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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770607/nanophotonic-atomic-force-microscope-transducers-enable-chemical-composition-and-thermal-conductivity-measurements-at-the-nanoscale
#1
Jungseok Chae, Sangmin An, Georg Ramer, Vitalie Stavila, Glenn Holland, Yohan Yoon, A Alec Talin, Mark Allendorf, Vladimir A Aksyuk, Andrea Centrone
The atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a rich observation window on the nanoscale, yet many dynamic phenomena are too fast and too weak for direct AFM detection. Integrated cavity-optomechanics is revolutionizing micromechanical sensing; however, it has not yet impacted AFM. Here, we make a groundbreaking advance by fabricating picogram-scale probes integrated with photonic resonators to realize functional AFM detection that achieve high temporal resolution (<10 ns) and picometer vertical displacement uncertainty simultaneously...
August 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751725/image-based-modeling-of-bleb-site-selection
#2
Sharon Collier, Peggy Paschke, Robert R Kay, Till Bretschneider
Cells often employ fast, pressure-driven blebs to move through tissues or against mechanical resistance, but how bleb sites are selected and directed to the cell front remains an open question. Previously, we found that chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells preferentially bleb from concave regions, where membrane tension facilitates membrane-cortex detachment. Now, through a novel modeling approach based on actual cell contours, we use cell geometry to predict where blebs will form in migrating cells. We find that cell geometry alone, and by implication, physical forces in the membrane, is sufficient to predict the location of blebs in rounded cells moving in a highly resistive environment...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733850/comparison-of-autism-screening-in-younger-and-older-toddlers
#3
Raymond Sturner, Barbara Howard, Paul Bergmann, Lydia Stewart, Talin E Afarian
This study examined the effect of age at completion of an autism screening test on item failure rates contrasting older (>20 months) with younger (<20 months) toddlers in a community primary care sample of 73,564 children. Items related to social development were categorized into one of three age sets per criteria from Inada et al. (Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 4(4):605-611, 2010). Younger toddlers produced higher rates of item failure than older toddlers and items in both of the later acquired item sets had higher probability rates for failure than the earliest acquired item set (prior to 8 months)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728969/a-nanoporous-titanium-surface-promotes-the-maturation-of-focal-adhesions-and-the-formation-of-filopodia-with-distinctive-nanoscale-protrusions-by-osteogenic-cells
#4
Dainelys Guadarrama Bello, Aurélien Fouillen, Antonella Badia, Antonio Nanci
While topography is a key determinant of the cellular response to biomaterials the mechanisms implicated in the cell-surface interactions are complex and still not fully elucidated. In this context, we have examined the effect of nanoscale topography on the formation of filopodia, focal adhesions, and on gene expression of proteins associated with cell adhesion and sensing. Commercially pure titanium discs were treated for oxidative nanopatterning with a solution of H2SO4/H2O2 50:50 (v/v). Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations showed that this facile chemical treatment efficiently creates a unique nanoporous surface with a root-mean-square roughness of 11...
July 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726518/differential-responses-of-mesenteric-arterial-bed-to-vasoactive-substances-in-l-name-induced-preeclampsia-role-of-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#5
Taline A S Amaral, Dayane T Ognibene, Lenize C R M Carvalho, Ana Paula M Rocha, Cristiane A Costa, Roberto S Moura, Angela C Resende
To investigate the systemic and placental oxidant status as well as vascular function in experimental preeclampsia (PE) induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Fetal parameters and maternal blood pressure, proteinuria, mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) reactivity, and systemic and placental oxidative stress were compared between four groups: pregnant rats receiving L-NAME (60 mg/kg/day, orally) (P + L-NAME) or vehicle (P) from days 13 to 20 of pregnancy and nonpregnant rats receiving L-NAME (NP + L-NAME) or vehicle (NP) during 7 days...
