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Measles vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161838/optimal-time-to-intervene-the-case-of-measles-child-immunization
#1
Zuzana Chladná
The recent measles outbreaks in US and Germany emphasize the importance of sustaining and increasing vaccination rates. In Slovakia, despite mandatory vaccination scheme, decrease in the vaccination rates against measles has been observed in recent years. Different kinds of intervention at the state level, like a law making vaccination a requirement for school entry or education and advertising seem to be the only strategies to improve vaccination coverage. This study aims to analyze the economic effectiveness of intervention in Slovakia...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153586/non-specific-effects-of-childhood-vaccinations-a-case-control-study-nested-into-a-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-in-rural-burkina-faso
#2
G Pfeiffer, A B Fisker, E Nebié, J Hengelbrock, A Sié, H Becher, O Müller
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies in African countries have been suggestive of non-specific effects (NSE) of vaccination on child survival. Live vaccines (e.g. measles, MV) have been found to reduce child mortality while inactivated vaccines (e.g. diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, DTP) have been associated with increased mortality; NSE were often found to be sex-specific. METHODS: A case-control study nested into the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) cohort of the Centre de Recherche en Santé de Nouna (CRSN) was conducted in northwestern Burkina Faso...
November 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153585/identify-the-susceptibility-profile-to-measles-in-the-general-population-serological-survey-of-measles-antibodies-in-shaanxi-province-china-in-2016
#3
Lin Pei, Yuxuan Yang, Xiaodan Zhao, Shaobai Zhang, Lingyun Yuan, Yamei Liu, Yan Yu
The reported coverage with two doses of the measles vaccine (MCV) in Shaanxi Province, China, is greater than 95%, but the measles incidence over the whole province remains high. Cross-sectional serological surveys of measles antibodies in Shaanxi Province were conducted in 2016 to assess the population's immunity. The measles IgG levels were measured in serum samples using ELISA. The geometric means concentration (GMC) levels and seroprevalence rates with 95% CIs were calculated by region, gender, and age...
November 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153127/enforcement-associated-with-higher-school-reported-immunization-rates
#4
Kylie J Hall, Molly A Howell, Rick J Jansen, Paul J Carson
INTRODUCTION: North Dakota's school-reported kindergarten immunization rates were among the lowest in the U.S. during the 2015-2016 school year. Ninety percent of kindergartners were fully immunized in accordance with state requirements, 3% had an exemption, and as many as 7% were noncompliant. School enforcement of immunization requirements has been noted as variable. This study sought to better understand the relationship between school-reported immunization rates and the enforcement of immunization requirements...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152266/vaccine-associated-measles-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#5
Shawn B Sood, Krishna Suthar, Kimberly Martin, Keith Mather
We present a rare case of vaccine-associated measles infection in an immunocompetent, HIV-negative patient in the United States. This case depicts the impressive rash our patient manifested and highlights the importance of reviewing public health interventions to determine epidemiological links in geographical areas with low incidence of measles.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152264/live-attenuated-vaccines-in-a-cryopyrin-associated-periodic-syndrome-patient-receiving-canakinumab-treatment-during-infancy
#6
Misa Watanabe, Ryuta Nishikomori, Yuki Fujimaki, Toshio Heike, Akira Ohara, Tsutomu Saji
We successfully immunized the neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) patient with live-attenuated vaccines for measles, rubella, varicella, and mumps and achieved sufficient antibody titer under canakinumab therapy without complications.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148313/facebook-and-twitter-vaccine-sentiment-in-response-to-measles-outbreaks
#7
Michael S Deiner, Cherie Fathy, Jessica Kim, Katherine Niemeyer, David Ramirez, Sarah F Ackley, Fengchen Liu, Thomas M Lietman, Travis C Porco
Social media posts regarding measles vaccination were classified as pro-vaccination, expressing vaccine hesitancy, uncertain, or irrelevant. Spearman correlations with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-reported measles cases and differenced smoothed cumulative case counts over this period were reported (using time series bootstrap confidence intervals). A total of 58,078 Facebook posts and 82,993 tweets were identified from 4 January 2009 to 27 August 2016. Pro-vaccination posts were correlated with the US weekly reported cases (Facebook: Spearman correlation 0...
