction states. Here we have attempted to unify these variables by comparing the suppressive effects of a range of doses of morphine, cocaine, and LiCl on intake of a saccharin CS using a common regimen in non-restricted, food restricted, or water restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats...
July 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
P Mayser, S Schulz
BACKGROUND: Lithium succinate and gluconate are effective alternative options licensed for the topical treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD). OBJECTIVE: Their mode of action is not fully elucidated. Minimal inhibitory concentrations against Malassezia (M.) yeasts, which play an important role in SD, are very high. METHODS: An assay based on the hydrolysis of ethyl octanoate enables us to test the hydrolytic activity of reference strains of the species M...
August 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
P N Menshanov, A V Bannova, N N Dygalo
Lithium chloride (85, 255, or 255+127 μg/kg) or dexamethasone (0.2 or 2 mg/kg) were subcutaneously injected to 3-day-old rat pups, whose excretory system did not yet attain functional maturity. Both agents retarded the growth of rat pups and delayed the appearance of negative geotaxis. LD50 and therapeutic index of lithium chloride were 255 μg/kg and TI≤3, respectively. Thus, lithium salts even in low doses can be highly toxic for the developing organism.
February 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
E I Solntseva, J V Bukanova, R V Kondratenko, V G Skrebitsky
Lithium salts are successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. At the same time, according to recent data lithium may be considered as a candidate medication for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of therapeutic action of lithium have not been fully elucidated. In particular, in the literature there are no data on the effect of lithium on the glycine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of Li(+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique...
March 2016: Neurochemistry International
W El-Hage, E Fakra
Only one third of patients suffering from depression will achieve a satisfactory response with first line treatments and more than half of patients will fail to obtain at least 50 % reduction in their symptoms after 3 months of treatment. This article presents a review of the scientific arguments supporting the various therapeutic strategies when confronted to a first treatment failure after an adequate drug trial. Several pharmacological approaches are possible. A first and classical approach is adjusting the drug dosage (optimization)...
February 2016: L'Encéphale
Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Khalid M Alkharfy, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M Al-Mohizea, Kazi Mohsin, Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Naushad Ali, Faiyaz Shakeel
The intention of the present research work was to investigate the antioxidant activity and trace element analysis of Ood-saleeb, a known herbal medicine. Preliminary screening of phytochemicals showed that the extract of Ood-saleeb had flavonoids and phenolics. The significant activities in all antioxidant assays were observed in the extract of Ood-saleeb in comparison with the standard antioxidant with respect to dose of Ood-saleeb. Incredible activities to scavenge reactive oxygen species were also observed by the extract of Ood-saleeb...
August 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
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