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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231483/a-novel-redox-regulator-mntnbuoe-2-pyp-5-enhances-normal-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-function
#1
Y Zhao, D W Carroll, Y You, L Chaiswing, R Wen, I Batinic-Haberle, S Bondada, Y Liang, D K St Clair
The signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for the maintenance of normal cellular function. However, whether and how ROS regulate stem cells are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that, in transgenic mice expressing the human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene, a scavenger of ROS in mitochondria, the number and function of mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) under physiological conditions are enhanced. Importantly, giving MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+)(MnP), a redox- active MnSOD mimetic, to mouse primary bone marrow cells or to C57B/L6 mice significantly enhances the number of HSPCs...
February 10, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231026/late-administration-of-a-palladium-lipoic-acid-complex-poly-mva-modifies-cardiac-mitochondria-but-not-functional-or-structural-manifestations-of-radiation-induced-heart-disease-in-a-rat-model
#2
Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, John W Seawright, Francis J Antonawich, Merrill Garnett, Maohua Cao, Preeti Singh, Marjan Boerma
Exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation can cause adverse myocardial remodeling. In small animal models, local heart irradiation causes persistent alterations in cardiac mitochondrial function and swelling. POLY-MVA is a dietary supplement that contains a palladium lipoic acid complex that targets mitochondrial complex I and has been demonstrated to have greater redox potential than lipoic acid alone. POLY-MVA improves mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant enzyme activity in the aged rat heart. In this study, we tested whether POLY-MVA can mitigate cardiac effects of ionizing radiation...
February 23, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230862/inactivation-of-lsd1-triggers-senescence-in-trophoblast-stem-cells-by-induction-of-sirt4
#3
Josefina Castex, Dominica Willmann, Toufike Kanouni, Laura Arrigoni, Yan Li, Marcel Friedrich, Michael Schleicher, Simon Wöhrle, Mark Pearson, Norbert Kraut, Michaël Méret, Thomas Manke, Eric Metzger, Roland Schüle, Thomas Günther
Coordination of energy metabolism is essential for homeostasis of stem cells, whereas an imbalance in energy homeostasis causes disease and accelerated aging. Here we show that deletion or enzymatic inactivation of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) triggers senescence in trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of TSCs following Lsd1 inhibition shows gene set enrichment of aging and metabolic pathways. Consistently, global metabolomic and phenotypic analyses disclose an unbalanced redox status, decreased glutamine anaplerosis and mitochondrial function...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230856/ginsenoside-rg5-increases-cardiomyocyte-resistance-to-ischemic-injury-through-regulation-of-mitochondrial-hexokinase-ii-and-dynamin-related-protein-1
#4
Yi-Lin Yang, Jia Li, Kang Liu, Lei Zhang, Qun Liu, Baolin Liu, Lian-Wen Qi
Hexokinase-II (HK-II) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) regulate mitochondrial function differently. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) with emphasis on the regulation of mitochondrial HK-II and Drp1. Saturated acid palmitate (PA) stimulation increased lactate accumulation and induced cellular acidification by impairing the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in cardiomyocytes, leading to HK-II dissociation from mitochondria. Rg5 improved PDH activity and prevented cellular acidification by combating fatty-acid oxidation, contributing to protecting mitochondrial HK-II...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230232/carisbamate-blockade-of-t-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#5
Do Young Kim, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Stan T Nakanishi, Timothy Mettler, Ik-Hyun Cho, Younghee Ahn, Florian Hiess, Lina Chen, Patrick G Sullivan, S R Wayne Chen, Gerald W Zamponi, Jong M Rho
OBJECTIVES: Carisbamate (CRS) is a novel monocarbamate compound that possesses antiseizure and neuroprotective properties. However, the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. Here, we tested both direct and indirect effects of CRS on several cellular systems that regulate intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+) ]i . METHODS: We used a combination of cellular electrophysiologic techniques, as well as cell viability, Store Overload-Induced Calcium Release (SOICR), and mitochondrial functional assays to determine whether CRS might affect [Ca(2+) ]i levels through actions on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, and/or T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230188/3d-time-lapse-imaging-and-quantification-of-mitochondrial-dynamics
#6
Miguel Sison, Sabyasachi Chakrabortty, Jérôme Extermann, Amir Nahas, Paul James Marchand, Antonio Lopez, Tanja Weil, Theo Lasser
We present a 3D time-lapse imaging method for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in living HeLa cells based on photothermal optical coherence microscopy and using novel surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles. The biocompatible protein-based biopolymer coating contains multiple functional groups which impart better cellular uptake and mitochondria targeting efficiency. The high stability of the gold nanoparticles allows continuous imaging over an extended time up to 3000 seconds without significant cell damage...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229632/redox-regulation-of-mitochondrial-functional-activity-by-quinones
#7
N G Krylova, T A Kulahava, V T Cheschevik, I K Dremza, G N Semenkova, I B Zavodnik
Quinones are among the rare compounds successfully used as therapeutic agents to correct mitochondrial diseases and as specific regulators of mitochondrial function within cells. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the redox-dependent effects of quinones on mitochondrial function. The functional parameters [respiratory activity, membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation] of isolated rat liver mitochondria and mitochondria in intact cells were measured in the presence of eight exogenously applied quinones that differ in lipophilicity and one-electron reduction potential...