November 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145682/-measles-in-germany-an-epidemiological-analysis-and-first-measures-for-containment
#8
Dorothea Matysiak-Klose, Sabine Wicker
Measles are one of the most contagious diseases of mankind. Measles incidence has declined worldwide since the introduction of vaccinations. Due to low numbers of measles cases in countries with high vaccination rates the population is not aware of possible complications of measles any more. Measles elimination is an important goal set by all regions of the World Health Organization. However, it remains a challenge for Germany and other European countries. Because of a high proportion of susceptibles in specific population and age groups outbreaks take place in Germany every year after importation of the virus...
November 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145357/global-routine-vaccination-coverage-2016
#9
Leora R Feldstein, Stephanie Mariat, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Mamadou S Diallo, Laura M Conklin, Aaron S Wallace
The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1), endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage for all vaccines in the country's routine immunization schedule by 2020. CDC and the World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) global vaccination coverage estimates to describe changes in global and regional coverage as of 2016. Global coverage estimates for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), the third dose of polio vaccine, and the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) have ranged from 84% to 86% since 2010...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143685/available-studies-fail-to-provide-strong-evidence-of-increased-risk-of-diarrhea-mortality-due-to-measles-in-the-period-4-26%C3%A2-weeks-after-measles-rash-onset
#10
Bianca D Jackson, Robert E Black
BACKGROUND: Measles vaccination effectiveness studies showed dramatic decreases in all-cause mortality in excess of what would be expected from the prevention of measles disease alone. This invited speculation that measles infection may increase the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality subsequent to the acute phase of the disease. The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing evidence in the publically available literature pertaining to the putative causal link between measles and diarrhea in the period 4-26 weeks following measles rash onset...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140938/immunity-following-childhood-vaccinations-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-children-with-and-without-hiv-infection-in-latin-america
#11
Regina Cm Succi, Margot R Krauss, D Robert Harris, Daisy M Machado, Maria I de Moraes-Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Noris Pavia Ruz, Russell B Pierre, Lenka A Kolevic Roca, Esaú Joao, Irene Foradori, Marcelo C Scotta, Rohan Hazra, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136141/vaccination-policies-of-immigrants-in-the-eu-eea-member-states-the-measles-immunization-example
#12
Mihai A Bica, Ralf Clemens
Background: In 2015-16, the European Union/European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MSs) experienced an unprecedented volume and rate of migration, posing serious challenges to existing national immunization systems and strategies and raising the questions of where, when and who to vaccinate. We assessed existing strategies for vaccinating immigrant populations in the EU/EEA using measles as an example of the most important vaccine-preventable diseases. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted from March to May 2016, an electronic questionnaire was sent to the Heads of National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) or equivalent policy-making bodies in each of the 31 EU/EEA Member States...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132992/measuring-the-timeliness-of-childhood-vaccinations-using-cohort-data-and-routine-health-records-to-evaluate-quality-of-immunisation-services
#13
Suzanne Walton, Mario Cortina-Borja, Carol Dezateux, Lucy J Griffiths, Karen Tingay, Ashley Akbari, Amrita Bandyopadhyay, Ronan A Lyons, Helen Bedford
BACKGROUND: To achieve full benefits of vaccination programmes, high uptake and timely receipt of vaccinations are required. OBJECTIVES: To examine uptake and timeliness of infant and pre-school booster vaccines using cohort study data linked to health records. METHODS: We included 1782 children, born between 2000 and 2001, participating in the Millennium Cohort Study and resident in Wales, whose parents gave consent for linkage to National Community Child Health Database records at the age seven year contact...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129527/identification-of-measles-virus-genotype-b3-associated-with-outbreaks-in-islamabad-pakistan-2013-2015
#14
Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Abdul Hameed, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Massab Umair, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Maqbool Hussain, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Adnan Khurshid
