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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545264/reduction-of-dose-to-the-contralateral-breast-by-superflab-use-in-radiation-therapy-for-mammary-carcinomas
#1
Akanksha Solanki, Athiyaman M, Hemalatha A, H S Kumar
Background: Radiation therapy is an integral part of multimodality treatment for locally advanced carcinoma of breast. Radiation doses to nearby critical normal structures like heart, lungs, and contralateral breast (CLB increases risk of second malignancies. In this study, we measured doses to the CLB and studied effects of a 1 cm thickness superflap. Materials and Methods: Fifty post-mastectomy carcinoma breast patients were included in the study.Radiation therapy of 50 Gy was planned in 25 fractions, 5 days a week, using the Eclipse Treatment Planning System version 8...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545260/thermostabilization-of-the-uronate-dehydrogenase-from-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-by-semi-rational-design
#2
Teresa Roth, Barbara Beer, André Pick, Volker Sieber
Aldaric acids represent biobased 'top value-added chemicals' that have the potential to substitute petroleum-derived chemicals. Until today they are mostly produced from corresponding aldoses using strong chemical oxidizing agents. An environmentally friendly and more selective process could be achieved by using natural resources such as seaweed or pectin as raw material. These contain large amounts of uronic acids as major constituents such as glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid which can be converted into the corresponding aldaric acids via an enzyme-based oxidation using uronate dehydrogenase (Udh)...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545249/regulatory-and-safety-requirements-for-food-cultures
#3
REVIEW
Svend Laulund, Anette Wind, Patrick M F Derkx, Véronique Zuliani
The increased use of food cultures to ferment perishable raw materials has potentiated the need for regulations to assess and assure the safety of food cultures and their uses. These regulations differ from country to country, all aimed at assuring the safe use of food cultures which has to be guaranteed by the food culture supplier. Here we highlight national differences in regulations and review a list of methods and methodologies to assess the safety of food cultures at strain level, at production, and in the final product...
May 23, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545214/sediment-carbon-and-nutrient-fluxes-from-cleared-and-intact-temperate-mangrove-ecosystems-and-adjacent-sandflats
#4
Richard H Bulmer, Luitgard Schwendenmann, Andrew M Lohrer, Carolyn J Lundquist
The loss of mangrove ecosystems is associated with numerous impacts on coastal and estuarine function, including sediment carbon and nutrient cycling. In this study we compared in situ fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the sediment to the atmosphere, and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients and oxygen across the sediment-water interface, in intact and cleared mangrove and sandflat ecosystems in a temperate estuary. Measurements were made 20 and 25months after mangrove clearance, in summer and winter, respectively...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545211/nano-enabling-of-strong-base-ion-exchange-media-via-a-room-temperature-aluminum-hydr-oxide-synthesis-method-to-simultaneously-remove-nitrate-and-fluoride
#5
Jasmina Markovski, Jose Garcia, Kiril D Hristovski, Paul Westerhoff
This study demonstrated a new room-temperature method for synthesizing aluminum (hydr)oxide material inside the pores of strong-base ion-exchange resin to fabricate a novel class of hybrid media capable of simultaneously removing nitrate and fluoride as model groundwater contaminants. The aluminum (hydr)oxide hybrid media was fabricated by reducing aluminum ion precursors with borohydride within ion-exchange resin at room temperature, followed by exposure to environmental oxygen. The hybrid media was characterized, and its performance to simultaneously remove nitrate and fluoride was determined in simple and complex water matrices using short-bed column tests operated under conditions realistic for point-of-use systems...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545205/organic-composition-and-multiphase-stable-isotope-analysis-of-active-degrading-and-restored-blanket-bog
#6
Laura McAnallen, Rory Doherty, Neil Ogle
Here we used organic composition and stable isotopic analysis to evaluate the effects of drainage and restoration at an ombrotrophic peatland, to assess whether rewetting of blanket bogs will reverse degradation. The organic composition of the peat and the isotopic fractionation between the solid (peat), liquid (pore water) and gas (soil gas) phases on actively accumulating, degrading and restored locations are compared. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the organic material has shown a high level of humification (low decomposition) in the active peat...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545199/cyberknife-radioablation-of-prostate-cancer-%C3%A2-preliminary-results-for-400-patients
#7
Leszek Miszczyk, Agnieszka Namysł Kaletka, Aleksandra Napieralska, Grzegorz Woźniak, Małgorzata Stąpór Fudzińska, Grzegorz Głowacki, Andrzej Tukiendorf
Objectives: To evaluate the tolerance and effectiveness of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) applied in the treatment of low and intermediate risk (LR & IR) prostate cancer patients (PCP) and provide an evaluation of the level of risk group impact on treatment results. In addition, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) usage and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) decline after SABR were assessed. Material and Methods: A total of 400 PCP (213 LR and 187 IR, including T2c) were irradiated with a CyberKnife using fd 7...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545192/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-of-brain-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-eleven-patients-and-review-of-literature
