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Christiane Pees, Julian A Heno, Gabriele Häusler, Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Talin Gulesserian, Ina Michel-Behnke
Turner syndrome (TS) is a common genetic disorder in females with high incidence of ascending aortic dilatation and even dissection occurring as early as in the second decade. Known risk factors (RF) are bicuspid aortic valves (BAV), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and arterial hypertension. Since 10% of dissections occur in patients without RF, an intrinsic aortic wall abnormality has been postulated. This study aimed to investigate the elasticity of the ascending aorta as a surrogate marker of aortic wall texture...
May 18, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Vijay B Arumugham, Cristina Ulivieri, Anna Onnis, Francesca Finetti, Fiorella Tonello, Daniel Ladant, Cosima T Baldari
A central feature of the immune synapse (IS) is the tight compartmentalization of membrane receptors and signaling mediators that is functional for its ability to coordinate T cell activation. Second messengers centrally implicated in this process, such as Ca2+ and diacyl glycerol, also undergo compartmentalization at the IS. Current evidence suggests a more complex scenario for cyclic AMP (cAMP), which acts both as positive and as negative regulator of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling and which, as such, must be subjected to a tight spatiotemporal control to allow for signaling at the IS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Emily L Dennis, Talin Babikian, Jeffry Alger, Faisal Rashid, Julio E Villalon-Reina, Yan Jin, Alexander Olsen, Richard Mink, Christopher Babbitt, Jeffrey Johnson, Christopher C Giza, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury can cause extensive damage to the white matter (WM) of the brain. These disruptions can be especially damaging in children, whose brains are still maturing. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is the most commonly used method to assess WM organization, but it has limited resolution to differentiate causes of WM disruption. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) yields spectra showing the levels of neurometabolites that can indicate neuronal/axonal health, inflammation, membrane proliferation/turnover, and other cellular processes that are on-going post-injury...
May 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ehsan Ghasemian, Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Astrid Collingro, Florian Tagini, Elisabeth Stein, Hadeel Alchalabi, Nadine Schuerer, Darja Keše, Balgesa Elkheir Babiker, Nicole Borel, Gilbert Greub, Talin Barisani-Asenbauer
Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness, is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), a bacterium of the phylum Chlamydiae. Recent investigations revealed the existence of additional families within the phylum Chlamydiae, also termed Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). In this study, the frequency of Ct and CLOs was examined in the eyes of healthy Sudanese (control) participants and those with trachoma (case). We tested 96 children (54 cases and 42 controls) and 93 adults (51 cases and 42 controls) using broad-range Chlamydiae and Ct-specific (omcB) real-time PCR...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eadric Bressel, Talin J Louder, Adam C Raikes, Sushma Alphonsa, Anastasia Kyvelidou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous research has reported that younger adults make fewer cognitive errors on an auditory vigilance task while in chest-deep water compared with on land. The purpose of this study was to extend this previous work to include older adults and to examine the effect of environment (water vs land) on linear and nonlinear measures of postural control under single- and dual-task conditions. METHODS: Twenty-one older adult participants (age = 71...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
R E Gough, B T Goult
Talins are cytoplasmic adapter proteins essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Talins control the activation state of integrins, link integrins to cytoskeletal actin, recruit numerous signalling molecules that mediate integrin signalling, and coordinate recruitment of microtubules to adhesion sites via interaction with KANK (kidney ankyrin repeat-containing) proteins. Vertebrates have two talin genes, TLN1 and TLN2. Although talin1 and talin2 share 76% protein sequence identity (88% similarity), they are not functionally redundant, and the differences between the two isoforms are not fully understood...
May 3, 2018: FEBS Letters
Kristin E Burke, Hamed Khalili, John J Garber, Talin Haritunians, Dermot P B McGovern, Ramnik J Xavier, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
Background: Despite a high nonresponse rate, predictors of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy in ulcerative colitis (UC) remain limited. We aim to determine clinical and genetic predictors of primary nonresponse (PNR) and durable response (DR) to anti-TNF therapy in a large prospective UC cohort. Methods: Using the Illumina Immunochip, candidate polymorphisms associated with clinical outcomes of PNR and DR were separately evaluated and combined into weighted genetic risk scores...