July 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718471/two-dimensional-metal-organic-frameworks-with-high-thermoelectric-efficiency-through-metal-ion-selection
#6
Yuping He, Catalin D Spataru, Francois Léonard, Reese E Jones, Michael E Foster, Mark D Allendorf, A Alec Talin
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention due to their novel properties. An exciting new class of 2D materials based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has recently emerged, displaying high electrical conductivity, a rarity among organic nanoporous materials. The emergence of these materials raises intriguing questions about their fundamental electronic, optical, and thermal properties, but few studies exist in this regard. Here we present an atomistic study of the thermoelectric properties of crystalline 2D MOFs X3(HITP)2 with X = Ni, Pd or Pt, and HITP = 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene, using both ab initio transport models and classical molecular dynamics simulations...
July 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701514/talin-the-master-of-integrin-adhesions
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin Klapholz, Nicholas H Brown
Talin has emerged as the key cytoplasmic protein that mediates integrin adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In this Review, we draw on experiments performed in mammalian cells in culture and Drosophila to present evidence that talin is the most important component of integrin adhesion complexes. We describe how the properties of this adaptor protein enable it to orchestrate integrin adhesions. Talin forms the core of integrin adhesion complexes by linking integrins directly to actin, increasing the affinity of integrin for ligands (integrin activation) and recruiting numerous proteins...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698364/loss-of-mouse-cardiomyocyte-talin-1-and-talin-2-leads-to-%C3%AE-1-integrin-reduction-costameric-instability-and-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#8
Ana Maria Manso, Hideshi Okada, Francesca M Sakamoto, Emily Moreno, Susan J Monkley, Ruixia Li, David R Critchley, Robert S Ross
Continuous contraction-relaxation cycles of the heart require strong and stable connections of cardiac myocytes (CMs) with the extracellular matrix (ECM) to preserve sarcolemmal integrity. CM attachment to the ECM is mediated by integrin complexes localized at the muscle adhesion sites termed costameres. The ubiquitously expressed cytoskeletal protein talin (Tln) is a component of muscle costameres that links integrins ultimately to the sarcomere. There are two talin genes, Tln1 and Tln2. Here, we tested the function of these two Tln forms in myocardium where Tln2 is the dominant isoform in postnatal CMs...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697804/ang-ii-at2r-increases-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-by-signaling-through-the-fak-and-rhoa-cdc42-pathways-in-vitro
#9
Xiu-Ping Xu, Hong-Li He, Shu-Ling Hu, Ji-Bin Han, Li-Li Huang, Jing-Yuan Xu, Jian-Feng Xie, Ai-Ran Liu, Yi Yang, Hai-Bo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate via the bloodstream to sites of injury and are possibly attracted by inflammatory factors. As a proinflammatory mediator, angiotensin II (Ang II) reportedly enhances the migration of various cell types by signaling via the Ang II receptor in vitro. However, few studies have focused on the effects of Ang II on MSC migration and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Human bone marrow MSCs migration was measured using wound healing and Boyden chamber migration assays after treatments with different concentrations of Ang II, an AT1R antagonist (Losartan), and/or an AT2R antagonist (PD-123319)...
July 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695371/binding-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-specific-radiotracers-is-modulated-by-both-integrin-expression-level-and-activation-status
#10
Alexandra Andriu, Julie Crockett, Sergio Dall'Angelo, Monica Piras, Matteo Zanda, Ian N Fleming
PURPOSE: Molecular imaging of αvβ3 integrin has exhibited real potential to guide the appropriate use of anti-angiogenic therapies. However, an incomplete understanding of the factors that influence binding of αvβ3 integrin-specific radiotracers currently limits their use for assessing response to therapy in cancer patients. This study identifies two fundamental factors that modulate uptake of these radiotracers. Procedures Experiments were performed in prostate cancer (PC3) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells, which differentially express αvβ3 integrin...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688214/uterine-molecular-changes-for-non-invasive-embryonic-attachment-in-the-marsupials-macropus-eugenii-macropodidae-and-trichosurus-vulpecula-phalangeridae
#11
Melanie K Laird, Jessica R Dargan, Lillian Paterson, Christopher R Murphy, Bronwyn M McAllan, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree, Michael B Thompson
Pregnancy in mammals requires remodeling of the uterus to become receptive to the implanting embryo. Remarkably similar morphological changes to the uterine epithelium occur in both eutherian and marsupial mammals, irrespective of placental type. Nevertheless, molecular differences in uterine remodeling indicate that the marsupial uterus employs maternal defences, including molecular reinforcement of the uterine epithelium, to regulate embryonic invasion. Non-invasive (epitheliochorial) embryonic attachment in marsupials likely evolved secondarily from invasive attachment, so uterine defences in these species may prevent embryonic invasion...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687864/stressed-podocytes-mechanical-forces-sensors-signaling-and-response
#12
REVIEW
Karlhans Endlich, Felix Kliewe, Nicole Endlich
Increased glomerular capillary pressure (glomerular hypertension) and increased glomerular filtration rate (glomerular hyperfiltration) have been proven to cause glomerulosclerosis in animal models and are likely to be operative in patients. Since podocytes cover the glomerular basement membrane, they are exposed to tensile stress due to circumferential wall tension and to fluid shear stress arising from filtrate flow through the narrow filtration slits and through Bowman's space. In vitro evidence documents that podocytes respond to tensile stress as well as to fluid shear stress...