#8
Nasir Ud Din, Abrar Barakzai, Aisha Memon, Sheema Hasan, Zubair Ahmad
Background: Atypical teratoid/ rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare aggressive embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumor of infancy and early childhood. Majority of the cases arise in the posterior fossa, and remaining in the cerebrum. Aims: To analyze the clinicopathologic features of AT/RT on a cohort of cases. Materials and methods: All reported cases of AT/RT at the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) from 2007 to 2016 were reviewed for clinical and pathological features...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545189/outcomes-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-modified-high-dose-omeprazole-and-amoxicillin-triple-therapy-with-standard-triple-therapy-for-helicobacter-pylori-eradication
#9
Kitti Chunlertlith, Uaepong Limpapanasit, Pisaln Mairiang, Suda Vannaprasaht, Wichittra Tassaneeyakul, Apichat Sangchan, Kookwan Sawadpanich, Tanita Suttichaimongkol, Jamrus Pongpit, Moragot Pattarapongsin
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to peptic ulcer diseases and gastric cancer and eradication of H. pylori should be expected to decrease the risk of their development. Factors affecting H. pylori eradication are antibiotic resistance, CYP2C19 genotypes, drug regimen and patient compliance. Increment of omeprazole and amoxicillin dosage in clarithromycin-containing triple therapy regimen may overcome these problems and may be a better choice than the conventional clarithromycin-containing triple therapy regimen...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545186/gallium-nanoparticle-mediated-reduction-of-brain-specific-serine-protease-4-in-an-experimental-metastatic-cancer-model
#10
Enas M Moustafa, Marwa Abdelhameed Mohamed, Noura M Thabet
Purpose: Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are being made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Gallium (Ga) is the second most common metal ion, after platinum, used in cancer treatment. Its activities are numerous and various. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Ga on brain metastasis arising from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Forty experimental rats (divided into 4 groups) received diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at a dose (20 mg/kg...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545184/frequency-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-16-and-18-detection-in-paraffin-embedded-laryngeal-carcinoma-tissue
#11
Seyed Zinab Hosseini, Manoochehr Makvandi, Alireza Samarbafzade, Ali Timori, Nastaran Ranjbar, Nader Saki, Nilofar Nisi, Toran Shahani, Mehran Varnaseri, Kambiz Angali Ahmadi
Background and Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 and HPV18 have been detected in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and there is evidence that detection of HPVs would have better prognostic value than patients with HNSCC negative for HPVs. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate frequency of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Materials and methods: Fifty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks of laryngeal cancers were collected. Sections were prepared at 5 μm and DNA was extracted from each sample and subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect HPV-16/18 DNA s...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545167/synthesis-of-s-2-s-3-4-chlorophenyl-n-4-chlorophenyl-sulfonyl-4-phenyl-4-5-dihydro-1h-pyrazole-1-carboximidamido-3-methyl-d3-butanamide-d5-octa-deuterated-jd5037
#12
Malliga R Iyer, Resat Cinar, Nathan J Coffey, Robert J Chorvat, George Kunos
JD5037 (1) is a potent and selective, peripherally acting inverse agonist of the cannabinoid (CB1 R) receptor. Peripheral CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists have great potential in the treatment of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes, obesity and NASH. We report the synthesis of octa-deuterated [(2) H8 ]-JD5037 (S, S) (8) along with its (S, R) diastereomer (13) from commercially available L-valine-d8 starting material. The [(2) H8 ]-JD5037 compound will be used to quantitate unlabeled JD5037 during clinical ADME studies and will be used as an LC-MS/MS bioanalytical standard...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#13
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545071/characterization-of-the-urinary-microbiome-in-healthy-dogs
#14
Erin N Burton, Leah A Cohn, Carol N Reinero, Hans Rindt, Stephen G Moore, Aaron C Ericsson
The urinary bladder in healthy dogs has dogmatically been considered free of bacteria. This study used culture independent techniques to characterize the healthy canine urinary microbiota. Urine samples collected by antepubic cystocentesis from dogs without urinary infection were used for DNA extraction. Genital tract and rectal samples were collected simultaneously from the same dogs. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene was amplified and compared against Greengenes database for OTU assignment and relative abundance for urine, genital, and rectal samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544966/antibacterial-property-and-biocompatibility-of-chitosan-poly-vinyl-alcohol-zno-cs-pva-zno-beads-as-an-efficient-adsorbent-for-cu-ii-removal-from-aqueous-solution
#15
Jiao Xu, Yaping Zhang, Yuvaraja Gutha, Weijiang Zhang
The feasibility of using chitosan/Poly(vinyl alcohol)/ZnO beads (CS/PVA/ZnO) as an adsorbent for removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions was studied in a batch method. The developed adsorbent material was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and TEM analysis. Pure ZnO shows the characteristic peaks at (100), (002), (101), (102), (110), (103), (200) and (112) that were in good agreement with wurtzite ore having hexagonal lattice structure. Antibacterial properties and biocompatibility of the CS/PVA/ZnO was tested...
