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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149383/diffusion-mri-in-pediatric-brain-injury
#1
Emily L Dennis, Talin Babikian, Christopher C Giza, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue around the world and can be especially devastating in children as TBI can derail cognitive and social development. White matter (WM) is particularly vulnerable to disruption post-TBI, as myelination is ongoing during this period. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a versatile modality for identifying and quantifying WM disruption and can detect diffuse axonal injury (DAI or TAI (traumatic axonal injury)). This review covers dMRI studies of pediatric TBI, including mild to severe injuries, and covering all periods post-injury...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147571/a-surprising-treatment-response-in-a-patient-with-rare-isolated-growth-hormone-deficiency-type-ib
#2
Jordan Yardain Amar, Kimberly Borden, Elizabeth Watson, Talin Arslanian
Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD) is a rare cause of short stature, treated with the standard regimen of subcutaneous synthetic growth hormone (GH). Patients typically achieve a maximum height velocity in the first year of treatment, which then tapers shortly after treatment is stopped. We report a case of a 9-year-old male who presented with short stature (<3rd percentile for age and race). Basal hormone levels showed undetectable serum IGF1. Skeletal wrist age was consistent with chronologic age...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142473/genetic-associations-with-adverse-events-from-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#3
Daniel Lew, Soon Man Yoon, Xiaofei Yan, Lori Robbins, Talin Haritunians, Zhenqiu Liu, Dalin Li, Dermot Pb McGovern
AIM: To study the type and frequency of adverse events associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy and evaluate for any serologic and genetic associations. METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of patients attending the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) centers at Cedars-Sinai IBD Center from 2005-2016. Adverse events were identified via chart review. IBD serologies were measured by ELISA. DNA samples were genotyped at Cedars-Sinai using Illumina Infinium Immunochipv1 array per manufacturer's protocol...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141864/il-1%C3%AE-induces-pathologically-activated-osteoclasts-bearing-extremely-high-levels-of-resorbing-activity-a-possible-pathological-subpopulation-of-osteoclasts-accompanied-by-suppressed-expression-of-kindlin-3-and-talin-1
#4
Takuma Shiratori, Yukari Kyumoto-Nakamura, Akiko Kukita, Norihisa Uehara, Jingqi Zhang, Kinuko Koda, Mako Kamiya, Tamer Badawy, Erika Tomoda, Xianghe Xu, Takayoshi Yamaza, Yasuteru Urano, Kiyoshi Koyano, Toshio Kukita
As osteoclasts have the central roles in normal bone remodeling, it is ideal to regulate only the osteoclasts performing pathological bone destruction without affecting normal osteoclasts. Based on a hypothesis that pathological osteoclasts form under the pathological microenvironment of the bone tissues, we here set up optimum culture conditions to examine the entity of pathologically activated osteoclasts (PAOCs). Through searching various inflammatory cytokines and their combinations, we found the highest resorbing activity of osteoclasts when osteoclasts were formed in the presence of M-CSF, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, and IL-1β...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115292/fibronectin-bound-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-integrins-sense-load-and-signal-to-reinforce-adhesion-in-less-than-a-second
#5
Nico Strohmeyer, Mitasha Bharadwaj, Mercedes Costell, Reinhard Fässler, Daniel J Müller
Integrin-mediated mechanosensing of the extracellular environment allows cells to control adhesion and signalling. Whether cells sense and respond to force immediately upon ligand-binding is unknown. Here, we report that during adhesion initiation, fibroblasts respond to mechanical load by strengthening integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin (FN) in a biphasic manner. In the first phase, which depends on talin and kindlin as well as on the actin nucleators Arp2/3 and mDia, FN-engaged α5β1 integrins activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Src in less than 0...
