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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934255/quantitative-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-macular-vascular-structure-and-foveal-avascular-zone-in-glaucoma
#1
Jaewan Choi, Junki Kwon, Joong Won Shin, Jiyun Lee, Saem Lee, Michael S Kook
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the quantitative characteristics of the macular vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in glaucoma using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, age- and sex-matched case-control study. METHODS: Fifty-two eyes of 52 patients with primary open angle glaucoma and 52 eyes from 52 healthy participants were recruited retrospectively. OCT-A was performed on a 3 x 3-mm macular region centered on the fovea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931810/controlled-manipulation-of-oxygen-vacancies-using-nanoscale-flexoelectricity
#2
Saikat Das, Bo Wang, Ye Cao, Myung Rae Cho, Yeong Jae Shin, Sang Mo Yang, Lingfei Wang, Minu Kim, Sergei V Kalinin, Long-Qing Chen, Tae Won Noh
Oxygen vacancies, especially their distribution, are directly coupled to the electromagnetic properties of oxides and related emergent functionalities that have implications for device applications. Here using a homoepitaxial strontium titanate thin film, we demonstrate a controlled manipulation of the oxygen vacancy distribution using the mechanical force from a scanning probe microscope tip. By combining Kelvin probe force microscopy imaging and phase-field simulations, we show that oxygen vacancies can move under a stress-gradient-induced depolarisation field...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930156/giant-strain-and-induced-ferroelectricity-in-amorphous-batio%C3%A2-films-under-poling
#3
Pegah Mirzadeh Vaghefi, Ali Baghizadeh, Armando A C S Lourenço, Vitor S Amaral, Andre L Kholkin
We report an effect of giant surface modification of a 5.6 nm thick BaTiO₃ film grown on Si (100) substrate under poling by conductive tip of a scanning probe microscope (SPM). The surface can be locally elevated by about 9 nm under -20 V applied during scanning, resulting in the maximum strain of 160%. The threshold voltage for the surface modification is about 12 V. The modified topography is stable enough with time and slowly decays after poling with the rate ~0.02 nm/min. Strong vertical piezoresponse after poling is observed, too...
September 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929853/physician-leadership-development-evidence-informed-design-tempered-with-real-life-experience
#4
Shawn Jolemore, Steven D Soroka
This article describes key considerations for creation of evidence-informed in-house physician leadership development. Ten elements extracted from a scan of the peer-reviewed and grey literature are presented, and key learnings at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, a quaternary academic health sciences centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia, are highlighted. Each element is briefly described with practical considerations and challenges to implementation outlined in the context of the former Capital District Health Authority, where the authors collaborated to create in-house physician leadership development prior to the consolidation of health districts in that province...
May 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929734/label-free-and-high-throughput-detection-of-biomolecular-interactions-using-a-flatbed-scanner-biosensor
#5
Ugur Aygun, Oguzhan Avci, Elif Seymour, Hakan Urey, M Selim Ünlu, Ayca Yalcin Ozkumur
Fluorescence based microarray detection systems provide sensitive measurements, however variation of probe immobilization and poor repeatability negatively affect the final readout, and thus quantification capability of these systems. Here, we demonstrate a label-free and high-throughput optical biosensor that can be utilized for calibration of fluorescence microarrays. The sensor employs a commercial flatbed scanner, and we demonstrate transformation of this low cost (100 USD) system into an Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor through hardware and software modifications...
September 20, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928779/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-three-mouthwashes-on-the-mechanical-properties-and-surface-morphology-of-several-orthodontic-wires-an-in-vitro-study
#6
Hossein Aghili, Sogra Yassaei, Farzaneh Eslami
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in the mechanical properties and surface morphology of different orthodontic wires after immersion in three mouthwash solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in vitro study, five specimens of each of 0.016 inch nickel titanium (NiTi), coated NiTi, and stainless steel orthodontic wires were selected. The specimens were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF), 0.2% chlorhexidine, Zataria multiflora extract, and distilled water (control) for 1...
July 2017: Dental Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926948/field-emission-from-self-catalyzed-gaas-nanowires
#7
Filippo Giubileo, Antonio Di Bartolomeo, Laura Iemmo, Giuseppe Luongo, Maurizio Passacantando, Eero Koivusalo, Teemu V Hakkarainen, Mircea Guina
We report observations of field emission from self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown on Si (111). The measurements were taken inside a scanning electron microscope chamber with a nano-controlled tungsten tip functioning as anode. Experimental data were analyzed in the framework of the Fowler-Nordheim theory. We demonstrate stable current up to 10(-7) A emitted from the tip of single nanowire, with a field enhancement factor β of up to 112 at anode-cathode distance d = 350 nm. A linear dependence of β on the anode-cathode distance was found...
