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Measles vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646948/generalized-herd-effects-and-vaccine-evaluation-impact-of-live-influenza-vaccine-on-off-target-bacterial-colonisation
#1
Michael J Mina
Interactions between pathogens and commensal microbes are major contributors to health and disease. Infectious diseases however are most often considered independent, viewed within a one-host one-pathogen paradigm and, by extension, the interventions used to treat and prevent them are measured and evaluated within this same paradigm. Vaccines, especially live vaccines, by stimulating immune responses or directly interacting with other microbes can alter the environment in which they act, with effects that span across pathogen species...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646947/measles-immune-suppression-and-vaccination-direct-and-indirect-nonspecific-vaccine-benefits
#2
Michael J Mina
The measles virus is among the most transmissible viruses known to infect humans. Prior to measles vaccination programs, measles infected over 95% of all children and was responsible for over 4 million deaths each year. Measles vaccination programs have been among the greatest public health achievements reducing, eliminating endemic measles in the whole of the Americas and across much of the globe. Where measles vaccines are introduced, unexpectedly large reductions in all-cause childhood mortality have been observed...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641590/measles-elimination-and-immunisation-national-surveillance-trends-in-japan-2008-2015
#3
S Inaida, S Matsuno, F Kobune
Measles elimination relies on vaccination programmes. In Japan, a major outbreak started in 2007. In response, 5-year two-dose catch-up vaccination programme was initiated in April 2008 for children 13-16-years-old. In this study, we analysed the epidemic curves, incidence rates for each age group, virus genotype, vaccination coverage and ratio of measles gelatin particle agglutination (PA) antibody using surveillance data for 2008-2015. Monthly case counts markedly decreased as vaccination coverage increased...
June 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640919/the-measles-epidemic-trend-over-the-past-30-years-in-a-central-district-in-shanghai-china
#4
Jie Gao, Bing Shen, JianJing Xiong, Yihan Lu, Qingwu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Measles vaccination over the past 50 years has greatly reduced the incidence of measles. However, measles among migrants and the resulting changes in epidemiological characteristics have brought new challenges to the elimination of measles. We aim to describe the measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China. METHODS: The present study was conducted in the Jing'an District, which is located in the center of Shanghai...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633890/universal-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination-to-new-recruits-and-the-incidence-of-mumps-in-the-military
#5
Jong Youn Moon, Jaehun Jung, Kyungmin Huh
In response to the resurgence of mumps, the Korean Armed Forces started the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination to all new recruits regardless of prior vaccination history. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vaccination by comparing the incidence between the military and civilian populations before and after implementation of the new policy. The standardized incidence ratio of mumps in the military was 7.06 in the prevaccine period, which declined to 0.96 in the postvaccine period. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 86...
June 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633302/mumps-clinical-diagnostic-uncertainty
#6
Fabio Magurano, Melissa Baggieri, Antonella Marchi, Paola Bucci, Giovanni Rezza, Loredana Nicoletti
During recent years, various mumps outbreaks have occurred among populations vaccinated for mumps worldwide. In Italy, improving routine coverage with two doses of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is one of the key strategies to eliminate measles and rubella. To monitor the effect of the vaccination programme on the population, the surveillance of these vaccine-preventable diseases has been implemented. This provided the opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of those diseases, including mumps...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631310/zinc-supplementation-for-the-treatment-of-measles-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Ajibola A Awotiwon, Olabisi Oduwole, Anju Sinha, Charles I Okwundu
BACKGROUND: Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631171/qualitative-assessment-of-vaccination-hesitancy-among-members-of-the-apostolic-church-of-zimbabwe-a-case-study
#8
Z Machekanyanga, S Ndiaye, R Gerede, K Chindedza, C Chigodo, M E Shibeshi, J Goodson, F Daniel, L Zimmerman, R Kaiser
