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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813700/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-age-related-muscle-loss-and-sarcopenia-a-mini-review
#1
Juan Diego Naranjo, Jenna L Dziki, Stephen F Badylak
Sarcopenia is a complex and multifactorial disease that includes a decrease in the number, structure and physiology of muscle fibers, and age-related muscle mass loss, and is associated with loss of strength, increased frailty, and increased risk for fractures and falls. Treatment options are suboptimal and consist of exercise and nutrition as the cornerstone of therapy. Current treatment principles involve identification and modification of risk factors to prevent the disease, but these efforts are of limited value to the elderly individuals currently affected by sarcopenia...
August 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813682/circadian-and-feeding-rhythms-orchestrate-the-diurnal-liver-acetylome
#2
Daniel Mauvoisin, Florian Atger, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, Jingkui Wang, Eva Martin, Laetitia Da Silva, Ivan Montoliu, Sebastiano Collino, Francois-Pierre Martin, Joanna Ratajczak, Carles Cantó, Martin Kussmann, Felix Naef, Frédéric Gachon
Lysine acetylation is involved in various biological processes and is considered a key reversible post-translational modification in the regulation of gene expression, enzyme activity, and subcellular localization. This post-translational modification is therefore highly relevant in the context of circadian biology, but its characterization on the proteome-wide scale and its circadian clock dependence are still poorly described. Here, we provide a comprehensive and rhythmic acetylome map of the mouse liver...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813673/multipotent-basal-stem-cells-maintained-in-localized-proximal-niches-support-directed-long-ranging-epithelial-flows-in-human-prostates
#3
Mohammad Moad, Edouard Hannezo, Simon J Buczacki, Laura Wilson, Amira El-Sherif, David Sims, Robert Pickard, Nicholas A Wright, Stuart C Williamson, Doug M Turnbull, Robert W Taylor, Laura Greaves, Craig N Robson, Benjamin D Simons, Rakesh Heer
Sporadic mitochondrial DNA mutations serve as clonal marks providing access to the identity and lineage potential of stem cells within human tissues. By combining quantitative clonal mapping with 3D reconstruction of adult human prostates, we show that multipotent basal stem cells, confined to discrete niches in juxta-urethral ducts, generate bipotent basal progenitors in directed epithelial migration streams. Basal progenitors are then dispersed throughout the entire glandular network, dividing and differentiating to replenish the loss of apoptotic luminal cells...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813526/mtor-has-a-developmental-stage-specific-role-in-mitochondrial-fitness-independent-of-conventional-mtorc1-and-mtorc2-and-the-kinase-activity
#4
Khalid W Kalim, Shuangmin Zhang, Xiaoyi Chen, Yuan Li, Jun-Qi Yang, Yi Zheng, Fukun Guo
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), present in mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, is a serine/threonine kinase that integrates nutrients, growth factors, and cellular energy status to control protein synthesis, cell growth, survival and metabolism. However, it remains elusive whether mTOR plays a developmental stage-specific role in tissue development and whether mTOR can function independent of its complexes and kinase activity. In this study, by inducible genetic manipulation approach, we investigated the role of mTOR and its dependence on mTOR complexes and kinase activity in mitochondrial fitness of early, progenitor stage (lineage-negative; Lin-) versus later, lineage-committed stage (lineage-positive; Lin+) of hematopoietic cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813475/evaluation-of-the-adaptogenic-potential-exerted-by-ginsenosides-rb1-and-rg1-against-oxidative-stress-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-an-in-vitro-neuronal-model
#5
