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Measles vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792776/prevalence-of-inadequate-immunity-to-measles-mumps-rubella-and-varicella-in-mlb-and-nba-athletes
#1
Justin J Conway, Brett G Toresdahl, Daphne I Ling, Nicole T Boniquit, Lisa R Callahan, James J Kinderknecht
BACKGROUND: Multiple outbreaks of vaccine-preventable viral diseases have occurred in professional sports in recent years. Currently, there is no established protocol for vaccination or immunity screening for professional athletes. HYPOTHESIS: There are significant differences in the prevalence of inadequate immunity dependent on age, sport, country of birth, and participation in collegiate sports. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study...
May 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792546/application-of-a-mixture-model-to-assess-the-effect-of-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccine-on-the-mumps-epidemic-in-children-from-kindergarten-to-early-school-age-in-jiangsu-province-china
#2
Lei Zhang, Zhiguo Wang, Ying Hu, Xiuying Deng, Hongxiong Guo, Xiang Sun, Fenyang Tang, Minghao Zhou, Yuanbao Liu
A single dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine has been applied in routine immunizations for children in China; however, the Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level of mumps in children from kindergarten to early school age with MMR vaccine immunization history has not been elucidated. This study aimed to describe the immunity profile of children from kindergarten to early school age to identify the susceptible population. In Jiangsu Province, a cross-sectional survey of 4- to 8-year-old children who were vaccinated with at least one dose of MMR vaccine was conducted...
May 24, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790461/measles-outbreak-in-a-tertiary-level-hospital-porto-portugal-2018-challenges-in-the-post-elimination-era
#3
Rita Sá Machado, Mariana Perez Duque, Soraia Almeida, Ivo Cruz, Ana Sottomayor, Isabel Almeida, Júlio R Oliveira, Delfina Antunes
A measles outbreak has been occurring in a healthcare setting in Porto, Portugal, since early March 2018, posing public health challenges for a central hospital and the community. Up to 22 April, 96 cases were confirmed, 67 in vaccinated healthcare workers, mostly between 18-39 years old. Following identification of the first cases, control measures were rapidly implemented. Concomitantly, other measles cases were notified in the Northern Region of the country. No common epidemiological link was identified.
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789159/chickenpox-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Coralie Lo Presti, Christophe Curti, Marc Montana, Charléric Bornet, Patrice Vanelle
Despite its benign characteristics, chickenpox is a childhood disease responsible for complications and deaths, particularly in the high-risk population. VariZIG® , not commercialized in France, is a good alternative for seronegative individuals exposed to the virus and not eligible for vaccination. The efficacy of routine vaccination has been demonstrated with a decrease in chickenpox incidence and with the development of herd immunity. Over time, the protective antibody titer of vaccinated people decreases and can be maintained by two doses of the vaccine...
May 19, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785233/therapeutic-outcome-of-intralesional-immunotherapy-in-cutaneous-warts-using-the-mumps-measles-and-rubella-vaccine-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Guneet Awal, Simplepreet Kaur
Background: Various treatment modalities have been described in the literature for treating warts, but none thus far have demonstrated optimal results. Recently, the mumps, measles, and rubella (MMR) antigen has gained popularity because of its proven efficacy in the treatment of warts. Aim: The goal was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intralesional MMR antigen in the treatment of cutaneous warts. Methods: Patients were divided into an MMR (study) group and a normal saline (control) group. Injections were administered into the single largest wart on each patient every two weeks...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784468/vaccines-and-the-risk-of-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis
#6
Yong Chen, Fubao Ma, Yuanling Xu, Xuhua Chu, Jinlin Zhang
BACKGROUND: It is important to examine the risk of Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study between January 2011 and December 2015. Four controls per case were matched for age, gender, address. An independent expert committee validated the diagnoses of cases and controls. Data on vaccinations were obtained from computerized vaccination records. The analyses were conducted with the use of conditional logistic regression...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778514/conditional-admission-religious-exemption-type-and-nonmedical-vaccine-exemptions-in-california-before-and-after-a-state-policy-change
#7
Alison M Buttenheim, Malia Jones, Caitlin Mckown, Daniel Salmon, Saad B Omer
Recent measles and pertussis outbreaks in the US have focused national attention on state laws governing exemptions from mandatory vaccines for school entry. After several years of increases in nonmedical exemptions in California, the state assembly passed Assembly Bill 2109 in 2012, making nonmedical exemptions more difficult to obtain by requiring parents to obtain a signature from a health care provider. We used data from the California Department of Public Health to describe changes in the overall prevalence of personal belief exemptions and compositional changes in immunization status for the school years 2012-2013 through 2015-2016...