December 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229407/assessment-of-energy-metabolic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#8
Ghazaleh Hajmousa, Martin C Harmsen
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) are promising candidates for therapeutic applications in cardiovascular regenerative medicine. By definition, the phenotype ADSCs, e.g., the ubiquitous secretion of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix components is not met in vivo, which renders ADSC a culture "artefact." The medium constituents therefore impact the efficacy of ADSC. Little attention has been paid to the energy source in medium, i.e., glucose, which feeds the cell's power plants: mitochondria...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229379/a-novel-frameshift-mutation-in-the-sterol-27-hydroxylase-gene-in-an-egyptian-family-with-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-without-cataract
#9
Mohamed S Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud Y Issa, Ghada A Otaify, Maha S Zaki
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 sterol 27-hydroxylase enzyme encoded by CYP27A1 gene. CTX is characterized by tendon xanthomas, juvenile cataracts and multiple progressive neurological symptoms. Here we report on the clinical and molecular findings of a 35-years old Egyptian patient with CTX without cataract. Parents were first cousins with family history of two deceased sibs with mild impaired cognitive functions and epilepsy without appearance of tendon xanthomas...
February 22, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228553/the-novel-mitochondrial-matrix-protease-ste23-is-required-for-efficient-presequence-degradation-and-processing
#10
Asli Aras Taskin, Cansu Kücükköse, Nils Burger, Dirk Mossmann, Chris Meisinger, F-Nora Vögtle
Around 70% of mitochondrial precursor proteins are imported from the cytosol via N-terminal presequences, which are cleaved upon exposure to the mitochondrial processing protease MPP in the matrix. Cleaved presequence peptides then need to be efficiently degraded and impairment of this clearance step e.g. by amyloid beta peptides causes a feedback inhibition of MPP leading ultimately to accumulation of immature precursor proteins within mitochondria. Degradation of mitochondrial peptides is performed by Cym1 in yeast and its homolog PreP in humans...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228333/the-interplay-of-axonal-energy-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-trafficking-and-anchoring
#11
REVIEW
Zu-Hang Sheng
Mitochondria are key cellular power plants essential for neuronal growth, survival, function, and regeneration after injury. Given their unique morphological features, neurons face exceptional challenges in maintaining energy homeostasis at distal synapses and growth cones where energy is in high demand. Efficient regulation of mitochondrial trafficking and anchoring is critical for neurons to meet altered energy requirements. Mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired transport have been implicated in several major neurological disorders...
February 19, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226317/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-brain-injury-in-rats
#12
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Xin Lu, Rao P Gullapalli, Mary C McKenna, Jaylyn Waddell
Perinatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) is a significant cause of brain injury in surviving infants. Although hypothermia improves outcomes in some infants, additional therapies are needed since about 40% of infants still have a poor outcome. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), an acetylated derivative of L-carnitine, protected against early changes in brain metabolites and mitochondrial function after HI on postnatal day (PND) 7 in a rat pup model of near-term HI injury. However, its efficacy in long-term structural and functional outcomes remains unexplored...
February 23, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225824/caloric-restriction-reduces-the-systemic-progression-of-mouse-aapoaii-amyloidosis
#13
Lin Li, Jinko Sawashita, Xin Ding, Mu Yang, Zhe Xu, Hiroki Miyahara, Masayuki Mori, Keiichi Higuchi
In mouse senile amyloidosis, apolipoprotein (Apo) A-II is deposited extracellularly in many organs in the form of amyloid fibrils (AApoAII). Reduction of caloric intake, known as caloric restriction (CR), slows the progress of senescence and age-related disorders in mice. In this study, we intravenously injected 1 μg of isolated AApoAII fibrils into R1.P1-Apoa2c mice to induce experimental amyloidosis and investigated the effects of CR for the next 16 weeks. In the CR group, AApoAII amyloid deposits in the liver, tongue, small intestine and skin were significantly reduced compared to those of the ad libitum feeding group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225071/resolution-of-tlr2-induced-inflammation-through-manipulation-of-metabolic-pathways-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Trudy McGarry, Monika Biniecka, Wei Gao, Deborah Cluxton, Mary Canavan, Siobhan Wade, Sarah Wade, Lorna Gallagher, Carl Orr, Douglas J Veale, Ursula Fearon
During inflammation, immune cells activated by toll-like receptors (TLRs) have the ability to undergo a bioenergetic switch towards glycolysis in a manner similar to that observed in tumour cells. While TLRs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), their role in regulating cellular metabolism in synovial cells, however, is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of TLR2-activation on mitochondrial function and bioenergetics in primary RA-synovial fibroblast cells (RASFC), and further determined the role of glycolytic blockade on TLR2-induced inflammation in RASFC using glycolytic inhibitor 3-(3-pyridinyl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one (3PO)...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224980/alpha-synuclein-prevents-the-formation-of-spherical-mitochondria-and-apoptosis-under-oxidative-stress
