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Measles vaccine

Arshad Khan, Rahmat Ali Khan, Mushtaq Ahmed, Muhammad Sadiq Khan
This was a cross-sectional descriptive study for determining the effect of vaccination in children suffering from measles in district Bannu and FR regions. It was conducted at the Paediatric Unit of Women and Children Teaching Hospital, Bannu Medical College Bannu, from July 2015 to June 2016.A total of 7,200 children were examined both from indoor and OPD. Among these, 3,210 (44.58%), were males and 3990 (55.42) were females. Children upto 15 years, suffering from measles were included both from indoor and outdoor departments...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Francieli Fontana Sutile Tardetti Fantinato, Alexander Vargas, Sandra Maria Deotti Carvalho, Carla Magda Allan Santos Domingues, Gisele Barreto, Arieli Schiessl Fialho, Roselita Heinen da Silva, Eduardo Saad, Ivonne Natalia Solarte Agredo
The study aimed to describe cases and verify the frequency of anaphylaxis related to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine produced by manufacturer A and to assess associated risk factors. This was a case-control study (1:4) in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from July 14, 2014, to January 12, 2015, in children from one year to less than five years of age, vaccinated with MMR and reported with anaphylaxis, while the controls were without anaphylaxis. The measure of association was odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI), using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Francelena de Sousa Silva, Yonna Costa Barbosa, Mônica Araújo Batalha, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Waleska Regina Machado Araújo, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Etienne Gignoux, Jonathan Polonsky, Iza Ciglenecki, Mathieu Bichet, Matthew Coldiron, Enoch Thuambe Lwiyo, Innocent Akonda, Micaela Serafini, Klaudia Porten
In 2013, a large measles epidemic occurred in the Aketi Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of Congo. We conducted a two-stage, retrospective cluster survey to estimate the attack rate, the case fatality rate, and the measles-specific mortality rate during the epidemic. 1424 households containing 7880 individuals were included. The estimated attack rate was 14.0%, (35.0% among children aged <5 years). The estimated case fatality rate was 4.2% (6.1% among children aged <5 years). Spatial analysis and linear regression showed that younger children, those who did not receive care, and those living farther away from Aketi Hospital early in the epidemic had a higher risk of measles related death...
2018: PloS One
Yasemin Cosgun, Dilek Guldemir, Aslihan Coskun, Sultan Yolbakan, Atila Taner Kalaycioglu, Gulay Korukluoglu, Riza Durmaz
Measles is an important childhood infection targeted to be eliminated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Virus circulation has not been interrupted in the European Region because high vaccination rates could not be achieved among some countries of the WHO European Region including Turkey. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the laboratory findings of measles cases confirmed in the last nine years, to assess the epidemiological data of the cases, to determine the molecular genotyping studies and to emphasise the importance of laboratory-based surveillance in measles...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Matthew Graham, Jonathan E Suk, Saki Takahashi, C Jessica Metcalf, Adela Paez Jimenez, Vladimir Prikazsky, Matthew J Ferrari, Justin Lessler
We report on and evaluate the process and findings of a real-time modeling exercise in response to an outbreak of measles in Lola prefecture, Guinea, in early 2015 in the wake of the Ebola crisis. Multiple statistical methods for the estimation of the size of the susceptible (i.e., unvaccinated) population were applied to weekly reported measles case data on seven subprefectures throughout Lola. Stochastic compartmental models were used to project future measles incidence in each subprefecture in both an initial and a follow-up iteration of forecasting...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yilong Wang, Rongxian Liu, Mijia Lu, Yingzhi Yang, Duo Zhou, Xiaoqiang Hao, Dongming Zhou, Bin Wang, Jianrong Li, Yao-Wei Huang, Zhengyan Zhao
The live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine based on the Hu191 strain has played a significant role in controlling measles in China. However, it has considerable adverse effects that may cause public health burden. We hypothesize that the safety and efficacy of MV vaccine can be improved by altering the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site in the conserved region VI of the large polymerase protein. To test this hypothesis, we established an efficient reverse genetics system for the rMV-Hu191 strain and generated two recombinant MV-Hu191 carrying mutations in the SAM binding site...
March 8, 2018: Virology
Anja Schoeps, Eric Nebié, Ane Baerent Fisker, Ali Sié, Alphonse Zakane, Olaf Müller, Peter Aaby, Heiko Becher
BACKGROUND: Non-specific effects (NSEs) of vaccines have increasingly gained attention in recent years. Recent studies suggest that live vaccines, such as measles vaccine (MV), have beneficial effects on health, while inactivated vaccines, such as the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine, may have harmful effects. If this is the case, it should improve child health to move MV closer to the last vaccination with DTP. The objective of this study was to investigate the NSEs of an additional early dose of MV on hospitalization or mortality...
March 6, 2018: Vaccine
Benjamin W Mann
While previous studies in health communication have examined online news media regarding autism, there is a lack of research that critically examines how such media representations may stigmatize autism and seeks to eliminate the condition, particularly in the context of the resurging measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine-autism controversy. To address this gap in the literature, this study analyzes 153 articles that engage the MMR vaccine-autism controversy from the top 10 online news sources in the U...
March 9, 2018: Health Communication
Marta Fadda, Elisa Galimberti, Maddalena Fiordelli, Peter Johannes Schulz
BACKGROUND: There is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of vaccination-related interventions. A major limitation of most intervention studies is that they do not apply randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the method that, over the last 2 decades, has increasingly been considered as the only method to provide proof of the effectiveness of an intervention and, consequently, as the most important instrument in deciding whether to adopt an intervention or not. This study, however, holds that methods other than RCTs also can produce meaningful results...
