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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343134/exfoliated-graphene-nanosheets-ph-sensitive-drug-carrier-and-anti-cancer-activity
#1
Nisha Tyagi, Nour F Attia, Kurt E Geckeler
A straightforward and facile method for the exfoliation of graphene sheets using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) nanoparticles of an average size of 42nm was developed and their dual role as pH-sensitive drug carrier and anti-cancer agent was evaluated. The cytotoxic impact of the exfoliated nanosheets (GRP-PVP-NP) was examined on various cells (HCT-116, HeLa, SCC-9, NIH-3T3 and HEK-293cells) by a series of assays. Their cytotoxic nature was attributed to affecting the mitochondrial enzyme activity, proliferation capability, and the formation of tight junctions in cancer cells...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342982/mastocarcinoma-therapy-synergistically-promoted-by-lysosome-dependent-apoptosis-specifically-evoked-by-5-fu-nanogel-system-with-passive-targeting-and-ph-activatable-dual-function
#2
Xiandi Zhu, Yn Sun, Di Chen, Jingfeng Li, Xia Dong, Jie Wang, Huaiwen Chen, Ying Wang, Fulei Zhang, Jinaxin Dai, Rogério P Pirraco, Shangjing Guo, Alexandra P Marques, Rui L Reis, Wei Li
This manuscript describes a synergistic therapy for mastocarcinoma by pH and temperature dual-sensitive nanogel, and effects of microstructure, composition and properties of nanogel on the cellular response mechanism. The extracellular internalization of nanogels was obviously enhanced, due to the passive targeting function at T>VPTT. Interestingly, the increased cytotoxicity was further synergistically enhanced by an unexpected apoptosis as evoked by the 5-fluorouracil loaded nanogel (FLNG). The systemically evaluation of the effectors generated from different sub-cellular organelles including endosome, lysosome, autophagosome confirmed that it was a lysomal dependent apoptosis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342966/time-courses-of-post-injury-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-and-respiratory-dysfunction-and-neuronal-cytoskeletal-degradation-in-a-rat-model-of-focal-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Rachel L Hill, Indrapal N Singh, Juan A Wang, Edward D Hall
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative damage to essential brain cellular components leading to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. It is increasingly appreciated that a major player in TBI-induced oxidative damage is the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (PN) which is produced in large part in injured brain mitochondria. Once formed, PN decomposes into highly reactive free radicals that trigger membrane lipid peroxidation (LP) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (e...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342898/temperature-induces-significant-changes-in-both-glycolytic-reserve-and-mitochondrial-spare-respiratory-capacity-in-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#4
Mihail I Mitov, Jennifer W Harris, Michael C Alstott, Yekaterina Y Zaytseva, B Mark Evers, D Allan Butterfield
Thermotherapy, as a method of treating cancer, has recently attracted considerable attention from basic and clinical investigators. A number of studies and clinical trials have shown that thermotherapy can be successfully used as a therapeutic approach for various cancers. However, the effects of temperature on cancer bioenergetics have not been studied in detail with a real time, in a microplate, label-free detection approach. This study investigate how changes in temperature affect the bioenergetics characteristics (mitochondrial function and glycolysis) of three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines utilizing the Seahorse XF96 technology...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342809/identity-and-function-of-a-cardiac-mitochondrial-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channel-splice-variant
#5
Meiying Yang, Amadou K S Camara, Mohammed Aldakkak, Wai-Meng Kwok, David F Stowe
We provide evidence for location and function of a small conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SKCa) channel isoform 3 (SK3) in mitochondria (m) of guinea pig, rat and human ventricular myocytes. SKCa agonists protected isolated hearts and mitochondria against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury; SKCa antagonists worsened IR injury. Intravenous infusion of a SKCa channel agonist/antagonist, respectively, in intact rats was effective in reducing/enhancing regional infarct size induced by coronary artery occlusion...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342806/molecular-regulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-cardiac-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jinliang Nan, Wei Zhu, M S Rahman, Mingfei Liu, Dan Li, Shengan Su, Na Zhang, Xinyang Hu, Hong Yu, Mahesh P Gupta, Jian''an Wang
Mitochondrial homeostasis is critical for keeping functional heart in response to metabolic or environmental stresses. Mitochondrial fission and fusion (mitochondrial dynamics) play essential roles in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, defects in mitochondrial dynamics lead to cardiac diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), heart failure and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mitochondrial dynamics is determined by mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins, including OPA1, mitofusins and Drp1. These proteins are tightly regulated by a series of signaling pathways through different aspects such as transcription, post translation modifications (PTMs) and proteasome-dependent protein degradation...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341344/propofol-affinity-to-mitochondrial-membranes-does-not-alter-mitochondrial-function
#7
Luís M Félix, Fernando Correia, Pedro A Pinto, Sónia P Campos, Telma Fernandes, Romeu Videira, M Manuel Oliveira, Francisco P Peixoto, Luís M Antunes
The molecular mechanisms of hepatotoxicity after propofol anaesthesia have not been fully elucidated, although there is a relation with mitochondrial dysfunction. The action of propofol on mitochondrial hepatic functions in a rat model was evaluated by infusion for 4h with 25 and 62.5mg/kg/h propofol or 3.125ml/kg/h (vehicle). Liver mitochondrial respiratory rates were evaluated as well as mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ), calcium fluxes, mitochondrial enzymatic activities (Complex I - V) and oxidative stress biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, lipid peroxidation and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio)...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340409/mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-oxidative-damage-in-hl-60-cells-exposed-to-900mhz-radiofrequency-fields
#8
Yulong Sun, Lin Zong, Zhen Gao, Shunxing Zhu, Jian Tong, Yi Cao
HL-60 cells, derived from human promyelocytic leukemia, were exposed to continuous wave 900MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 120μW/cm(2) power intensity for 4h/day for 5 consecutive days to examine whether such exposure is capable damaging the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the effect of RF exposure was examined on 8-hydroxy-2'-dexoyguanosine (8-OHdG) which is a biomarker for oxidative damage and on the mitochondrial synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the energy required for cellular functions...