Carlos Fernández-Moriano, Elena González-Burgos, Irene Iglesias, Rafael Lozano, M Pilar Gómez-Serranillos
BACKGROUND: Ginseng (Panax sp.) is a drug with multiple pharmacological actions that has been largely used in traditional medicines for the treatment of many health problems. In the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders, it has been employed due to its capacity to strengthen mental processes by enhancing cognitive performance and psychological function. Current work aimed at evaluating the adaptogenic potential of Rb1 and Rg1 against oxidative-stress mediated degeneration in a model of nervous cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813209/galangin-a-natural-flavonoid-reduces-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#6
Amal A Aloud, Chinnadurai Veeramani, Chandramohan Govindasamy, Mohammed A Alsaif, Khalid S Al-Numair
OBJECTIVE: We designed this study to observe the effect of galangin on damaged mitochondria in the liver of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats were made diabetic by injecting streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (40 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)). Galangin (8 mg kg(-1) BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg kg(-1) BW) was given orally daily once for 45 days to both healthy and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed significant (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813052/mixed-ligand-iridium-iii-complexes-as-photodynamic-anticancer-agents
#7
Yue Zheng, Liang He, Dong-Yang Zhang, Cai-Ping Tan, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
Many phosphorescent iridium complexes are potent candidates as photodynamic therapeutic agents. In this work, a series of mixed-ligand phosphorescent iridium complexes (Ir1: [Ir(L1)(bpy)Cl](PF6)2; Ir2: [Ir(L1)(ppy)Cl](PF6); Ir3: [Ir(L2)(bpy)Cl](PF6)2; Ir4: [Ir(L2)(ppy)Cl](PF6). L1 = 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; L2 = 2,6-bis(1-methyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) have been synthesized and characterized. These complexes display high luminescence quantum yields and long phosphorescence lifetimes...
August 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812724/the-genomic-landscape-of-evolutionary-convergence-in-mammals-birds-and-reptiles
#8
Liron Levin, Dan Mishmar
Many lineage-defining (nodal) mutations possess high functionality. However, differentiating adaptive nodal mutations from those that are functionally compensated remains challenging. To address this challenge, we identified functional nodal mutations (fNMs) in ~3,400 nuclear DNA (nDNA) and 4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) protein structures from 91 and 1,003 species, respectively, representing the entire mammalian, bird and reptile phylogeny. A screen for candidate compensatory mutations among co-occurring amino acid changes in close structural proximity revealed that such compensated fNMs encompass 37% and 27% of the mtDNA and nDNA datasets, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812582/control-of-intestinal-stem-cell-function-and-proliferation-by-mitochondrial-pyruvate-metabolism
#9
John C Schell, Dona R Wisidagama, Claire Bensard, Helong Zhao, Peng Wei, Jason Tanner, Aimee Flores, Jeffrey Mohlman, Lise K Sorensen, Christian S Earl, Kristofor A Olson, Ren Miao, T Cameron Waller, Don Delker, Priyanka Kanth, Lei Jiang, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Mary P Bronner, Dean Y Li, James E Cox, Heather R Christofk, William E Lowry, Carl S Thummel, Jared Rutter
Most differentiated cells convert glucose to pyruvate in the cytosol through glycolysis, followed by pyruvate oxidation in the mitochondria. These processes are linked by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), which is required for efficient mitochondrial pyruvate uptake. In contrast, proliferative cells, including many cancer and stem cells, perform glycolysis robustly but limit fractional mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation. We sought to understand the role this transition from glycolysis to pyruvate oxidation plays in stem cell maintenance and differentiation...
