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Measles vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550369/why-does-measles-persist-in-europe
#1
P Plans-Rubió
Several reasons may explain why measles was not eliminated by 2015 and continues to persist in Europe, including low measles vaccination coverage, low anti-measles herd immunity levels, and the mobility of individuals with measles across Europe. The study assessed the mean measles vaccination coverage in the European Union and the WHO European region with one and two doses of measles vaccine from 1980 to 2015, and the prevalence of vaccine-induced protected individuals and anti-measles herd immunity levels in the WHO European region during 2000-2015...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549805/immunization-requirements-of-the-top-200-universities-implications-for-vaccine-hesitant-families
#2
Allison Noesekabel, Ada M Fenick
BACKGROUND: The majority of pediatricians encounter vaccine hesitancy in their practices. As part of a broad discussion about vaccination, school requirements arise as a topic yet providers may lack information about the effects of immunization on university matriculation. METHODS: We surveyed the top-ranked 200 universities regarding required immunizations, medical, religious, and philosophical exemptions, and noncompliance policies. We examined the legal requirements for involved jurisdictions...
May 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546785/on-religious-and-secular-exemptions-a-case-study-of-childhood-vaccination-waivers
#3
Roland Pierik
This paper analyses exemptions to general law through the prism of vaccine waivers in the United States. All US states legally require the vaccination of children prior to school or daycare entry; however, this obligation is accompanied with a system of medical, religious, and/or philosophical exemptions. Nonmedical exemptions became subject of discussion after the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak in California, which unequivocally brought to light what had been brewing below the surface for a while: a slow but steady decline in vaccination rates in Western societies, resulting in the reoccurrence of measles outbreaks...
April 2017: Ethnicities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545041/effect-of-early-measles-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-colonization-a-randomized-trial-from-guinea-bissau
#4
Nadja Skadkær Hansen, Stine Byberg, Lars Hervig Jacobsen, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Aksel Karl Georg Jensen, Cesario Martins, Peter Aaby, Jørgen Skov Jensen, Christine Stabell Benn, Hilton Whittle
BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) may have non-specific beneficial effects for child health and particularly seems to prevent respiratory infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia among children worldwide, and nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether providing early MV at 18 weeks of age reduced pneumococcal colonization and/or density up to 9 months of age. METHOD: The study was conducted in 2013-2014 in Guinea-Bissau...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542646/analysis-of-risk-factors-for-infant-mortality-in-the-1992-3-and-2002-3-birth-cohorts-in-rural-guinea-bissau
#5
Stine Byberg, Marie D Østergaard, Amabelia Rodrigues, Cesario Martins, Christine S Benn, Peter Aaby, Ane B Fisker
INTRODUCTION: Though still high, the infant mortality rate in Guinea-Bissau has declined. We aimed to identify risk factors including vaccination coverage, for infant mortality in the rural population of Guinea-Bissau and assess whether these risk factors changed from 1992-3 to 2002-3. METHODS: The Bandim Health Project (BHP) continuously surveys children in rural Guinea-Bissau. We investigated the association between maternal and infant factors (especially DTP and measles coverage) and infant mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542125/notes-from-the-field-measles-outbreak-at-a-united-states-immigration-and-customs-enforcement-facility-arizona-may-june-2016
#6
Heather Venkat, Ahmed M Kassem, Chia-Ping Su, Clancey Hill, Evan Timme, Graham Briggs, Kenneth Komatsu, Susan Robinson, Rebecca Sunenshine, Manisha Patel, Diana Elson, Paul Gastañaduy, Shane Brady
HASH(0x3d6c028)
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541287/the-geography-of-measles-vaccination-in-the-african-great-lakes-region
#7
Saki Takahashi, C Jessica E Metcalf, Matthew J Ferrari, Andrew J Tatem, Justin Lessler