August 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678871/the-effect-of-infectious-dose-on-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-in-chlamydophila-caviae-primary-ocular-infection
#13
Ana Filipovic, Ehsan Ghasemian, Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Ivana Lukic, Elisabeth Stein, Emilija Marinkovic, Radmila Djokic, Dejana Kosanovic, Nadine Schuerer, Hadeel Chalabi, Sandra Belij-Rammerstorfer, Marijana Stojanovic, Talin Barisani-Asenbauer
Following infection, the balance between protective immunity and immunopathology often depends on the initial infectious load. Several studies have investigated the effect of infectious dose; however, the mechanism by which infectious dose affects disease outcomes and the development of a protective immune response is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate how the infectious dose modulates the local and systemic humoral and the cellular immune responses during primary ocular chlamydial infection in the guinea pig animal model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660176/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-is-associated-with-e-cadherin-promoter-methylation-downregulation-of-e-cadherin-expression-and-increased-expression-of-fibronectin-and-%C3%AE-sma-implications-for-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#14
Jovana Rajić, Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Elisabeth Stein, Svetlana Dinić, Nadine Schuerer, Aleksandra Uskoković, Ehsan Ghasemian, Mirjana Mihailović, Melita Vidaković, Nevena Grdović, Talin Barisani-Asenbauer
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) can induce scarring disease of the ocular mucosa, known as trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We hypothesized that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the fibrotic process in trachomatous scarring. Infection of human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCjE) with Ct activated signaling pathways involved in EMT induction, which was correlated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, guardian of the epithelial phenotype. In addition, Ct infection was associated with increased expression of two mesenchymal cell markers: fibronectin and α-SMA...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658209/fine-mapping-inflammatory-bowel-disease-loci-to-single-variant-resolution
#15
Hailiang Huang, Ming Fang, Luke Jostins, Maša Umićević Mirkov, Gabrielle Boucher, Carl A Anderson, Vibeke Andersen, Isabelle Cleynen, Adrian Cortes, François Crins, Mauro D'Amato, Valérie Deffontaine, Julia Dmitrieva, Elisa Docampo, Mahmoud Elansary, Kyle Kai-How Farh, Andre Franke, Ann-Stephan Gori, Philippe Goyette, Jonas Halfvarson, Talin Haritunians, Jo Knight, Ian C Lawrance, Charlie W Lees, Edouard Louis, Rob Mariman, Theo Meuwissen, Myriam Mni, Yukihide Momozawa, Miles Parkes, Sarah L Spain, Emilie Théâtre, Gosia Trynka, Jack Satsangi, Suzanne van Sommeren, Severine Vermeire, Ramnik J Xavier, Rinse K Weersma, Richard H Duerr, Christopher G Mathew, John D Rioux, Dermot P B McGovern, Judy H Cho, Michel Georges, Mark J Daly, Jeffrey C Barrett
Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified 200 inflammatory bowel disease-associated loci, but few have been conclusively resolved to specific functional variants. Here we report fine-mapping of 94 inflammatory bowel disease loci using high-density genotyping in 67,852 individuals. We pinpoint 18 associations to a single causal variant with greater than 95% certainty, and an additional 27 associations to a single variant with greater than 50% certainty...