March 7, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Alan de Lima Pereira, Rosamund Southgate, Hikmet Ahmed, Penelope O'Connor, Vanessa Cramond, Annick Lenglet
Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Currents
Timothy Powell-Jackson, Camilla Fabbri, Varun Dutt, Sarah Tougher, Kultar Singh
BACKGROUND: To assess the effect of health information on immunisation uptake in rural India, we conducted an individually randomised controlled trial of health information messages targeting the mothers of unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated children through home visits in rural Uttar Pradesh, India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study tested a brief intervention that provided mothers face-to-face with information on the benefits of the tetanus vaccine. Participants were 722 mothers of children aged 0-36 months who had not received 3 doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine (DPT3)...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Iraci Duarte Lima, Adila L M Lima, Carolina de Oliveira Mendes-Aguiar, José F V Coutinho, Mary E Wilson, Richard D Pearson, José Wilton Queiroz, Selma M B Jeronimo
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum became a disease of urban areas in Brazil in the last 30 years and there has been an increase in asymptomatic L. infantum infection with these areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study of human VL was performed in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, for the period of 1990-2014. The data were divided into five-time periods. For all VL cases, data on sex, age, nutritional status and childhood vaccination were collected...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Carlo Giaquinto, Giovanni Gabutti, Vincenzo Baldo, Marco Villa, Lara Tramontan, Nadia Raccanello, Francesca Russo, Chiara Poma, Antonio Scamarcia, Luigi Cantarutti, Rebecca Lundin, Emilia Perinetti, Xavier Cornen, Stéphane Thomas, Céline Ballandras, Audrey Souverain, Susanne Hartwig
BACKGROUND: Monovalent varicella vaccines have been available in the Veneto Region of Italy since 2004. In 2006, a single vaccine dose was added to the immunisation calendar for children aged 14 months. ProQuad®, a quadrivalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine, was introduced in May 2007 and used, among other varicella vaccines, until October 2008. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of ProQuad, and the population impact of a vaccination program (VP) against varicella of any severity in children who received a first dose of ProQuad at 14 months of age in the Veneto Region, METHODS: All children born in 2006/2007, i...
March 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ammarah Jamal, Yousuf SYahya, Muhammad Tariq Karim
BACKGROUND: Measles is a leading cause of death among children. No specific drug has yet been discovered to treat measles but an available vaccine can effectively prevent the infection. In Pakistan children are vaccinated against measles by two doses given at age of nine months onward. The last few years have witnessed an increasing number of measles cases at age lower than nine months. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the records of Expanded Program on Immunization from all districts of Sindh was performed from January-April 2016...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Koichi Kamei, Isao Miyairi, Kenji Ishikura, Masao Ogura, Kensuke Shoji, Takanori Funaki, Reiko Ito, Katsuhiro Arai, Jun Abe, Toshinao Kawai, Masafumi Onodera, Shuichi Ito
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a prospective study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of live attenuated vaccines in patients with nephrotic syndrome receiving immunosuppressive agents. STUDY DESIGN: Patients with nephrotic syndrome receiving immunosuppressive agents with negative or borderline antibody titers (virus-specific IgG levels <4.0) against measles, rubella, varicella, and/or mumps fulfilling the criteria of cellular and humoral immunity were enrolled...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Timothy F Leslie, Paul L Delamater, Y Tony Yang
In 2017, Minnesota battled its largest measles outbreak in nearly 30 years, with 79 cases, most of them Somali-American children. In this study, we gathered vaccination and enrollment data for incoming kindergarteners in Minnesota over fall 2012-2016 from the Minnesota Department of Health. We also gathered the number of measles cases by county in 2017. We found that MMR coverage has substantial variation across districts and district types. The minimum MMR coverage is 58.3% and the maximum is 100%. Private schools, which represent approximately six percent of Minnesota's kindergarten enrollment, have a substantially lower coverage rate, with an overall coverage of 83...
February 26, 2018: Vaccine
Ritsuko Koga, Marie Kubota, Takao Hashiguchi, Yusuke Yanagi, Shinji Ohno
Annexins are a family of structurally related proteins that bind negatively charged membrane phospholipids in a Ca2+ -dependent manner. Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a member of the family, has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions including the organization of membrane domains, vesicular trafficking and cell-cell adhesion. AnxA2 generally forms the heterotetrameric complex with a small Ca2+ -binding protein S100A10. Measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative strand RNA genome...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Alexandra Nunn, Shazia Masud, Mel Krajden, Monika Naus, Agatha N Jassem
Mumps remains endemic in North America despite routine use of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. In 2016, an outbreak of mumps in British Columbia, Canada provided an opportunity to determine the diagnostic utility of laboratory testing methods. Specimens from patients with clinical mumps were tested for infection using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibody detection and an in-house reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR targeting viral fusion and small hydrophobic (SH) genes...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Paul Welaga, Abraham Hodgson, Cornelius Debpuur, Peter Aaby, Fred Binka, Daniel Azongo, Abraham Oduro
Background: Measles vaccine (MV) administered as the last vaccine after the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be associated with better child survival unrelated to prevention of measles infection. Other studies have shown that MV administered after DTP was more beneficial and was associated with lower mortality compared with DTP administered after MV or DTP administered simultaneously with MV. We compared the difference in mortality between measles vaccinated after DTP3 and measles-unvaccinated children in Navrongo, Ghana...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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