May 11, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544962/effect-of-immobilization-on-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-a-cysteine-terminated-antimicrobial-peptide-cecropin-p1-tethered-to-silica-nanoparticle-against-e-coli-o157-h7-edl933
#16
Xi Wu, Pei-Hsun Wei, Xiao Zhu, Mary J Wirth, Arun Bhunia, Ganesan Narsimhan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have the ability to penetrate the cell membrane, form pores which eventually lead to cell death. Immobilization of AMP on nanoparticles can play a major role in antimicrobial materials, biosensors for pathogen detection and in food safety. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of free Cecropin P1 (CP1, sequence SWLSTAKKLENSAKKRLSEGIAIAIQGGPR) and adsorbed on silica nanoparticle against E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 were 0.78μg/ml. This was found to be consistent with preservation of α-helical secondary structure of CP1 upon adsorption as indicated by circular dichroism (CD)...
May 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544937/recycling-metals-from-lithium-ion-battery-by-mechanical-separation-and-vacuum-metallurgy
#17
Jiefeng Xiao, Jia Li, Zhengming Xu
The large-batch application of lithium ion batteries leads to the mass production of spent batteries. So the enhancement of disposal ability of spent lithium ion batteries is becoming very urgent. This study proposes an integrated process to handle bulk spent lithium manganese (LiMn2O4) batteries to in situ recycle high value-added products without any additives. By mechanical separation, the mixed electrode materials mainly including binder, graphite and LiMn2O4 are firstly obtained from spent batteries. Then, the reaction characteristics for the oxygen-free roasting of mixed electrode materials are analyzed...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544901/alkaline-electrochemical-advanced-oxidation-process-for-chromium-oxidation-at-graphitized-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#18
Yudong Xue, Shili Zheng, Zhi Sun, Yi Zhang, Wei Jin
Alkaline electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for chromium oxidation and Cr-contaminated waste disposal were reported in this study. The highly graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes g-MWCNTs modified electrode was prepared for the in-situ electrochemical generation of HO2(-). RRDE test results illustrated that g-MWCNTs exhibited much higher two-electron oxygen reduction activity than other nanocarbon materials with peak current density of 1.24 mA cm(-2), %HO2(-) of 77.0% and onset potential of -0...
May 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544898/aerosol-and-snow-transfer-processes-an-investigation-on-the-behavior-of-water-soluble-organic-compounds-and-ionic-species
#19
Elena Barbaro, Roberta Zangrando, Sara Padoan, Ornela Karroca, Giuseppa Toscano, Warren R L Cairns, Carlo Barbante, Andrea Gambaro
The concentrations of water-soluble compounds (ions, carboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars, phenolic compounds) in aerosol and snow have been determined at the coastal Italian base "Mario Zucchelli" (Antarctica) during the 2014-2015 austral summer. The main aim of this research was to investigate the air-snow transfer processes of a number of classes of chemical compounds and investigate their potential as tracers for specific sources. The composition and particle size distribution of Antarctic aerosol was measured, and water-soluble compounds accounted for 66% of the PM10 total mass concentration...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544874/the-relative-safety-of-paternal-maternal-and-traditional-foster-care-placements
#20
Jesse J Helton, Brian B Boutwell, Michael DiBernardo
When children are placed into foster care the caseworker must give preference to an adult relative, many of whom are grandparents, over an unrelated caregiver. This kinship preference is based in evolutionary biology, which suggests that the imperative to care for a child should be greater for kin versus non-kin. However, not all kin are related to a child in the same way, and level of paternity uncertainty may influence level of care provided. For instance, maternal grandparents can be assured that they share genetic material with their grandchild, while paternal grandparents may not have the same level of certainty...
May 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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