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Measles vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815434/measles-vaccination-is-best-for-children-the-argument-for-relying-on-herd-immunity-fails
#1
Johan Christiaan Bester
This article examines an argument which may negatively influence measles vaccination uptake. According to the argument, an individual child in a highly vaccinated society may be better off by being non-vaccinated; the child does not risk vaccine adverse effects and is protected against measles through herd immunity. Firstly, the conclusion of the argument is challenged by showing that herd immunity's protection is unreliable and inferior to vaccination. Secondly, the logic of the argument is challenged by showing that the argument is inherently self-defeating and therefore logically inconsistent...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812835/impact-of-health-research-systems-on-under-5-mortality-rate-a-trend-analysis
#2
Bahareh Yazdizadeh, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Reza Majdzadeh, Sima Nikooee
BACKGROUND: Between 1990 and 2015, under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) declined by 53%, from an estimated rate of 91 deaths per 1000 live births to 43, globally. The aim of this study was to determine the share of health research systems in this decrease alongside other influential factors. METHODS: We used random effect regression models including the 'random intercept' and 'random intercept and random slope' models to analyze the panel data from 1990 to 2010. We selected the countries with U5MRs falling between the first and third quartiles in 1990...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809871/-recall-system-for-vaccinations-in-preschool-children-in-a-local-health-unit-in-rome-italy
#3
Aldo Marsico, Cinzia Roscetti, Angelo Fraioli, Chiara Grecuccio, Alessio Cecili, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
In Italy, in this period, much attention is dedicated to reach adequate vaccination coverage in children and adolescents. In this study, Vaccination Registry was checked in a Local Health Unit in Rome, Italy, to identify children born in 2007 and 2008 who had not completed the vaccination schedule. Coverage for booster doses of measles, mumps, rubella and for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio vaccines in the 2213 children was around 70%. A reminder letter was send to parents of the 661 incompletely immunized children and, if they did not reply, a phone call was made when the phone number was available...
May 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807627/measles-immunity-gaps-and-the-progress-towards-elimination-a-multi-country-modelling-analysis
#4
Filippo Trentini, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Alessia Melegaro
BACKGROUND: The persistent circulation of measles in both low-income and high-income countries requires a better characterisation of present epidemiological trends and existing immunity gaps across different sociodemographic settings. Serological surveys, which provide direct measures of population protection against the infection, are underexploited and often supply fragmentary estimates of population immunity. This study aims to investigate how measles immunity has changed over time across different socioeconomic settings, as a result of demographic changes and past immunisation policies...
August 11, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807604/focusing-on-the-implementation-of-21st-century-vaccines-for-adults
#5
Paolo Bonanni, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi, Chiara Lorini, Francesca Santomauro, Emilia Tiscione, Sara Boccalini, Angela Bechini
Adult immunization is a priority for public health, particularly in countries where an aging population has become increasingly more numerous. Protection against diseases which typically affect adults (like flu, pneumococcal diseases and Herpes zoster), the shift of age of infections which originally affected children (like measles), the decreasing protection with time for infections which need periodical booster doses of vaccines (Tdap), the availability of vaccines which can also impact on adult health (HPV) are only some examples of the importance of implementing targeted vaccination strategies...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807023/local-measles-vaccination-gaps-in-germany-and-the-role-of-vaccination-providers
#6
Linda Eichner, Stephanie Wjst, Stefan O Brockmann, Kerstin Wolfers, Martin Eichner
BACKGROUND: Measles elimination in Europe is an urgent public health goal, yet despite the efforts of its member states, vaccination gaps and outbreaks occur. This study explores local vaccination heterogeneity in kindergartens and municipalities of a German county. METHODS: Data on children from mandatory school enrolment examinations in 2014/15 in Reutlingen county were used. Children with unknown vaccination status were either removed from the analysis (best case) or assumed to be unvaccinated (worst case)...