November 6, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099266/calpain2-mediates-rab5-driven-focal-adhesion-disassembly-and-cell-migration
#6
Pablo A Mendoza, Patricio Silva, Jorge Díaz, Cecilia Arriagada, Jimena Canales, Oscar Cerda, Vicente A Torres
The early endosome protein Rab5 was recently shown to promote cell migration by enhancing focal adhesion disassembly through mechanisms that remain elusive. Focal adhesion disassembly is associated to proteolysis of talin, in a process that requires calpain2. Since calpain2 has been found at vesicles and endosomal compartments, we hypothesized that Rab5 stimulates calpain2 activity, leading to enhanced focal adhesion disassembly in migrating cells. We observed that calpain2 co-localizes with EEA1-positive early endosomes and co-immunoprecipitate with EEA1 and Rab5 in A549 lung carcinoma cells undergoing spreading, whereas Rab5 knock-down decreased the accumulation of calpain2 at early endosomal-enriched fractions...
November 3, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094334/quantitative-mass-spectrometry-of-human-reticulocytes-reveal-proteome-wide-modifications-during-maturation
#7
Trang T T Chu, Ameya Sinha, Benoit Malleret, Rossarin Suwanarusk, Jung E Park, Renugah Naidu, Rupambika Das, Bamaprasad Dutta, Seow Theng Ong, Navin K Verma, Jerry K Chan, François Nosten, Laurent Rénia, Siu K Sze, Bruce Russell, Rajesh Chandramohanadas
Erythropoiesis is marked by progressive changes in morphological, biochemical and mechanical properties of erythroid precursors to generate red blood cells (RBC). The earliest enucleated forms derived in this process, known as reticulocytes, are multi-lobular and spherical. As reticulocytes mature, they undergo a series of dynamic cytoskeletal re-arrangements and the expulsion of residual organelles, resulting in highly deformable biconcave RBCs (normocytes). To understand the significant, yet neglected proteome-wide changes associated with reticulocyte maturation, we undertook a quantitative proteomics approach...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091355/-the-history-of-the-decree-on-the-department-of-ambulatory-care-and-community-medicine
#8
Taline Garibian
In 1957 the Grand Council of Vaud adopted a decree aiming to clarify the administrative situation of the Department of ambulatory care and community medicine created in 1887 under the name of central dispensary. The new decree confirms the special status of the Department of ambulatory care and community medicine, which becomes a public-law institution. This article reviews the context and the stakes of this legal evolution.
November 1, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073038/actin-retrograde-flow-actively-aligns-and-orients-ligand-engaged-integrins-in-focal-adhesions
#9
Vinay Swaminathan, Joseph Mathew Kalappurakkal, Shalin B Mehta, Pontus Nordenfelt, Travis I Moore, Nobuyasu Koga, David A Baker, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Tomomi Tani, Satyajit Mayor, Timothy A Springer, Clare M Waterman
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that, upon activation, bind extracellular ligands and link them to the actin filament (F-actin) cytoskeleton to mediate cell adhesion and migration. Cytoskeletal forces in migrating cells generated by polymerization- or contractility-driven "retrograde flow" of F-actin from the cell leading edge have been hypothesized to mediate integrin activation for ligand binding. This predicts that these forces should align and orient activated, ligand-bound integrins at the leading edge...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069646/the-intracranial-aneurysm-gene-thsd1-connects-endosome-dynamics-to-nascent-focal-adhesion-assembly
#10
Yan-Ning Rui, Zhen Xu, Xiaoqian Fang, Miriam R Menezes, Julien Balzeau, Airu Niu, John P Hagan, Dong H Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We recently discovered that harmful variants in THSD1 (Thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing protein 1) likely cause intracranial aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage in a subset of both familial and sporadic patients with supporting evidence from two vertebrate models. The current study seeks to elucidate how THSD1 and patient-identified variants function molecularly in focal adhesions. METHODS: Co-immunostaining and co-immunoprecipitation were performed to define THSD1 subcellular localization and interacting partners...
October 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052994/force-induced-calpain-cleavage-of-talin-is-critical-for-growth-adhesion-development-and-rigidity-sensing
#11
Mayur Saxena, Rishita Changede, James C Hone, Haguy Wolfenson, Michael P Sheetz
Cell growth depends upon formation of cell-matrix adhesions, but mechanisms detailing the transmission of signals from adhesions to control proliferation are still lacking. Here, we find that the scaffold protein talin undergoes force-induced cleavage in early adhesions to produce the talin rod fragment that is needed for cell cycle progression. Expression of non-cleavable talin blocks cell growth, adhesion maturation, proper mechanosensing, and the related property of EGF activation of motility. Further, the expression of talin rod in the presence of non-cleavable full-length talin rescues cell growth and other functions...