July 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652408/the-extreme-c-terminal-region-of-kindlin-2-is-critical-to-its-regulation-of-integrin-activation
#16
Jamila Hirbawi, Katarzyna Bialkowska, Kamila M Bledzka, Jianmin Liu, Koichi Fukuda, Jun Qin, Edward F Plow
Kindlin-2 (K2), a 4.1R-ezrin-radixin-moesin (FERM) domain adaptor protein, mediates numerous cellular responses, including integrin activation. The C-terminal 15 amino acid sequence of K2 is remarkably conserved across species but is absent in canonical FERM proteins including talin. In CHO cells expressing integrin αIIbβ3, co-expression of K2 with talin head (talin-H) domain resulted in robust integrin activation, but this co-activation was lost after deletion of as few as seven amino acids from the K2 C-terminus...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637452/downregulation-of-talin-1-expression-associates-with-increased-proliferation-and-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-aortic-dissection
#17
Xiaolong Wei, Yudong Sun, Yani Wu, Jiang Zhu, Bin Gao, Han Yan, Zhiqing Zhao, Jian Zhou, Zaiping Jing
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assessed whether Talin-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of aortic dissection via regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) biological function. METHODS: Human aortic samples were obtained from organ donors who died from nonvascular diseases as normal controls and from patients undergoing surgical repair of thoracic aortic dissection. The expression level and distribution of Talin-1 were detected using westernblot analysis and immunohistochemistry in each sample...
June 20, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636424/fluid-shear-stress-regulates-hepg2-cell-migration-though-time-dependent-integrin-signaling-cascade
#18
Hongchi Yu, Yang Shen, Jingsi Jin, Yingying Zhang, Tang Feng, Xiaoheng Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a subtype of malignant liver cancer with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. It is noteworthy that mechanical forces in tumor microenvironment play a pivotal role in mediating the behaviors and functions of tumor cells. As an instrumental type of mechanical forces in vivo, fluid shear stress (FSS) has been reported having potent physiologic and pathologic effects on cancer progression. However, the time-dependent mechanochemical transduction in HCC induced by FSS remains unclear...
June 21, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620171/mechanical-stability-of-talin-rod-controls-cell-migration-and-substrate-sensing
#19
Rolle Rahikainen, Magdaléna von Essen, Markus Schaefer, Lei Qi, Latifeh Azizi, Conor Kelly, Teemu O Ihalainen, Bernhard Wehrle-Haller, Martin Bastmeyer, Cai Huang, Vesa P Hytönen
Cells adhere to the surrounding tissue and probe its mechanical properties by forming cell-matrix adhesions. Talin is a critical adhesion protein and participates in the transmission of mechanical signals between extracellular matrix and cell cytoskeleton. Force induced unfolding of talin rod subdomains has been proposed to act as a cellular mechanosensor, but so far evidence linking their mechanical stability and cellular response has been lacking. Here, by utilizing computationally designed mutations, we demonstrate that stepwise destabilization of the talin rod R3 subdomain decreases cellular traction force generation, which affects talin and vinculin dynamics in cell-matrix adhesions and results in the formation of talin-rich but unstable adhesions...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611383/integrin-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-in-nonactivated-conformation-can-induce-focal-adhesion-kinase-signaling
#20
Maria Salmela, Johanna Jokinen, Silja Tiitta, Pekka Rappu, R Holland Cheng, Jyrki Heino
Conformational activation of integrins is generally required for ligand binding and cellular signalling. However, we have previously reported that the nonactivated conformation of α2β1 integrin can also bind to large ligands, such as human echovirus 1. In this study, we show that the interaction between the nonactivated integrin and a ligand resulted in the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in a protein kinase C dependent manner. A loss-of-function mutation, α2E336A, in the α2-integrin did not prevent the activation of FAK, nor did EDTA-mediated inactivation of the integrin...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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