April 30, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Kana Ishii, Kusumika Mukherjee, Takashi Okada, Eric C Liao
Background: Craniofacial malformations are among the most common congenital anomalies. Cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) form craniofacial structures involving multiple cellular processes, perturbations of which contribute to craniofacial malformations. Adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix mediates bidirectional interactions of the cells with their extracellular environment that plays an important role in craniofacial morphogenesis. Talin (tln) is crucial in cell-matrix adhesion between cells, but its role in craniofacial morphogenesis is poorly understood...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Jane E Klann, Stephanie H Kim, Kelly A Remedios, Zhaoren He, Patrick J Metz, Justine Lopez, Tiffani Tysl, Jocelyn G Olvera, Jailal N Ablack, Joseph M Cantor, Brigid S Boland, Gene Yeo, Ye Zheng, Li-Fan Lu, Jack D Bui, Mark H Ginsberg, Brian G Petrich, John T Chang
Maintenance of the regulatory T (Treg) cell pool is essential for peripheral tolerance and prevention of autoimmunity. Integrins, heterodimeric transmembrane proteins consisting of α and β subunits that mediate cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix interactions, play an important role in facilitating Treg cell contact-mediated suppression. In this article, we show that integrin activation plays an essential, previously unappreciated role in maintaining murine Treg cell function. Treg cell-specific loss of talin, a β integrin-binding protein, or expression of talin(L325R), a mutant that selectively abrogates integrin activation, resulted in lethal systemic autoimmunity...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Rixing Zhan, Fan Wang, Ying Wu, Ying Wang, Wei Qian, Menglong Liu, Tengfei Liu, Weifeng He, Hui Ren, Gaoxing Luo
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a critical molecule in wound healing, but the mechanism underlying its activity is not well defined. Here, we explored the effect of NO on the de-adhesion of epidermal stem cells (ESCs) and the mechanism involved in this process. METHODS: The effects of NO on isolated human and mouse ESCs cultured in the presence of different concentrations of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) were evaluated in cell de-adhesion assays mediated by integrin β and collagen IV...
April 23, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Vasyl V Mykuliak, Alexander William M Haining, Magdaléna von Essen, Armando Del Río Hernández, Vesa P Hytönen
Mechanical stability is a key feature in the regulation of structural scaffolding proteins and their functions. Despite the abundance of α-helical structures among the human proteome and their undisputed importance in health and disease, the fundamental principles of their behavior under mechanical load are poorly understood. Talin and α-catenin are two key molecules in focal adhesions and adherens junctions, respectively. In this study, we used a combination of atomistic steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations, polyprotein engineering, and single-molecule atomic force microscopy (smAFM) to investigate unfolding of these proteins...
April 26, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Alexander Pearse, Thomas Schmitt, Emily Sahadeo, David M Stewart, Alexander Kozen, Konstantinos Gerasopoulos, A Alec Talin, Sang Bok Lee, Gary W Rubloff, Keith E Gregorczyk
Three dimensional thin-film solid-state batteries (3D TSSB) were proposed by Long et al. in 2004 as a structure-based approach to simultaneously increase energy and power densities. Here, we report experimental realization of fully conformal 3D TSSBs, demonstrating the simultaneous power-and-energy benefits of 3D structuring. All active battery components - electrodes, solid electrolyte, and current collectors - were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto standard CMOS processable silicon wafers microfabricated to form arrays of deep pores with aspect ratios up to approximately 10...
April 24, 2018: ACS Nano
Sun Eun Lee, Keith P West, Robert N Cole, Kerry J Schulze, Lee S-F Wu, James D Yager, John Groopman, Parul Christian
Fetal growth restriction increases the risk of poor childhood growth and development and chronic disease in adulthood. Yet, little is known about biological pathways that mediate the long-lasting effects of suboptimal intrauterine growth. We explored the plasma proteome in a cohort of 500 Nepalese children 6-8 years of age to identify plasma proteins associated with multiple anthropometric size indicators at birth. Among 982 proteins analyzed, no proteins differed by birth weight, length, or weight-for-length indicators...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Darby Saxbe, Katelyn Taline Horton, Ann Bryna Tsai
Childbirth is an important life event that has been understudied by psychologists. Parents may find birth to be stressful, painful, and frightening, or feel supported and calm. Birth experiences can be shaped both by preexisting psychological vulnerabilities and by medical events that occur during childbirth. The birth experience may influence both parent and child well-being, helping to shape the health of the new family. This paper introduces the Birth Experiences Questionnaire (BEQ), a brief 10-item measure designed to assess stress, fear, and partner support during birth...