August 14, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811869/pro-and-antioxidant-functions-of-the-peroxisome-mitochondria-connection-and-its-impact-on-aging-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Markus Proft
Peroxisomes and mitochondria are the main intracellular sources for reactive oxygen species. At the same time, both organelles are critical for the maintenance of a healthy redox balance in the cell. Consequently, failure in the function of both organelles is causally linked to oxidative stress and accelerated aging. However, it has become clear that peroxisomes and mitochondria are much more intimately connected both physiologically and structurally. Both organelles share common fission components to dynamically respond to environmental cues, and the autophagic turnover of both peroxisomes and mitochondria is decisive for cellular homeostasis...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811654/characterization-of-the-mollusc-rig-i-mavs-pathway-reveals-an-archaic-antiviral-signalling-framework-in-invertebrates
#11
Baoyu Huang, Linlin Zhang, Yishuai Du, Fei Xu, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Despite the mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS)-dependent RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signalling pathway in the cytosol plays an indispensable role in the antiviral immunity of the host, surprising little is known in invertebrates. Here we characterized the major members of RLR pathway and investigated their signal transduction a Molluscs. We show that genes involved in RLR pathway were significantly induced during virus challenge, including CgRIG-I-1, CgMAVS, CgTRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), and CgIRFs (interferon regulatory factors...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811603/2-4-6-trinitrotoluene-induces-apoptosis-via-ros-regulated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-hepg2-and-hep3b-cells
#12
Hung-Yu Liao, Chih-Ming Kao, Chao-Ling Yao, Po-Wei Chiu, Chun-Chen Yao, Ssu-Ching Chen
2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been reported to cause numerous adverse effects. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying TNT-induced liver toxicity need to be elucidated. In this study, we used HepG2 (p53wt) and Hep3B (p53null) cell lines to investigate the cytotoxic effects of TNT. At first, we found that TNT significantly decreased cell viability and induced DNA damage. Thereafter, through transcriptomic analysis, we observed that the diverse biological functions affected included mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811531/the-selective-antifungal-activity-of-drosophila-melanogaster-metchnikowin-reflects-the-species-dependent-inhibition-of-succinate-coenzyme-q-reductase
#13
Mohammad-Reza Bolouri Moghaddam, Thomas Gross, Annette Becker, Andreas Vilcinskas, Mohammad Rahnamaeian
Insect-derived antifungal peptides have a significant economic potential, particularly for the engineering of pathogen-resistant crops. However, the nonspecific antifungal activity of such peptides could result in detrimental effects against beneficial fungi, whose interactions with plants promote growth or increase resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. The antifungal peptide metchnikowin (Mtk) from Drosophila melanogaster acts selectively against pathogenic Ascomycota, including Fusarium graminearum, without affecting Basidiomycota such as the beneficial symbiont Piriformospora indica...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811250/deficiency-in-perilipin-5-reduces-mitochondrial-function-and-membrane-depolarization-in-mouse-hearts
#14
Linda Andersson, Christina Drevinge, Ismena Mardani, Knut T Dalen, Marcus Ståhlman, Martina Klevstig, Annika Lundqvist, Fred Haugen, Martin Adiels, Per Fogelstrand, Jorge Asin-Cayuela, Lillemor Mattsson Hultén, Max Levin, Ewa Ehrenborg, Yun K Lee, Alan R Kimmel, Jan Borén, Malin C Levin
Myocardial triglycerides stored in lipid droplets are important in regulating the intracellular delivery of fatty acids for energy generation in mitochondria, for membrane biosynthesis, and as agonists for intracellular signaling. Previously, we showed that deficiency in the lipid droplet protein perilipin 5 (Plin5) markedly reduces triglyceride storage in cardiomyocytes and increases the flux of fatty acids into phospholipids. Here, we investigated whether Plin5 deficiency in cardiomyocytes alters mitochondrial function...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810614/evolution-of-correlation-between-helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-autoimmune-liver-disease
#15
Xin-Guo Peng, Yu-Yuan Li, Hui-Ting Chen, Yan Zhou, Jian-Guo Ma, Hong-Min Yin