May 16, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773050/the-importance-of-complying-with-vaccination-protocols-in-developed-countries-anti-vax-hysteria-and-the-spread-of-severe-preventable-diseases
#8
Franco Pandolfi, Laura Franza, Laura Todi, Valentina Carusi, Michele Centrone, Alessandro Bonomo, Estelle E Newton, Domenico Schiavino, Eleonora Nucera
BACKGROUND: Vaccines are very effective medical tools for disease prevention and life span increase. Controversies have raised concern about their safety, from autism to polio vaccine contamination with simian virus 40 (SV-40). Hysteria surrounding vaccine-associated risks has resulted in a declining number of vaccinations in developed countries. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g. measles) have occurred in Europe and North America, causing also some causalities. OBJECTIVES: In this review, data on safety and efficacy of vaccines are discussed, showing that the benefits of vaccines far outweigh the risks and that it is important to comply with vaccination protocols, to avoid spreading of severe, preventable diseases...
May 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771601/response-to-third-rubella-vaccine-dose
#9
Lotta Siira, Hanne Nøkleby, Regine Barlinn, Øystein R Riise, Ingeborg S Aaberge, Susanne G Dudman
Limited data exist on the immunogenicity of a third dose of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). In this study, our aim was to evaluate the long-term rubella immunogenicity afforded by two childhood MMR doses of the Norwegian vaccination program in a cohort of conscripts and to determine the effect of an additional dose of MMR vaccine, in order to inform vaccination policy. Blood samples from Norwegian conscripts (n = 495) taken both before and eight months after administration of a dose of MMR vaccine were tested using an enzyme immunoassay to measure anti-rubella IgG...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766840/rubella-infection-in-pregnancy-and-congenital-rubella-in-united-kingdom-2003-to-2016
#10
Antoaneta Bukasa, Helen Campbell, Kevin Brown, Helen Bedford, Mary Ramsay, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Pat Tookey
Rubella vaccination has been included in the United Kingdom's (UK) routine childhood schedule for nearly 30 years. The UK achieved World Health Organization (WHO) elimination status in 2016 and acute rubella infections are rare. In the period 2003-16, 31 rubella infections in pregnancy (0.23 per 100,000 pregnancies) were identified through routine surveillance, of which 26 were in women who were born abroad. Five of the 31 rubella infections led to congenital rubella syndrome in the infant and three had confirmed congenital rubella infection without congenital rubella syndrome...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757209/immunization-offer-targeting-migrants-policies-and-practices-in-italy
#11
Teresa Dalla Zuanna, Martina Del Manso, Cristina Giambi, Flavia Riccardo, Antonino Bella, Maria Grazia Caporali, Maria Grazia Dente, Silvia Declich
The unprecedented flow of migrants over the last three years places Italy in front of new issues regarding medical care from the rescue phase up to the integration into the national health services, including preventive actions. We used online questionnaires to investigate the Italian national and regional policies for immunization offer targeting asylum seekers, refugees, irregular migrants and unaccompanied minors. Another questionnaire was used to assess how these policies are translated into practice in migrant reception centres and community health services...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757123/the-role-of-humor-in-messaging-about-the-mmr-vaccine
#12
Emily Moyer-Gusé, Melissa J Robinson, Jessica Mcknight
Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have increased due, in part, to misconceptions about vaccine safety (Kennedy et al., 2011). Extant literature has examined various messages designed to correct false beliefs about vaccination risks and to urge parents to vaccinate their children. The present study is designed to contribute to this literature by drawing on the broader research and theory on resistance to persuasion and correcting false beliefs. We examine the effects of a humorous (vs. non-humorous) message about the importance of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine on parents' vaccine hesitancy...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755760/impact-of-measles-supplementary-immunisation-activities-on-utilisation-of-maternal-and-child-health-services-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#13
Iryna Postolovska, Stéphane Helleringer, Margaret E Kruk, Stéphane Verguet
Background: Measles supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) are an integral component of measles elimination in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite their success in increasing vaccination coverage, there are concerns about their negative consequences on routine services. Few studies have conducted quantitative assessments of SIA impact on utilisation of health services. Methods: We analysed the impact of SIAs on utilisation of selected maternal and child health services using Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 28 LMICs, where at least one SIA occurred over 2000-2014...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752126/simultaneous-co-detection-of-wild-type-and-vaccine-strain-measles-virus-using-the-bd-max-system
#14
Kiran Thapa, Justin A Ellem, Kerri Basile, Ian Carter, Tom Olma, Sharon C-A Chen, Dominic E Dwyer, Jen Kok
Despite the reported elimination of measles virus in Australia, importation of cases from endemic countries continues to lead to secondary local transmission and outbreaks. Rapid laboratory confirmation of measles is paramount for individual patient management and outbreak responses. Further, it is important to rapidly distinguish infection from wild-type virus or vaccine strains to guide public health responses. We developed a high throughput, TaqMan-based multiplex reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using the BD MAX platform (Becton Dickinson) that simultaneously detects measles virus and differentiates between wild-type and vaccine strains without the need for sequencing...