October 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045864/molecular-simulations-suggest-a-force-dependent-mechanism-of-vinculin-activation
#12
Li Sun, Jeffrey K Noel, Herbert Levine, José N Onuchic
Focal adhesions are dynamic constructs at the leading edge of migrating cells, linking them to the extracellular matrix and enabling force sensing and transmission. The lifecycle of a focal adhesion is a highly coordinated process involving spatial and temporal variations of protein composition, interaction, and cellular tension. The assembly of focal adhesions requires the recruitment and activation of vinculin. Vinculin is present in the cytoplasm in an autoinhibited conformation in which its tail is held pincerlike by its head domains, further stabilized by two high-affinity head-tail interfaces...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016715/matrix-metalloproteinase-2-knockout-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-vascular-injury
#13
Tlili Barhoumi, Julio C Fraulob-Aquino, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman Mian, Sofiane Ouerd, Noureddine Idris-Khodja, Ku-Geng Huo, Asia Rehman, Antoine Caillon, Bianca Dancose-Giambattisto, Talin Ebrahimian, Stéphanie Lehoux, Pierre Paradis, Ernesto L Schiffrin
Aims: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the development of hypertension in animal models and humans. Mmp2 deletion did not change Ang II-induced blood pressure (BP) rise. However, whether Mmp2 knockout affects angiotensin (Ang) II-induced vascular injury has not been tested. We sought to determine whether Mmp2 knockout will prevent Ang II-induced vascular injury. Methods and results: A fourteen-day Ang II infusion (1000 ng/kg/min, SC) increased systolic BP, decreased vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, induced mesenteric artery (MA) hypertrophic remodelling, and enhanced MA stiffness in wild-type (WT) mice...
July 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993400/talin-regulates-integrin-%C3%AE-1-dependent-and-independent-cell-functions-in-ureteric-bud-development
#14
Sijo Mathew, Riya J Palamuttam, Glenda Mernaugh, Harini Ramalingam, Zhenwei Lu, Ming-Zhi Zhang, Shuta Ishibe, David R Critchley, Reinhard Fässler, Ambra Pozzi, Charles R Sanders, Thomas J Carroll, Roy Zent
Kidney collecting system development requires integrin-dependent cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Integrins, are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors consisting of α and β subunits and critical integrins in the kidney collecting system express the β1subunit. The β1 cytoplasmic tail has two NPxY motifs that mediate functions by binding to cytoplasmic signaling and scaffolding molecules. Talins, scaffolding proteins that bind to the membrane proximal NPxY motif, are proposed to activate integrins and link them to the actin cytoskeleton...
October 9, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971676/strong-photothermoelectric-response-and-contact-reactivity-of-the-dirac-semimetal-zrte5
#15
François Léonard, Wenlong Yu, Kimberlee C Collins, Douglas L Medlin, Joshua D Sugar, A Alec Talin, Wei Pan
The family of three-dimensional topological insulators opens new avenues to discover novel photophysics and to develop novel types of photodetectors. ZrTe5 has been shown to be a Dirac semimetal possessing unique topological, electronic, and optical properties. Here, we present spatially resolved photocurrent measurements on devices made of nanoplatelets of ZrTe5, demonstrating the photothermoelectric origin of the photoresponse. Because of the high electrical conductivity and good Seebeck coefficient, we obtain noise-equivalent powers as low as 42 pW/Hz(1/2), at room temperature for visible light illumination, at zero bias...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967906/ezh2-promotes-neoplastic-transformation-through-vav-interaction-dependent-extranuclear-mechanisms
#16
N Venkatesan, J F Wong, K P Tan, H H Chung, Y H Yau, E Cukuroglu, A Allahverdi, L Nordenskiöld, J Göke, S Geifman-Shochat, V C L Lin, M S Madhusudhan, I-H Su
Recently, we reported that the histone methyltransferase, EZH2, controls leukocyte migration through interaction with the cytoskeleton remodeling effector, VAV, and direct methylation of the cytoskeletal regulatory protein, Talin. However, it is unclear whether this extranuclear, epigenetic-independent function of EZH2 has a profound impact on the initiation of cellular transformation and metastasis. Here, we show that EZH2 increases Talin1 methylation and cleavage, thereby enhancing adhesion turnover and promoting accelerated tumorigenesis...
