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A C Shortall, R B Price, L MacKenzie, F J T Burke
Light curing is a critical step in the restorative process when using light-activated resin-based composites, but it is frequently not given the attention it deserves. The selection of a reliable light curing unit (LCU) that meets the practitioner's needs is an important equipment purchase. Using an inappropriate LCU may seriously compromise the quality of care without the practitioner realising their mistake until years later. The importance of the subject is reflected by the rapidly increasing use of light-cured composites and the decline in the use of amalgam...
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
S Mickenautsch
OBJECTIVES: To provide a brief overview of the current evidence-base for direct posterior tooth restorations in permanent teeth placed using high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC). METHODS: The evidence sources: laboratory trials, uncontrolled clinical trials, controlled clinical trials with HVGIC restorations placed after conventional cavity preparation by drill and controlled clinical trials with HVGIC restorations placed following the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach, were assessed based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, as well as methodological studies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Kelvin I Afrashtehfar, Elham Emami, Motahareh Ahmadi, Samer Abi-Nader, Faleh Tamimi
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: No knowledge synthesis exists concerning when to use a direct restoration versus a complete-coverage indirect restoration in posterior vital teeth. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the failure rate of conventional single-unit tooth-supported restorations in posterior permanent vital teeth as a function of remaining tooth structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four databases were searched electronically, and 8 selected journals were searched manually up to February 2015...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Massimo Del Fabbro, Stefano Corbella, Patrick Sequeira-Byron, Igor Tsesis, Eyal Rosen, Alessandra Lolato, Silvio Taschieri
BACKGROUND: When primary root canal therapy fails, periapical lesions can be retreated with or without surgery. Root canal retreatment is a non-surgical procedure that involves removal of root canal filling materials from the tooth, followed by cleaning, shaping and obturating of the canals. Root-end resection is a surgical procedure that involves exposure of the periapical lesion through an osteotomy, surgical removal of the lesion, removal of part of the root-end tip, disinfection and, commonly, retrograde sealing or filling of the apical portion of the remaining root canal...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Andrej M Kielbassa, Georg Glockner, Michael Wolgin, Karl Glockner
BACKGROUND: With the Minamata Convention the use of mercury will be phased down, and this undoubtedly will have an effect on dental treatment regimens and economic resources. Composite resin restorations are considered viable alternatives to amalgam fillings; however, these will not be covered completely by health insurance systems in many countries. Recently, a high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (hvGIC) processed with a resinous coating (RC) has been introduced, and has been marketed as a restorative material in load-bearing Class I cavities (and in Class II cavities with limited size), thus serving as a possible alternative to amalgam fillings...
2016: Quintessence International
Caroline S Martinez, Franck M Peçanha, Daniela S Brum, Francielli W Santos, Jeferson L Franco, Ana Paula P Zemolin, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Fernando B Junior, María J Alonso, Mercedes Salaices, Dalton V Vassallo, Fábio G Leivas, Giulia A Wiggers
Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and mercury contamination and toxicity are serious hazards to human health. Some studies have shown that mercury impairs male reproductive function, but less is known about its effects following exposure at low doses and the possible mechanisms underlying its toxicity. Herein we show that exposure of rats to mercury chloride for 30 days (first dose 4.6µgkg-1, subsequent doses 0.07µgkg-1day-1) resulted in mean (±s.e.m.) blood mercury concentrations of 6.8±0...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Veerasamy Yengopal, Soraya Yasin Harnekar, Naren Patel, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Childhood caries (tooth decay) consists of a form of tooth decay that affects the milk teeth (also known as baby or primary teeth) of children. This may range from tooth decay in a single tooth to rampant caries affecting all the teeth in the mouth. Primary teeth in young children are vital to their development and every effort should be made to retain these teeth for as long as is possible. Dental fillings or restorations have been used as an intervention to repair these damaged teeth...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
János Jakucs, Eszter Bánffy, Krisztián Oross, Vanda Voicsek, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Elaine Dunbar, Bernd Kromer, Alex Bayliss, Daniela Hofmann, Peter Marshall, Alasdair Whittle
Perhaps nowhere in European prehistory does the idea of clearly-defined cultural boundaries remain more current than in the initial Neolithic, where the southeast-northwest trend of the spread of farming crosses what is perceived as a sharp divide between the Balkans and central Europe. This corresponds to a distinction between the Vinča culture package, named for a classic site in Serbia, with its characteristic pottery assemblage and absence of longhouses, and the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), with equally diagnostic but different pottery, and its apparently culturally-diagnostic longhouses, extending in a more northerly belt through central Europe westward to the Dutch coast...