August 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806450/evaluation-of-combination-measles-mumps-rubella-varicella-vaccine-introduction-in-australia
#7
Kristine Macartney, Heather F Gidding, Lieu Trinh, Han Wang, Aditi Dey, Brynley Hull, Karen Orr, Jocelynne McRae, Peter Richmond, Michael Gold, Nigel Crawford, Jennifer A Kynaston, Peter McIntyre, Nicholas Wood
Importance: Incorporating combination vaccines, such as the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine, into immunization schedules should be evaluated from a benefit-risk perspective. Use of MMRV vaccine poses challenges due to a recognized increased risk of febrile seizures (FSs) when used as the first dose in the second year of life. Conversely, completion by age 2 years of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella immunization may offer improved disease control. Objective: To evaluate the effect on safety and coverage of earlier (age 18 months) scheduling of MMRV vaccine as the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in Australia...
August 14, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805672/challenges-in-estimating-vaccine-coverage-in-refugee-and-displaced-populations-results-from-household-surveys-in-jordan-and-lebanon
#8
Timothy Roberton, William Weiss, Shannon Doocy
Ensuring the sustained immunization of displaced persons is a key objective in humanitarian emergencies. Typically, humanitarian actors measure coverage of single vaccines following an immunization campaign; few measure routine coverage of all vaccines. We undertook household surveys of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon, outside of camps, using a mix of random and respondent-driven sampling, to measure coverage of all vaccinations included in the host country's vaccine schedule. We analyzed the results with a critical eye to data limitations and implications for similar studies...
August 12, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803714/building-capacity-for-active-surveillance-of-vaccine-adverse-events-in-the-americas-a-hospital-based-multi-country-network
#9
Pamela Bravo-Alcántara, Silvia Pérez-Vilar, Helvert Felipe Molina-León, Miriam Sturkenboom, Steven Black, Patrick L F Zuber, Christine Maure, Jose Luis Castro
New vaccines designed to prevent diseases endemic in low and middle-income countries are being introduced without prior utilization in countries with robust vaccine pharmacovigilance systems. Our aim was to build capacity for active surveillance of vaccine adverse events in the Americas. We describe the implementation of a proof-of-concept study for the feasibility of an international collaborative hospital-based active surveillance system for vaccine safety. The study was developed and implemented in 15 sentinel sites located in seven countries of the region of the Americas, under the umbrella of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Vaccine Safety Initiative...
August 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803415/a-measles-outbreak-in-sindh-pakistan-caused-by-a-genotype-b3-virus
#10
Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Abdul Hameed, Naeem Ali, Massab Umair, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Salmaan Sharif, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Adnan Khurshid, Ribqa Akhtar, Nayab Mehmood, Nazish Badar
Measles continues to be a major public health issue causing substantial outbreaks worldwide, mostly affecting young children. Molecular analysis of measles viruses provides important information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can be helpful towards implementation of appropriate control programs. In Pakistan, the control of measles is still tenuous, and progress towards elimination has been irregular and challenging. In the 2013 measles outbreak we received 4,682 sera collected from suspected patients in 23 districts across Sindh...
August 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802754/cost-benefit-analyses-of-supplementary-measles-immunisation-in-the-highly-immunized-population-of-new-zealand
#11
D T S Hayman, J C Marshall, N P French, T E Carpenter, M G Roberts, T Kiedrzynski
As endemic measles is eliminated from countries through increased immunisation, the economic benefits of enhanced immunisation programs may come into question. New Zealand has suffered from outbreaks after measles introductions from abroad and we use it as a model system to understand the benefits of catch up immunisation in highly immunised populations. We provide cost-benefit analyses for measles supplementary immunisation in New Zealand. We model outbreaks based on estimates of the basic reproduction number in the vaccinated population (Rv, the number of secondary infections in a partially immunised population), based on the number of immunologically-naïve people at district and national levels, considering both pre- and post-catch up vaccination scenarios...
August 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799006/multiple-sclerosis-and-environmental-risk-factors-a-case-control-study-in-iran
#12
Maryam Abbasi, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Nikan Zerafat Jou, Iman Ansari, Vahid Shayegannejad, Seyed Ehsan Mohammadianinejad, Mahdi Farhoudi, Abbas Noorian, Nazanin Razazian, Mahmoud Abedini, Fardin Faraji
Studies have shown an increase in the incidence of MS in Iran. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental exposure and MS in Iran. This case-control study was conducted on 660 MS patients and 421 controls. Many environmental factors are compared between the two groups. Our findings demonstrated that prematurity ([OR = 4.99 (95% CI 1.34-18.68), P = 0.017]), history of measles and mumps ([OR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.05-2.45), P = 0.029; OR = 1.85 (95% CI 1.22-2.78), P = 0...