Vaccine hesitancy or lack of confidence in vaccines is considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. The rise and spread of measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections among Apostolic Church members, estimated at about 3.5 million in Zimbabwe as of 2014. To inform planning of interventions for a measles-rubella vaccination campaign, we conducted an assessment of the factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy using data from various stakeholders. Among nine districts in three regions of Zimbabwe, we collected data on religious attitudes toward, and perceptions of, vaccines through focus group discussions with health workers serving Apostolic communities and members of the National Expanded Programme on Immunization; semi-structured interviews with religious leaders; and open-ended questions in structured interviews with Apostolic parents/caregivers...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626253/socio-economic-and-demographic-determinants-of-full-immunization-among-children-of-12-23-months-in-afghanistan
#9
Fraidoon Farzad, Joshua A Reyer, Eiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Hamajima
Immunization is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce vaccine-preventable diseases morbidity and mortality. Vaccination coverage is very low in Afghanistan; National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) Survey 2008 estimated the coverage of fully immunized children to be 37%. The current study was designed to examine the factors influencing full immunization among children aged 12-23 months. Demographic and vaccination data of 2,561 children of 12-23 months was extracted from the Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624983/how-to-increase-vaccination-acceptance-among-apostolic-communities-quantitative-results-from-an-assessment-in-three-provinces-in-zimbabwe
#10
Regina Gerede, Zorodzai Machekanyanga, Serigne Ndiaye, Kenneth Chindedza, Colline Chigodo, Messeret E Shibeshi, James Goodson, Fussum Daniel, Reinhard Kaiser
A worldwide increasing trend toward vaccine hesitancy has been reported. Measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections originating from Apostolic gatherings. Founded in Zimbabwe in the 1950s, the Apostolic church has built up a large number of followers with an estimated 3.5 million in Zimbabwe in 2014. To inform planning of interventions for the 2015 measles-rubella vaccination campaign, we assessed vaccination status and knowledge, attitudes and practices among purposive samples of Apostolic caregivers in three districts each in Harare City, Manicaland and Matabeleland South in Zimbabwe...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621647/timeliness-and-completeness-of-routine-childhood-vaccinations-in-children-by-two-years-of-age-in-alberta-canada
#11
Vineet Saini, Shannon E MacDonald, Deborah A McNeil, Sheila W McDonald, James D Kellner, Sarah A Edwards, Victoria Stagg, Suzanne Tough
OBJECTIVES: Assessing timeliness and completeness of vaccine administration is important for evaluating the effectiveness of immunization programs. Few studies have reported timeliness, particularly in Canada. The objective of this study was to examine timeliness of the receipt of vaccination for each routine childhood recommended vaccine by 24 months of age among children in a community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. METHODS: Survey data from a community-based pregnancy cohort in Alberta were linked to Public Health vaccination records of children (n = 2763)...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617262/mmr-vaccine-in-the-postpartum-does-not-expose-seronegative-women-to-untoward-effects
#12
Enrico Finale, Giuliana Leonardi, Gaetano Auletta, Roberta Amadori, Chiara Saglietti, Leonardo Pagani, Andrea Guala
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess whether rubella vaccination immediately after delivery could expose seronegative women to specific untoward effects. METHODS: 163 rubella-seronegative women received Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine in the immediate postpartum period; they were evaluated at one month and at three months thereafter through telephone interviews. As controls, we matched 163 rubella-seropositive women, who might experience similar symptoms for any reason in the same timeframe...
April 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610823/pre-vaccination-evolution-of-antibodies-among-infants-0-3-and-6months-of-age-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-measles-enterovirus-71-and-coxsackievirus-16
#13
Chuanxi Fu, Jichuan Shen, Long Lu, Yajing Li, Yimin Cao, Ming Wang, Sen Pei, Zhicong Yang, Qing Guo, Jeffrey Shaman
BACKGROUND: Due to waning levels of maternal antibodies (measles; enterovirus 71, EV71; and coxsackievirus A16, CoxA16), some infants may lose protection against infection prior to vaccination. Using a longitudinal design, we examine how maternal antibody levels evolve over time in infants prior to vaccination. METHODS: In 2013-2014, we collected sera at ages 0, 3 and 6months from infants. We assayed for levels of measles IgG antibody (717, 233 and 75 sample sera tested at months 0, 3 and 6, respectively), and neutralizing antibodies for EV71 and CoxA16 (225, 217, and 72)...