2016: Journal of World Prehistory
Lara R Arauna, Javier Mendoza-Revilla, Alex Mas-Sandoval, Hassan Izaabel, Asmahan Bekada, Soraya Benhamamouch, Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid, Pierre Zalloua, Garrett Hellenthal, David Comas
North Africa is characterized by its diverse cultural and linguistic groups and its genetic heterogeneity. Genomic data has shown an amalgam of components mixed since pre-Holocean times. Though no differences have been found in uniparental and classical markers between Berbers and Arabs, the two main ethnic groups in the region, the scanty genomic data available have highlighted the singularity of Berbers. We characterize the genetic heterogeneity of North African groups, focusing on the putative differences of Berbers and Arabs, and estimate migration dates...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Chandran Murugan, Kathirvel Rayappan, Ramar Thangam, Ramasamy Bhanumathi, Krishnamurthy Shanthi, Raju Vivek, Ramasamy Thirumurugan, Atanu Bhattacharyya, Srinivasan Sivasubramanian, Palani Gunasekaran, Soundarapandian Kannan
Combination therapy of multiple drugs through a single system is exhibiting high therapeutic effects. We investigate nanocarrier mediated inhibitory effects of topotecan (TPT) and quercetin (QT) on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (MDA-MB-231) and multi drug resistant (MDR) type breast cancer cells (MCF-7) with respect to cellular uptake efficiency and therapeutic mechanisms as in vitro and in vivo. The synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) pores used for loading TPT; the outer of the nanoparticles was decorated with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA)-Chitosan (CS) as anionic inner-cationic outer layer respectively and conjugated with QT...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Frank Tambornino, Jonathan Sappl, Felix Pultar, Trung Minh Cong, Sabine Hübner, Tobias Giftthaler, Constantin Hoch
Isothermal electrolysis is a convenient preparation technique for a large number of intermetallic phases. A solution of the salt of a less-noble metal is electrolyzed on a cathode consisting of a liquid metal or intermetallic system. This yields crystalline products at mild reaction conditions in a few hours. We show the aptness and the limitations of this approach. First, we give an introduction into the relevance of electrolytic synthesis for chemistry. Then we present materials and techniques our group has developed for electrocrystallization that are useful for electrochemical syntheses in general...
October 10, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Denis A Kuznetsov, Tamara A Bazhenova, Ivan V Fedyanin, Vyacheslav M Martynenko, Alexander F Shestakov, Galina N Petrova, Natal'ya S Komarova
A series of novel cluster compounds comprising molybdenum in a low valence state was synthesized by means of a disproportionation of the dimeric compound [Mo(+4)2Cl4(OCH3)4(CH3OH)2] (1). The reaction of 1 with CH3OH leads to the disproportionation of Mo(+4) yielding an unusual mixed-valence cluster [Mo(+3.5)4Cl4O2(OCH3)6(CH3OH)4] (2). By exploring this synthetic approach further, tri-{[Mo3Cl3(OCH3)7(CH3OH)3] (3)}, tetra-{[Mo4Cl4(OCH3)10(CH3OH)2] (4), [Mo4Cl3O(OCH3)9(CH3OH)3] (5), [Mo4Cl2(OCH3)12(CH3OH)2] (6)}, and hexanuclear {[Mo6Cl4O6(OCH3)10(CH3OH)2] (7)} molybdenum alkoxides were synthesized by the reaction of 1 with methanol and stoichiometric amounts of magnesium methoxide, thus providing a general facile access to the polynuclear methoxide complexes of a low-valence molybdenum...