October 2, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967739/highly-co2-selective-microporous-metal-imidazolate-framework-based-mixed-matrix-membranes
#17
Mahdi Ahmadi, Ender Taş, Ayşe Kılıç, Volkan Kumbaracı, Naciye Talınlı, M Göktuğ Ahunbay, Ş Birgül Tantekin-Ersolmaz
Microporous metal-imidazolate framework (MMIF), a highly CO2 selective MOF, was incoporated into a polymeric membrane for separation of CO2 from CH4 and N2 for the first time. MMIF nanoparticles of 50-200 nm were synthesized using the sonication method and dispersed into Matrimid, a commercial polyimide, with MOF loading of 10% and 20% by weight to fabricate mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). Morphology, thermal behavior, and glass transition temperature of the membranes were characterized, and single and mixed gas permeation measurements at 35 °C and 4 bar feed pressure were carried out to reveal their separation performance...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954813/kindlin-supports-platelet-integrin-%C3%AE-iib%C3%AE-3-activation-by-interacting-with-paxillin
#18
Juan Gao, Ming Huang, Jingjing Lai, Kaijun Mao, Peisen Sun, Zhongyuan Cao, Youpei Hu, Yingying Zhang, Marie L Schulte, Chaozhi Jin, Jian Wang, Gilbert C White, Zhen Xu, Yan-Qing Ma
Kindlins play an important role in supporting integrin activation by cooperating with talin; however, the mechanistic details remain unclear. Here, we disclosed that kindlins directly interacted with paxillin and this interaction could support integrin αIIbβ3 activation. An exposed loop in the N-terminal F0 subdomain of kindlins was involved in mediating the interaction. Disruption of kindlin binding to paxillin by structure-based mutations significantly impaired the function of kindlins in supporting integrin αIIbβ3 activation...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953960/why-do-people-use-exotic-plants-in-their-local-medical-systems-a-systematic-review-based-on-brazilian-local-communities
#19
REVIEW
Patrícia Muniz de Medeiros, Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior, Marcelo Alves Ramos, Taline Cristina da Silva, Ana Haydée Ladio, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
Efforts have been made to understand the processes that lead to the introduction of exotic species into local pharmacopoeias. Among those efforts, the diversification hypothesis predicts that exotic plants are introduced in local medical systems to amplify the repertoire of knowledge related to the treatment of diseases, filling blanks that were not occupied by native species. Based on such hypothesis, this study aimed to contribute to this discussion using the context of local Brazilian populations. We performed a systematic review of Brazilian studies up to 2011 involving medicinal plants, excluding those studies that presented a high risk of bias (because of sampling or plant identification problems)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945706/multiplexing-molecular-tension-sensors-reveals-piconewton-force-gradient-across-talin-1
#20
Pia Ringer, Andreas Weißl, Anna-Lena Cost, Andrea Freikamp, Benedikt Sabass, Alexander Mehlich, Marc Tramier, Matthias Rief, Carsten Grashoff
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tension sensor modules (TSMs) are available for investigating how distinct proteins bear mechanical forces in cells. Yet, forces in the single piconewton (pN) regime remain difficult to resolve, and tools for multiplexed tension sensing are lacking. Here, we report the generation and calibration of a genetically encoded, FRET-based biosensor called FL-TSM, which is characterized by a near-digital force response and increased sensitivity at 3-5 pN. In addition, we present a method allowing the simultaneous evaluation of coexpressed tension sensor constructs using two-color fluorescence lifetime microscopy...
November 2017: Nature Methods
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