Expanded access to measles vaccination was among the most successful public health interventions of recent decades. All WHO regions currently target measles elimination by 2020, yet continued measles circulation makes that goal seem elusive. Using Demographic and Health Surveys with generalized additive models, we quantify spatial patterns of measles vaccination in ten contiguous countries in the African Great Lakes region between 2009-2014. Seven countries have 'coldspots' where vaccine coverage is below the WHO target of 80%...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526305/cross-sectional-study-on-factors-hampering-implementation-of-measles-pre-and-postexposure-measures-in-dutch-hospitals-during-the-2013-2014-measles-outbreak
#8
L C R Fievez, A Wong, W L M Ruijs, F S Meerstadt-Rombach, A Timen
BACKGROUND: This study examined adherence to national recommendations on measles pre- and postexposure measures, including immunization of health care workers (HCWs) in Dutch hospitals, during a national outbreak of measles in The Netherlands. This study also investigated which hospital characteristics and organizational issues hamper implementation. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey among all general and academic hospitals in The Netherlands. An online structured questionnaire (48 questions) was administered...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524832/measles-outbreak-in-pediatric-hematology-and-oncology-patients-in-shanghai-2015
#9
Yan-Ling Ge, Xiao-Wen Zhai, Yan-Feng Zhu, Xiang-Shi Wang, Ai-Mei Xia, Yue-Fang Li, Mei Zeng
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial progress toward measles control are making in China, measles outbreaks in immunocompromised population still pose a challenge to interrupt endemic transmission. This study aimed to investigate the features of measles in pediatric hematology and oncology patients and explore the reasons behind the outbreak. METHODS: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data of immunocompromised measles children. All suspected measles cases were laboratory-confirmed based on the presence of measles IgM and/or identification of measles RNA...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518027/measles-cases-during-ebola-outbreak-west-africa-2013-2106
#10
Francesca Colavita, Mirella Biava, Concetta Castilletti, Serena Quartu, Francesco Vairo, Claudia Caglioti, Chiara Agrati, Eleonora Lalle, Licia Bordi, Simone Lanini, Michela Delli Guanti, Rossella Miccio, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria R Capobianchi, Antonino Di Caro
The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa caused breakdowns in public health systems, which might have caused outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. We tested 80 patients admitted to an Ebola treatment center in Freetown, Sierra Leone, for measles. These patients were negative for Ebola virus. Measles virus IgM was detected in 13 (16%) of the patients.
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512183/measles-outbreak-in-somali-american-community-follows-anti-vaccine-talks
#11
Owen Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507792/oncolytic-measles-virus-encoding-interleukin-12-mediates-potent-antitumor-effects-through-t-cell-activation
#12
Rūta Veinalde, Christian Grossardt, Laura Hartmann, Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault, John C Bell, Dirk Jäger, Christof von Kalle, Guy Ungerechts, Christine E Engeland
Combination of oncolytic virotherapy with immunomodulators is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy for numerous tumor entities. In this study, we developed measles Schwarz vaccine strain vectors encoding immunomodulators to support different phases in the establishment of antitumor immune responses. Therapeutic efficacy of the novel vectors was evaluated in the immunocompetent MC38cea tumor model. We identified vectors encoding an IL-12 fusion protein (MeVac FmIL-12) and an antibody against PD-L1 (MeVac anti-PD-L1), respectively, as the most effective...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507363/status-of-cold-chain-in-routine-immunisation-centres-of-the-expanded-programme-on-immunisation-in-quetta-pakistan
#13
Rahim Buledi, Zahid Ahmad Butt, Jamil Ahmed, Aamir Akram Alizai
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of cold chain and knowledge and practices of health workers about cold chain maintenance in routine immunisation health centres. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Quetta, Pakistan, from May to July 2012, and comprised health facilities in the district. We interviewed the staff responsible for vaccine storage and cold chain maintenance and used a checklist to assess cold chain maintenance of routine expanded programme on immunisation vaccines...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505661/why-aren-t-international-travelers-vaccinated-for-measles
#14
Lori K Handy, Paul A Offit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505632/missed-opportunities-for-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination-among-departing-u-s-adult-travelers-receiving-pretravel-health-consultations