October 18, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jyoti Yadav, Asha Rani, Vijander Singh
This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
(no author information available yet)
Amalgam shows the highest acid-buffering ability and antibacterial effect.
October 7, 2016: British Dental Journal
Kiran Jyoti, Richa Kaur Bhatia, Elvis A F Martis, Evans C Coutinho, Upendra Kumar Jain, Ramesh Chandra, Jitender Madan
In present investigation, initially curcumin was complexed with 2-HP-β-CD (curcumin-2-HP-β-CD-complex) in 1:1 ratio and later amalgamated with chitosan microspheres (curcumin-2-HP-β-CD-CMs) for selective delivery in colon only through oral route of administration. Various analytical, spectral and in-silico docking techniques revealed that the curcumin was deeply inserted in the 2-HP-β-CD cavity with apparent stability constant of 3.35×10(-3)M. Furthermore, the mean particle size of 6.8±2.6μm and +39...
September 28, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
K Doe, R Mroz, K-L Tay, J Burley, S Teh, S Chen
From 1861 to the 1940s, gold was produced from 64 mining districts in Nova Scotia, where mercury amalgamation was the dominant method for the extraction of gold from ore until the 1880s. As a result, wastes (tailings) from the milling process were contaminated by mercury and were high in naturally occurring arsenic. In 2004 and 2005, sediments, water and mollusc tissues were collected from 29 sampling stations at nine former gold mining areas along the Atlantic coastline and were analysed for arsenic and mercury...
October 1, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Kevin Drace, Adam M Kiefer, Marcello M Veiga
There is a variety of health and environmental issues associated with artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), which includes concerns regarding mercury pollution. In many countries, intervention programs and policies emphasized the importance of reducing mercury use by focusing on viable alternative methods to amalgamation that may include a transition to cyanidation. ASGM communities that now employ a combination of both methods may be increasing health and environmental risks by using mercury-contaminated tailings in the cyanidation process...
September 30, 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
Valerie W Rusch, Kari Chansky, Hedy L Kindler, Anna K Nowak, Harvey I Pass, David C Rice, Lynn Shemanski, Françoise Galateau-Sallé, Brian C McCaughan, Takashi Nakano, Enrico Ruffini, Jan P van Meerbeeck, Masahiro Yoshimura
INTRODUCTION: The M component and TNM stage groupings for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have been empirical. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer developed a multinational database to propose evidence-based revisions for the eighth edition of the TNM classification of MPM. METHODS: Data from 29 centers were submitted either electronically or by transfer of existing institutional databases. The M component as it currently stands was validated by confirming sufficient discrimination (by Kaplan-Meier analysis) with respect to overall survival (OS) between the clinical M0 (cM0) and cM1 categories...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
María José Salas-Jara, Alejandra Ilabaca, Marco Vega, Apolinaria García
Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics...
September 20, 2016: Microorganisms
Manuel Toledano, Fátima S Aguilera, Modesto T López-López, Estrella Osorio, Manuel Toledano-Osorio, Raquel Osorio
The aim of this research was to assess the ability of amalgam restorations to induce amorphous mineral precipitation at the caries-affected dentin substrate. Sound and caries-affected dentin surfaces were subjected to both Zn-free and Zn-containing dental amalgam restorations. Specimens were submitted to thermocycling (100,000 cycles/5°C-55°C, 3 months). Dentin surfaces were studied by atomic force microscopy (nanoroughness), X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive analysis, for physical and morphological surface characterization...
September 29, 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
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