#15
Stefanie Menges, Georgia Minakaki, Patrick M Schaefer, Holger Meixner, Iryna Prots, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Kristina Friedland, Beate Winner, Tiago F Outeiro, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Christine A F von Arnim, Wei Xiang, Jürgen Winkler, Jochen Klucken
Oxidative stress (OS), mitochondrial dysfunction, and dysregulation of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) homeostasis are key pathogenic factors in Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, the role of aSyn in mitochondrial physiology remains elusive. Thus, we addressed the impact of aSyn specifically on mitochondrial response to OS in neural cells. We characterize a distinct type of mitochondrial fragmentation, following H2O2 or 6-OHDA-induced OS, defined by spherically-shaped and hyperpolarized mitochondria, termed "mitospheres"...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224717/tissue-specific-expression-and-silencing-phenotypes-of-mitochondrial-phosphate-carrier-paralogues-in-several-insect-species
#16
R Sugahara, A Jouraku, T Nakakura, M Minaba, T Yamamoto, Y Shinohara, H Miyoshi, T Shiotsuki
The mitochondrial phosphate carrier gene (PiC) encodes a membrane protein that mediates the supply of inorganic phosphate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix. This substrate-specific transport system plays an important role in efficient ATP synthesis. Mammals appear to have only one PiC with two alternative splicing variants whose functional differences remain unclear. The present study is the first to characterize the multiple genes that encode PiC in insects. Bombyx mori was found to have two PiC paralogues, one ubiquitous and one testis-specific, the latter seeming to be present only in Lepidoptera...
February 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223727/remote-ischemic-perconditioning-prevents-liver-transplantation-induced-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-role-of-ros-rns-and-enos
#17
Ning He, Jun-Jun Jia, Jian-Hui Li, Yan-Fei Zhou, Bing-Yi Lin, Yi-Fan Peng, Jun-Jie Chen, Tian-Chi Chen, Rong-Liang Tong, Li Jiang, Hai-Yang Xie, Lin Zhou, Shu-Sen Zheng
AIM: To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the protective role of remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) in rat liver transplantation. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham, orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) or RIPerC. After 3 h reperfusion, blood samples were taken for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine (Cr) and creatinine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB). The liver lobes were harvested for the following measurements: reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and total nitric oxide (NO)...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223550/nadh-autofluorescence-a-new-metabolic-biomarker-for-cancer-stem-cells-identification-of-vitamin-c-and-cape-as-natural-products-targeting-stemness
#18
Gloria Bonuccelli, Ernestina Marianna De Francesco, Rianne de Boer, Herbert B Tanowitz, Michael P Lisanti
Here, we assembled a broad molecular "tool-kit" to interrogate the role of metabolic heterogeneity in the propagation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). First, we subjected MCF7 cells to "metabolic fractionation" by flow cytometry, using fluorescent mitochondrial probes to detect PCG1α activity, as well ROS and hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2) production; NADH levels were also monitored by auto-fluorescence. Then, the various cell populations were functionally assessed for "stem cell activity", using the mammosphere assay (3D-spheroids)...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223285/butyrate-regulates-liver-mitochondrial-function-efficiency-and-dynamic-in-insulin-resistant-obese-mice
#19
Maria Pina Mollica, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Gina Cavaliere, Giovanna Trinchese, Chiara De Filippo, Serena Aceto, Marina Prisco, Claudio Pirozzi, Francesca Di Guida, Adriano Lama, Marianna Crispino, Diana Tronino, Paola Di Vaio, Roberto Berni Canani, Antonio Calignano, Rosaria Meli
Fatty liver, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of insulin resistance and obesity. Butyrate, produced by fermentation in the large intestine by gut microbiota, and its synthetic derivative, the N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide, FBA, have been demonstrated to be protective against insulin resistance and fatty liver.Here, hepatic mitochondria were identified as the main target of the beneficial effect of both butyrate-based compounds in reverting insulin resistance and fat accumulation in diet induced obese mice...
February 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223122/individual-and-combined-effects-of-aflatoxin-b1-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-on-hepg2-and-raw-264-7-cell-lines
#20
Hongyuan Zhou, Saji George, Crystal Hay, Joel Lee, He Qian, Xiulan Sun
To understand the combinatorial toxicity of mycotoxins, we measured the effects of individual, binary and tertiary combinations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone (ZEN) on the cell viability and cellular perturbations of HepG2 and RAW 264.7 cells. The nature of mycotoxins interactions was assessed using mathematical modeling (Chou-Talalay). Mechanisms of cytotoxicity were studied using high content screening (HCS) that probed cytotoxicity responses, such as changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) flux, and cell membrane damage...
February 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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