#15
Emily P Hyle, Sowmya R Rao, Emily S Jentes, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Stefan H F Hagmann, Allison Taylor Walker, Rochelle P Walensky, Edward T Ryan, Regina C LaRocque
Background: Measles outbreaks continue to occur in the United States and are mostly due to infections in returning travelers. Objective: To describe how providers assessed the measles immunity status of departing U.S. adult travelers seeking pretravel consultation and to assess reasons given for nonvaccination among those considered eligible to receive the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine. Design: Observational study in U.S. pretravel clinics...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501456/assessing-age-dependent-susceptibility-to-measles-in-japan
#16
Ryo Kinoshita, Hiroshi Nishiura
BACKGROUND: Routine vaccination against measles in Japan started in 1978. Whereas measles elimination was verified in 2015, multiple chains of measles transmission were observed in 2016. We aimed to reconstruct the age-dependent susceptibility to measles in Japan so that future vaccination strategies can be elucidated. METHODS: An epidemiological model was used to quantify the age-dependent immune fraction using datasets of vaccination coverage and seroepidemiological survey...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489000/suboptimal-mmr2-vaccine-coverage-in-six-counties-in-norway-detected-through-the-national-immunisation-registry-april-2014-to-april-2017
#17
Maria Hagerup-Jenssen, Sigrun Kongsrud, Øystein Rolandsen Riise
In 2014, Norway became aware of potential low vaccination coverage for the second dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR2) in six of 19 counties. This was detected by comparing the national coverage (NC) for 16-year-olds extracted from the national immunisation registry SYSVAK with the annual status update for elimination of measles and rubella (ASU) reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). The existing method for calculating NC in 2014 did not show MMR2 coverage. ASU reporting on MMR2 was significantly lower then the NC and below the WHO-recommended 95% coverage...
April 27, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488998/ongoing-measles-outbreak-in-wallonia-belgium-december-2016-to-march-2017-characteristics-and-challenges
#18
Tine Grammens, Carole Schirvel, Sylvie Leenen, Nathalie Shodu, Veronik Hutse, Elise Mendes da Costa, Martine Sabbe
We describe characteristics of an ongoing measles outbreak in Wallonia, Belgium, and difficulties in control measures implementation. As at 12 March 2017, 177 measles cases were notified, of which 50% were 15 years and older, 49% female. Atypical clinical presentation and severe complications, mainly among adults, in combination with late notification, low or unknown vaccination coverage of contacts, infected healthcare workers and increased workload due to contact tracing, are the main concerns for outbreak management...
April 27, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488996/assessing-varicella-vaccine-effectiveness-and-its-influencing-factors-using-health-insurance-claims-data-germany-2006-to-2015
#19
Thorsten Rieck, Marcel Feig, Matthias An der Heiden, Anette Siedler, Ole Wichmann
In Germany, routine childhood varicella vaccination was implemented in 2004 with two doses recommended since 2009. We used an immunisation information system based on countrywide health insurance claims data to analyse vaccine effectiveness (VE) and factors influencing VE. We applied proportional hazard models to estimate VE under various conditions and compared the risk of acquiring varicella among unvaccinated children in regions with high vs low vaccination coverage (VC). Among 1.4 million children we identified 29,404 varicella cases over a maximum follow-up of 8 years post-vaccination...
April 27, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488995/written-reminders-increase-vaccine-coverage-in-danish-children-evaluation-of-a-nationwide-intervention-using-the-danish-vaccination-register-2014-to-2015
#20
Camilla Hiul Suppli, Mette Rasmussen, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Kåre Mølbak, Tyra Grove Krause
We evaluated a national intervention of sending written reminders to parents of children lacking childhood vaccinations, using the Danish Vaccination Register (DDV). The intervention cohort included the full birth cohort of 124,189 children born in Denmark who reached the age of 2 and 6.5 years from 15 May 2014 to 14 May 2015. The reference cohort comprised 124,427 children who reached the age of 2 and 6.5 years from 15 May 2013 to 14 May 2014. Vaccination coverage was higher in the intervention cohort at 2...
April 27, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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