August 10, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798865/measles-misinformation-and-risk-personal-belief-exemptions-and-the-mmr-vaccine
#13
Johnathan Bowes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797728/utilization-and-impact-of-european-immunization-week-to-increase-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccine-uptake-in-austria-in-2016
#14
P Kreidl, Catharina de Kat
This paper describes engagement in European Immunization Week (EIW) in Tyrol, Austria in April 2016 and an assessment of its possible impact on demand for measles, mumps, rubella vaccination (MMR). It further describes the output of a knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) survey conducted during EIW, showing that 93% (188/202) of respondents were in favor of vaccination in general and 90% (192/214) perceived MMR vaccination to be important. MMR vaccination was perceived as important by more participants than other vaccinations...
August 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793891/characterizing-measles-transmission-in-india-a-dynamic-modeling-study-using-verbal-autopsy-data
#15
Stéphane Verguet, Edward O Jones, Mira Johri, Shaun K Morris, Wilson Suraweera, Cindy L Gauvreau, Prabhat Jha, Mark Jit
BACKGROUND: Decreasing trends in measles mortality have been reported in recent years. However, such estimates of measles mortality have depended heavily on assumed regional measles case fatality risks (CFRs) and made little use of mortality data from low- and middle-income countries in general and India, the country with the highest measles burden globally, in particular. METHODS: We constructed a dynamic model of measles transmission in India with parameters that were empirically inferred using spectral analysis from a time series of measles mortality extracted from the Million Death Study, an ongoing longitudinal study recording deaths across 2...
August 10, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780066/risk-factors-for-measles-among-infants-in-tianjin-china
#16
Y Zhang, A L Wagner, X Wang, B F Carlson, Y Ding, J P Montgomery, B W Gillespie, M L Boulton
OBJECTIVES: Infants aged <8 months are ineligible for measles vaccination in China but represent a disproportionate number of cases. We examined the risk factors for measles among infants in Tianjin, China. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Cases were enrolled from a surveillance system, and IgG-negative controls were sampled from registries at immunization clinics. A logistic regression model assessed for risk factors. RESULTS: Among 82 cases and 485 controls, exposure to a municipal hospital (OR [odds ratio]: 5...
August 3, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768856/non-encapsidated-5-copy-back-defective-interfering-genomes-produced-by-recombinant-measles-viruses-are-recognized-by-rig-i-and-lgp2-but-not-mda5
#17
Marie Mura, Chantal Combredet, Valérie Najburg, Raul Y Sanchez David, Frédéric Tangy, Anastassia V Komarova
Attenuated Measles virus (MV) is one of the most effective and safe vaccine available, making it an attractive candidate vector to prevent other infectious diseases. Yet the great capacity of this vaccine still needs to be understood at the molecular level. MV vaccine strains have different type-I interferon-inducing abilities, that partially depend on the presence of 5' copy-back defective interfering genomes (DI-RNAs). DI-RNAs are pathogen associated molecular patterns recognized by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs: RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2) that activate innate immune signalling and shape the adaptive immune response...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762675/major-birth-defects-after-vaccination-reported-to-the-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-1990-to-2014
#18
Pedro L Moro, Janet Cragan, Paige Lewis, Lakshmi Sukumaran
BACKGROUND: Major birth defects are important infant outcomes that have not been well studied in the postmarketing surveillance of vaccines given to pregnant women. We assessed the presence of major birth defects following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system used to monitor the safety of vaccines in the United States. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of major birth defects during January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2014...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761583/challenges-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Charlene M C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760612/measles-vaccines-who-position-paper-april-2017-recommendations
#20
World Health Organization
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of measles vaccines excerpted from the WHO position paper on Measles vaccines: WHO position paper - April 2017, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper replaces the 2009 WHO position paper on measles vaccines [2]. The position paper summarizes the most recent developments in the field of measles and includes removal of introduction criteria for the routine second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2), guidance on when to vaccinate infants from 6months of age, and guidance on re-vaccination of HIV-infected children receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)...
July 28, 2017: Vaccine
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