The present study was planned to evaluate correlation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and autoimmune liver disease (AILD). A total of 60 patients diagnosed with AILD in Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College were continuously enrolled in the present study. HP infection was detected by 13C-urea breath test. The levels of anti-myeloperoxidase were tested by ELISA. The positive rate of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) were tested by indirect immunofluorescence...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810534/thymoquinone-prevents-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-mitochondria-induced-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-partial-hepatic-warm-ischemia-reperfusion
#16
Ahlem Bouhlel, Ben Mosbah, Hadj Abdallah, Catherine Ribault, Roselyne Viel, Saber Mannaï, Anne Corlu, Ben Abdennebi
This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the bioactive compound of Nigella sativa seeds, against warm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in liver. Rats were given an oral administration of a vehicle solution (sham group) or TQ at the appropriate dose (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg) for ten days consecutively. Following, they were subjected to 60min of partial hepatic ischemia followed by 24h of reperfusion. .Transaminase activities, histopathological changes, TNFα and antioxidant parameters were evaluated...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810231/cr-induced-cellular-injury-and-necrosis-in-glycine-max-l-biochemical-mechanism-of-oxidative-damage-in-chloroplast
#17
Kalimuthu Balasaraswathi, Sivalingam Jayaveni, Janardhanam Sridevi, Dhanasingh Sujatha, Kavati Phebe Aaron, Chellan Rose
Chromium-induced toxicity and mechanisms of cell death involved in plants are yet to be fully elucidated. To understand the events of these processes, the stress response of the soybean plant using trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds, namely, basic chromium sulphate (BCS) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was investigated. The leaf surface morphology for stomatal aperture, wax deposition and presence of trichomes for chromium accumulation was examined by SEM-EDAX and light microscopy. The leaf mesophyll cell integrity was identified by trypan blue staining; chlorophyll autofluorescence, ROS generation and mitochondrial function were studied by fluorescence microscopy using different dyes...
August 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809938/perinatal-testosterone-exposure-potentiates-vascular-dysfunction-by-er%C3%AE-suppression-in-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#18
Weiguo Xie, Mingming Ren, Ling Li, Yin Zhu, Zhigang Chu, Zhigang Zhu, Qiongfang Ruan, Wenting Lou, Haimou Zhang, Zhen Han, Xiaodong Huang, Wei Xiang, Tao Wang, Paul Yao
Recent clinical cohort study shows that testosterone therapy increases cardiovascular diseases in men with low testosterone levels, excessive circulating androgen levels may play a detrimental role in the vascular system, while the potential mechanism and effect of testosterone exposure on the vascular function in offspring is still unknown. Our preliminary results showed that perinatal testosterone exposure in mice induces estrogen receptor β (ERβ) suppression in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in offspring but not mothers, while estradiol (E2) had no effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809518/mir-542-promotes-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-smad-activity-and-is-raised-in-icu-acquired-weakness
#19
Roser Farre Garros, Richard Paul, Martin Connolly, Amy Lewis, Benjamin E Garfield, S Amanda Natanek, Susannah Bloch, Vincent Mouly, Mark J Griffiths, Michael I Polkey, Paul R Kemp
RATIONALE: Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is a common consequence of critical illness and a range of chronic diseases but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify miRNAs that were increased in the quadriceps of patients with muscle wasting and to determine the molecular pathways by which they contributed to muscle dysfunction. METHODS: miR-542-3p/-5p were quantified in the quadriceps of patients with COPD and intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW)...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809380/production-of-bone-mineral-material-and-bmp-2-in-osteoblasts-cultured-on-double-acid-etched-titanium
#20
R Velázquez-Cayón, G Castillo-Dalí, J-R Corcuera-Flores, M-A Serrera-Figallo, R Castillo-Oyagüe, M González-Martín, J-C Gutierrez-Pérez, D Torres-Lagares
BACKGROUND: The study of osteoblasts and their osteogenic functions is essential in order to understand them and their applications in implantology. In this sense, this study try to study BMP-2 production and bone matrix deposition, in addition to other biological variables, in osteoblasts cultured on a rough double acid-etched titanium surface (Osseotite®, Biomet 3i, Palm Beach Garden, Florida, USA) in comparison to a smooth titanium surface (machined) and a control Petri dish. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vitro prospective study...
August 15, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
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