March 7, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340313/linkage-between-mitochondrial-genome-alterations-telomere-length-and-aging-population
#9
Egija Zole, Krista Zadinane, Liana Pliss, Renate Ranka
We studied telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number variations in individuals from Latvian Caucasian population in different age groups. We showed a positive correlation between TL and mtDNA copy number in individuals of up to 90 years of age; however, this correlation was not observed in the 90-100 years age group. While TL shortened with age and mtDNA content decreased with increasing age, in this study it was observed that mtDNA copy number in nonagenarians was slightly higher than in the 60-89 years age group...
March 24, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339981/transcriptome-analysis-of-comb-and-testis-from-rose-comb-silky-chicken-r1-r1-and-beijing-fatty-wild-type-chicken-r-r
#10
Y Wang, J Li, C Feng, Y Zhao, X Hu, N Li
Rose-comb was one of the chicken comb-variants first used by Bateson and Punnet in 1902 to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance in animals. Rose-comb is a monogenic trait that has been widely described in chickens. It is caused by a large structural rearrangement that leads to mis-expression of transcription factor MNR2 on chromosome 7. Rose-comb has pleiotropic effects in homozygous roosters, which is associated with poor sperm mobility. It was postulated that this is caused by the disruption of the CCDC108 gene located at the distal inversion breakpoint...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339599/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-coq9-affects-mitochondrial-and-ovarian-function-and-fertility-in-holstein-cows%C3%A2
#11
M Sofia Ortega, Stephanie Wohlgemuth, Paula Tribulo, Luiz G B Siqueira, Daniel J Null, John B Cole, Marcus V Da Silva, Peter J Hansen
A single missense mutation at position 159 of coenzyme Q9 (COQ9) (G→A; rs109301586) has been associated with genetic variation in fertility in Holstein cattle, with the A allele associated with higher fertility. COQ9 is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme COQ10, a component of the electron transport system of the mitochondria. Here we tested whether reproductive phenotype is associated with the mutation and evaluated functional consequences for cellular oxygen metabolism, body weight changes, and ovarian function...
February 3, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339017/sirt1-is-required-for-mitochondrial-biogenesis-reprogramming-in-hypoxic-human-pulmonary-arteriolar-smooth-muscle-cells
#12
Pengyun Li, Yan Liu, Nana Burns, Ke-Seng Zhao, Rui Song
Although recent studies have reported that mitochondria are putative oxygen sensors underlying hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, little is known concerning the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory program in pulmonary arteriolar smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). We investigated the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in human PASMCs during H/R. Human PASMCs were exposed to hypoxia of 24-48 h and reoxygenation of 24-48 h...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338826/the-evolutionary-fate-of-the-chloroplast-and-nuclear-rps16-genes-as-revealed-through-the-sequencing-and-comparative-analyses-of-four-novel-legume-chloroplast-genomes-from-lupinus
#13
J Keller, M Rousseau-Gueutin, G E Martin, J Morice, J Boutte, E Coissac, M Ourari, M Aïnouche, A Salmon, F Cabello-Hurtado, A Aïnouche
The Fabaceae family is considered as a model system for understanding chloroplast genome evolution due to the presence of extensive structural rearrangements, gene losses and localized hypermutable regions. Here, we provide sequences of four chloroplast genomes from the Lupinus genus, belonging to the underinvestigated Genistoid clade. Notably, we found in Lupinus species the functional loss of the essential rps16 gene, which was most likely replaced by the nuclear rps16 gene that encodes chloroplast and mitochondrion targeted RPS16 proteins...
February 27, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338655/evolution-of-caspase-mediated-cell-death-and-differentiation-twins-separated-at-birth
#14
REVIEW
Ryan A V Bell, Lynn A Megeney
The phenotypic and biochemical similarities between caspase-mediated apoptosis and cellular differentiation are striking. They include such diverse phenomenon as mitochondrial membrane perturbations, cytoskeletal rearrangements and DNA fragmentation. The parallels between the two disparate processes suggest some common ancestry and highlight the paradoxical nature of the death-centric view of caspases. That is, what is the driving selective pressure that sustains death-inducing proteins throughout eukaryotic evolution? Plausibly, caspase function may be rooted in a primordial non-death function, such as cell differentiation, and was co-opted for its role in programmed cell death...