June 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606106/perceptions-of-measles-pneumonia-and-meningitis-vaccines-among-caregivers-in-shanghai-china-and-the-health-belief-model-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Abram L Wagner, Matthew L Boulton, Xiaodong Sun, Bhramar Mukherjee, Zhuoying Huang, Irene A Harmsen, Jia Ren, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
BACKGROUND: In China, the measles vaccine is offered for free whereas the pneumococcal vaccine is a for-fee vaccine. This difference has the potential to influence how caregivers evaluate whether a vaccine is important or necessary for their child, but it is unclear if models of health behavior, such as the Health Belief Model, reveal the same associations for different diseases. This study compares caregiver perceptions of different diseases (measles, pneumonia and meningitis); and characterizes associations between Health Belief Model constructs and both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity for pneumonia, measles, and meningitis...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604255/the-effectiveness-of-measles-mumps-rubella-mmr-vaccination-in-the-prevention-of-pediatric-hospitalizations-for-targeted-and-untargeted-infections-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Giuseppe La Torre, Rosella Saulle, Brigid Unim, Angela Meggiolaro, Angelo Barbato, Alice Mannocci, Antonietta Spadea
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in reducing hospitalizations for infectious disease, targeted and not targeted, as well as from respiratory diseases in children in Rome. METHODS: . The cohort was recomposed through record linkage of two archives (vaccination register and hospital discharge records. RESULTS: The analysis included 11,004 children. 20.9% did not receive the MMR vaccination, 49% and 30...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602605/vaccination-in-newly-arrived-immigrants-to-the-european-union
#16
Roman Prymula, Jana Shaw, Roman Chlibek, Ingrid Urbancikova, Karolina Prymulova
The challenge of assimilating millions of immigrants in the European region each year presents significant socioeconomic issues. Among them is the threat of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) disease transmission within immigrant groups and the broader population given the permeability of nation state borders. A total of 3.8 million people immigrated to the European Union (EU) in 2014, among those were 1.6 million non-EU nationals. While vaccines have markedly reduced the transmission of disease, clusters of under-vaccinated individuals potentiate the rapid transmission of once-eradicated or controlled diseases...
June 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601859/media-and-measles-rubella-vaccination-campaign-musings-from-pondicherry
#17
Adhisivam Bethou, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595358/reduced-antibody-response-to-infant-measles-vaccination-effects-based-on-type-and-timing-of-the-first-vaccine-dose-persist-after-the-second-dose
#18
Sara Carazo Perez, Gaston De Serres, Alexandre Bureau, Danuta M Skowronski
Background: The effect of age at first dose on the immunogenicity of a two-dose pediatric schedule of Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) or MMR-Varicella (MMRV) vaccines was assessed in children born to mostly vaccinated mothers. Methods: Immunogenicity data among children given their first measles vaccine dose between 11 and 22 months of age were pooled from five randomized controlled trials conducted in Europe and the United States between 2004 and 2010. Measles antibody titers were measured by ELISA before/after each dose: geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and the proportion sero-negative (GMC<150mIU/ml) were derived by age at first dose...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594599/genetic-variants-in-the-il-4-il-13-pathway-influence-measles-vaccine-responses-and-vaccine-failure-in-children-from-mozambique
#19
Holly D Clifford, Catherine M Hayden, Siew-Kim Khoo, Denise Naniche, Inacio M Mandomando, Guicheng Zhang, Peter Richmond, Peter N Le Souëf
Despite effective measles vaccines, measles still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The Th2 pathway involving interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 cytokines, and their receptor IL-4Rα, play important roles in the Th1/Th2 balance and antibody production. A Th2 skewing of the cytokine milieu may affect vaccine responses. We investigated IL-4, IL-13, and IL-4Rα polymorphisms and their impact on measles IgG responses and measles vaccine failure, in two separate cohorts: 12-month-old Australian children immunized with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (n = 137) and a case/control cohort of children aged 6 months-14 years from Mozambique, Africa (n = 89), some of whom were vaccinated, but still contracted measles (vaccine failure)...
June 8, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592541/dimerization-efficiency-of-canine-distemper-virus-matrix-protein-regulates-membrane-budding-activity
#20
Fanny Bringolf, Michael Herren, Marianne Wyss, Beatriz Vidondo, Johannes P Langedijk, Andreas Zurbriggen, Philippe Plattet
Paramyxoviruses rely on the matrix (M) protein to orchestrate viral assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. Although mechanistic details remain largely unknown, structural data suggested that M dimers and/or higher oligomers may facilitate membrane budding. To gain functional insights, we here employed a structure-guided mutagenesis approach to investigate the role of canine distemper virus (CDV) M protein self-assembly in membrane budding activity. Three six-alanine-scan (6A) block mutants, locating at strategic oligomeric positions, were initially designed...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
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