March 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Talin Babikian, Jeffry R Alger, Monica U Ellis-Blied, Christopher C Giza, Emily Dennis, Alexander Olsen, Richard Mink, Christopher Babbitt, Jeffrey Johnson, Paul Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Diffuse axonal injury contributes to the long-term functional morbidity observed following pediatric moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI). Whole-Brain Proton Magnetic Resonance Echo-Planar Spectroscopic Imaging was used to measure the neurometabolite levels in the brain to delineate the course of disruption/repair during the first year post msTBI. The association between metabolite biomarkers and functional measures (cognitive functioning and CC function assessed by interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) using an Event Related Potential paradigm) was also explored...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Qianfeng Zhuang, Weiping Luo, Mingran Zhang, Min Fan, Hao Lu, Renfang Xu, Xiaozhou He
Calpain small subunit 1 (Capn4) has been shown to correlate with the metastasis/invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). This study aimed to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying Capn4-mediated ccRCC progression. The messenger RNA expression levels in ccRCC cells were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The effects of Capn4 on cell adhesion, invasion, and migration were examined by cell adhesion assay, cell invasion assay, and wound-healing assay, respectively. The protein levels were detected by western blot analysis...
April 10, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Kevin Leung, Alexander J Pearse, Albert Alec Talin, Elliot J Fuller, Gary W Rubloff, Normand A Modine
Detailed understanding of solid-solid interface structure-function relations is critical for the improvement and wide deployment of all solid-state batteries. The interfaces between lithium phosphorous oxynitride ("LiPON") solid electrolyte material, and lithium metal anode and Li(x)CoO(2) cathode surfaces, have been reported to generate solid electrolyte interphase ("SEI")-like products and/or disordered regions. Using electronic structure calculations and crystalline LiPON models, we predict that, in general, LiPON is kinetically inert towards lithium at room temperature...
March 30, 2018: ChemSusChem
Marta González-Sánchez, Teresa Díaz, Consuelo Pascual, Desiree Antequera, Alejandro Herrero-San Martín, Sara Llamas-Velasco, Alberto Villarejo-Galende, Fernando Bartolome, Eva Carro
Platelets are considered a good model system to study a number of elements associated with neuronal pathways as they share biochemical similarities. Platelets represent the major source of amyloid-β (Aβ) in blood contributing to the Aβ accumulation in the brain parenchyma and vasculature. Peripheral blood platelet alterations including cytoskeletal abnormalities, abnormal cytoplasmic calcium fluxes or increased oxidative stress levels have been related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Therefore, platelets can be considered a peripheral model to study metabolic mechanisms occurring in AD...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Tadayuki Yago, Nan Zhang, Liang Zhao, Charles S Abrams, Rodger P McEver
Rolling neutrophils receive signals while engaging P- and E-selectin and chemokines on inflamed endothelium. Selectin signaling activates β2 integrins to slow rolling velocities. Chemokine signaling activates β2 integrins to cause arrest. Despite extensive study, key aspects of these signaling cascades remain unresolved. Using complementary in vitro and in vivo assays, we found that selectin and chemokine signals in neutrophils triggered Rap1a-dependent and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase γ (PIP5Kγ90)-dependent pathways that induce integrin-dependent slow rolling and arrest...
April 10, 2018: Blood Advances
Myunghee Hong, Byong Duk Ye, Suk-Kyun Yang, Seulgi Jung, Ho-Su Lee, Byoung Mok Kim, Soo Bin Lee, Jeonghoon Hong, Jiwon Baek, Sang Hyoung Park, Buhm Han, Yi Li, Wenting Liu, Talin Haritunians, Kent D Taylor, Jerome I Rotter, So-Young Bang, Tae-Hwan Kim, Dermot P B McGovern, Jianjun Liu, Kyuyoung Song
Background and Aims: Recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies have identified over 241 inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility loci. However, the known variants only account for a fraction of inflammatory bowel disease heritability. To identify additional susceptibility loci, we performed a trans-ethnic meta-analysis as well as an Asian-specific meta-analysis using all published Immunochip association results of inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: An inverse-variance fixed-effects meta-analysis was carried out across Korean and East Asian Immunochip datasets of 4,156 cases and 4,904 controls (Asian ancestry)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
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