May 8, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743309/utility-of-a-stressed-snp-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-rapid-identification-of-measles-vaccine-strain-in-patient-samples
#15
Thomas Tran, Renata Kostecki, Michael Catton, Julian Druce
Rapid differentiation of wild-type measles virus from measles vaccine strains is crucial during a measles outbreak and in a measles elimination setting. A real-time RT-PCR for the rapid detection of measles vaccine strains was developed with high specificity and greater sensitivity than when compared to traditional measles genotyping methods. The "stressed" minor grove binder TaqMan probe design approach achieves specificity to vaccine strains only, without compromising sensitivity. This assay has proven to be extremely useful in outbreak settings, without requiring sequence genotyping, for over 4 years at the Regional Measles Reference Laboratory for the Western Pacific Region...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741721/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#16
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin, Yvonne A Maldonado
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, each of whom is appointed to a 4-year term. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. The ACIP met on October 25 and 26, 2017, to discuss herpes zoster vaccine, the child/adolescent and adult vaccination schedules, Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemiology and vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines, anthrax vaccines and disaster preparedness, hepatitis A outbreaks, influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage, vaccine safety, and considerations for a potential third dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine to combat ongoing mumps outbreaks...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739482/serum-anti-tetanus-and-measles-antibody-titres-in-ugandan-children-aged-4-months-to-6-years-implications-for-vaccine-programme
#17
Lenesha Warrener, Josephine Bwogi, Nick Andrews, Dhanraj Samuel, Theopista Kabaliisa, Henry Bukenya, Kevin Brown, Martha H Roper, David A Featherstone, David Brown
To study the antibody response to tetanus toxoid and measles by age following vaccination in children aged 4 months to 6 years in Entebbe, Uganda. Serum samples were obtained from 113 children aged 4-15 months, at the Mother-Child Health Clinic (MCHC), Entebbe Hospital and from 203 of the 206 children aged between 12 and 75 months recruited through the Outpatients Department (OPD). Antibodies to measles were quantified by plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and with Siemens IgG EIA. VaccZyme IgG EIA was used to quantify anti-tetanus antibodies...
May 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723171/progress-toward-measles-elimination-western-pacific-region-2013-2017
#18
José E Hagan, Jennifer L Kriss, Yoshihiro Takashima, Kayla Mae L Mariano, Roberta Pastore, Varja Grabovac, Alya J Dabbagh, James L Goodson
In 2005, the Regional Committee for the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR)* established a goal for measles elimination† by 2012 (1). To achieve this goal, the 37 WPR countries and areas implemented the recommended strategies in the WPR Plan of Action for Measles Elimination (2) and the Field Guidelines for Measles Elimination (3). The strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) through routine immunization services and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), when required; 2) conducting high-quality case-based measles surveillance, including timely and accurate testing of specimens to confirm or discard suspected cases and detect measles virus for genotyping and molecular analysis; and 3) establishing and maintaining measles outbreak preparedness to ensure rapid response and appropriate case management...
May 4, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718189/risk-factors-for-persisting-measles-susceptibility-a-case-control-study-among-unvaccinated-orthodox-protestants
#19
Anne C de Munter, Alma Tostmann, Susan J M Hahné, D Henri Spaan, Rijk van Ginkel, Wilhelmina L M Ruijs
Background: Measles is an infectious disease providing lifelong immunity. Epidemics periodically occur among unvaccinated orthodox Protestants in the Netherlands. During the 2013/2014 epidemic, 17% of the reported patients was over 14 years old. Apparently, they did not catch measles during the previous 1999/2000 epidemic and remained susceptible. We wanted to identify risk factors for this so-called persisting measles susceptibility, and thus risk factors for acquiring measles at older age with increased risk of complications...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717799/information-education-and-health-behaviors-evidence-from-the-mmr-vaccine-autism-controversy
#20
Lenisa V Chang
In the wake of strong, although later refuted, claims of a link between autism and the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, I examine whether fewer parents immunized or delayed vaccinations for their children and if there was a differential response by mother's education level. Using various controls and a differencing strategy that compares in MMR take-up with other vaccines, I find that the MMR-autism controversy led to a decline in the immediate years and that there were negative spillovers onto other vaccines...
May 2, 2018: Health Economics
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