March 24, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338625/-r-aloesaponol-iii-8-methyl-ether-from-eremurus-persicus-a-novel-compound-against-leishmaniosis
#15
Daniela Rossi, Karzan Mahmood Ahmed, Raffaella Gaggeri, Serena Della Volpe, Lauretta Maggi, Giuseppe Mazzeo, Giovanna Longhi, Sergio Abbate, Federica Corana, Emanuela Martino, Marisa Machado, Raquel Varandas, Maria do Céu Sousa, Simona Collina
Leishmaniosis is a neglected tropical disease which affects several millions of people worldwide. The current drug therapies are expensive and often lack efficacy, mainly due to the development of parasite resistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for new drugs effective against Leishmania infections. As a part of our ongoing study on the phytochemical characterization and biological investigation of plants used in the traditional medicine of western and central Asia, in the present study, we focused on Eremurus persicus root extract in order to evaluate its potential in the treatment of leishmaniosis...
March 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338606/dystrophic-cardiomyopathy-potential-role-of-calcium-in-pathogenesis-treatment-and-novel-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Victoria P A Johnstone, Helena M Viola, Livia C Hool
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by defects in the DMD gene and results in progressive wasting of skeletal and cardiac muscle due to an absence of functional dystrophin. Cardiomyopathy is prominent in DMD patients, and contributes significantly to mortality. This is particularly true following respiratory interventions that reduce death rate and increase ambulation and consequently cardiac load. Cardiomyopathy shows an increasing prevalence with age and disease progression, and over 95% of patients exhibit dilated cardiomyopathy by the time they reach adulthood...
March 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338413/human-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-myobundles-to-measure-oxygen-uptake-and-assess-mitochondrial-toxicity
#17
Brittany N J Davis, Jeffrey W Santoso, Michaela J Walker, Cindy S Cheng, Timothy R Koves, William E Kraus, George A Truskey
Mitochondrial dysfunction is responsible for the toxicity of a number of drugs. Current isolated mitochondria or cellular monoculture mitochondrial respiration measurement systems lack physiological relevance. Using a tissue engineering rather than cell- or mitochondria-based approach enables a more physiologically relevant detection of drug-induced mitochondrial impairment. To probe oxygen consumption and mitochondrial health, we assayed the bioenergetic profile of engineered three-dimensional human skeletal muscle myobundles derived from primary myoblasts...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337975/a-chemical-chaperone-improves-muscle-function-in-mice-with-a-ryr1-mutation
#18
Chang Seok Lee, Amy D Hanna, Hui Wang, Adan Dagnino-Acosta, Aditya D Joshi, Mark Knoblauch, Yan Xia, Dimitra K Georgiou, Jianjun Xu, Cheng Long, Hisayuki Amano, Corey Reynolds, Keke Dong, John C Martin, William R Lagor, George G Rodney, Ergun Sahin, Caroline Sewry, Susan L Hamilton
Mutations in the RYR1 gene cause severe myopathies. Mice with an I4895T mutation in the type 1 ryanodine receptor/Ca(2+) release channel (RyR1) display muscle weakness and atrophy, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that the I4895T mutation in RyR1 decreases the amplitude of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) transient, resting cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, muscle triadin content and calsequestrin (CSQ) localization to the junctional SR, and increases endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) and mitochondrial ROS production...
March 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337566/liver-mitochondrial-membrane-fluidity-at-early-development-of-diabetes-and-its-correlation-with-the-respiration
#19
Ismael H Pérez-Hernández, Josué Misael Domínguez-Fuentes, Martín Palomar-Morales, Ana Cecilia Zazueta-Mendizabal, Arturo Baiza-Gutman, Ricardo Mejía-Zepeda
The biological membranes are important in cell function but, during development of diseases such as diabetes, they are impaired. Consequently, membrane-associated biological processes are impaired as well. The mitochondria are important organelles where oxidative phosphorylation takes place, a process closely related with the membranes. In general, it is accepted that the development process of diabetes decreases membrane fluidity. However, in some cases, it has been found to increase membrane fluidity of mitochondria but to decrease the Respiratory Control (RC) index...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337542/%C3%AE-synuclein-binds-to-the-er-mitochondria-tethering-protein-vapb-to-disrupt-ca-2-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-atp-production
#20
Sébastien Paillusson, Patricia Gomez-Suaga, Radu Stoica, Daniel Little, Paul Gissen, Michael J Devine, Wendy Noble, Diane P Hanger, Christopher C J Miller
α-Synuclein is strongly linked to Parkinson's disease but the molecular targets for its toxicity are not fully clear. However, many neuronal functions damaged in Parkinson's disease are regulated by signalling between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. This signalling involves close physical associations between the two organelles that are mediated by binding of the integral ER protein vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51)...
March 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
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