BACKGROUND: Measles virus infection remains a significant cause of childhood mortality and morbidity despite continued global efforts and the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Molecular analysis of indigenous measles viruses could provide critical information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can aid the implementation of appropriate control programs in Pakistan. METHODS: Blood samples and throat swabs were collected from subjects suspected with measles in Islamabad, Pakistan from 2013 to 2015...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128384/adverse-effects-of-single-component-measles-vaccine-in-school-children
#15
Selam Tosun, Ali Ilgın Olut, Nermin Tansug
Measles is a highly contagious viral infection potentially with serious complications and the principal method of protection from the disease is vaccination. Measles vaccination resulted in a 79% drop in measles deaths between 2000 and 2015 worldwide. There has long been a debate about the necessity and benefit-loss ratio of routine MMR vaccination due to possible AE of MMR vaccine. Especially in developed countries which are thought to be free of measles there is an increasing tendency towards hesitation for vaccination though there have been continued outbreaks of measles in countries in which measles is considered to be eliminated...
November 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112137/subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-of-the-brainstem-as-a-clinical-entity
#16
REVIEW
Pavan S Upadhyayula, Jason Yang, John K Yue, Joseph D Ciacci
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine. SSPE is a devastating disease with a characteristic clinical course in subcortical white matter; however, atypical presentations of brainstem involvement may be seen in rare cases. This review summarizes reports to date on brainstem involvement in SSPE, including the clinical course of disease, neuroimaging presentations, and guidelines for treatment...
November 7, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110978/mumps-an-emergency-medicine-focused-update
#17
Chelsea Bockelman, Thomas C Frawley, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Mumps is a Paramyxoviridae virus. This disease was rampant prior to introduction of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, resulting in decreased incidence. This disease has demonstrated several outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: This review provides a focused evaluation of mumps, an update on outbreaks, management recommendations, and ways to decrease transmission. DISCUSSION: Clusters of mumps outbreaks continue to occur. The virus is a paramyxovirus, a single-stranded RNA virus...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102832/postneonatal-mortality-impacts-following-grants-from-the-gavi-vaccine-alliance-an-econometric-analysis-from-2000-to-2014
#18
R J Kolesar, M Audibert
We completed a retrospective multivariate panel study to evaluate the effect of Gavi Vaccine Alliance grants on vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) postneonatal mortality. We separately tested a composite VPD mortality rate and five vaccine-preventable mortality rates: pertussis, meningitis, measles, diarrhea, and pneumonia (lower-respiratory infection) as dependent variables. All 77 countries eligible for Gavi assistance from 2000 to 2014 were included in the study. To isolate the effect of Gavi funding in our primary model, we controlled for known and likely predictors of child mortality...
November 2, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095807/vaccination-coverage-among-children-aged-19-35-months-united-states-2016
#19
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Yoonjae Kang
Vaccination is the most effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases in young children (1). Data from the 2016 National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) were used to assess coverage with recommended vaccines (2) among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. Coverage remained ≥90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (91.9%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.1%), ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (90.6%), and ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (90...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094391/investigating-the-assumptions-of-the-self-controlled-case-series-method
#20
Heather J Whitaker, Yonas Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Ian J Douglas, Liam Smeeth, C Paddy Farrington
We describe some simple techniques for investigating 2 key assumptions of the self-controlled case series (SCCS) method, namely, that events do not influence subsequent exposures and that events do not influence the length of observation periods. For each assumption, we propose some simple tests based on the standard SCCS model, along with associated graphical displays. The methods also enable the user to investigate the robustness of the results obtained using the standard SCCS model to failure of assumptions...
November 2, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
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