September 16, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926723/porous-wo3-graphene-polyester-textile-electrode-materials-with-enhanced-electrochemical-performance-for-flexible-solid-state-supercapacitors
#8
Li-Na Jin, Ping Liu, Chun Jin, Jia-Nan Zhang, Shao-Wei Bian
In this work, a flexible and porous WO3/grapheme/polyester (WO3/G/PT) textile electrode was successfully prepared by in situ growing WO3 on the fiber surface inside G/PT composite fabrics. The unique electrode structure facilitates to enhance the energy storage performance because the 3D conductive network constructed by the G/PT increase the electron transportation rate, nanotructured WO3 exposed enhanced electrochemically active surface area and the hierarchically porous structure improved the electrolyte ion diffusion rate...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926223/supramolecular-motors-on-graphite-surface-stabilized-by-charge-states-and-hydrogen-bonds
#9
Kai Sun, Ji-Yong Luo, Xin Zhang, Zhi-Jian Wu, Ying Wang, Hong-Kuan Yuan, Zu-Hong Xiong, Shao-Chun Li, Qi-Kun Xue, Jun-Zhong Wang
Molecular motors are nanoscale machines that convert external energies into controlled mechanical movements. In supramolecular motors, the rotator and stator are held together mechanically, and thus the rotation can be essentially barrier free when molecular conformation is negligible. However, nearly all the supramolecular motors appeared in solutions or host-guest complexes. Surface-mounted supramolecular motors have rarely been addressed, even though they are easily manipulated by external fields. Here we report a surface-mounted supramolecular motor assembled by charge states and hydrogen bonds...
September 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926116/a-molar-microwear-texture-analysis-of-pitheciid-primates
#10
Anna J Ragni, Mark F Teaford, Peter S Ungar
Dental microwear textures have been examined for a broad range of extant primates to assess their efficacy for reconstructing diets of fossil species. To date though, no dental microwear texture data have been published for pitheciid molars, despite reported variation in degree of sclerocarpy and, by extension, the fracture properties of foods these platyrrhines eat. While all pitheciids eat hard or tough seeds, Chiropotes and Pithecia have been documented to consume more than Callicebus. In this study, we explored whether measures of molar microwear texture complexity discriminate taxa following variation in reliance upon seeds, and whether dispersion among variables is greatest in Callicebus, which has the most variable diet...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924226/electrically-driven-single-photon-emission-from-an-isolated-single-molecule
#11
Li Zhang, Yun-Jie Yu, Liu-Guo Chen, Yang Luo, Ben Yang, Fan-Fang Kong, Gong Chen, Yang Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yi Luo, Jin-Long Yang, Zhen-Chao Dong, J G Hou
Electrically driven molecular light emitters are considered to be one of the promising candidates as single-photon sources. However, it is yet to be demonstrated that electrically driven single-photon emission can indeed be generated from an isolated single molecule notwithstanding fluorescence quenching and technical challenges. Here, we report such electrically driven single-photon emission from a well-defined single molecule located inside a precisely controlled nanocavity in a scanning tunneling microscope...
September 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923734/biomass-derived-hierarchically-porous-and-heteroatom-doped-carbons-for-supercapacitors
#12
Xiaonan Kang, Hui Zhu, Chuanyi Wang, Kang Sun, Jiao Yin
In this research, Rapeseed dregs (RDs), as a byproduct of agriculture (derived from processing of rapeseed for oil production), were originally employed asa new carbonaceous precursor to synthesize hierarchically porous and heteroatom-doped activated carbons (ACs) with the activation of ZnCl2 at various high temperatures. A variety of measurements have been adopted to systemically characterize the RD-derived ACs. The micro-morphology, pore structures and surface chemistry property were fully investigated by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, XPS and IR, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922627/distribution-patterns-and-morphology-of-sensilla-on-the-antennae-of-plutella-xylostella-l-a-scanning-and-transmission-electron-microscopic-study
#13
Xi-Zhong Yan, Cai-Ping Deng, Jiao-Xin Xie, Lan-Jun Wu, Xue-Jun Sun, Chi Hao
The antennal morphology, types of antennal sensilla, fine structures and distributions of the sensilla in Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. The antenna, scape, pedicel and flagellum were all longer in males than in females. A total of seventeen types of sensilla were identified on the antennae: trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica, coeloconica (three subtypes), Böhm's bristles (two subtypes), styloconica (two subtypes), squamiformia, auricillica, furcatea (three subtypes), cupuliform organs and terminal sensory pegs...
September 6, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920963/tuning-a-circular-p-n-junction-in-graphene-from-quantum-confinement-to-optical-guiding
#14
Yuhang Jiang, Jinhai Mao, Dean Moldovan, Massoud Ramezani Masir, Guohong Li, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Francois M Peeters, Eva Y Andrei
The photon-like propagation of the Dirac electrons in graphene, together with its record-high electronic mobility, can lead to applications based on ultrafast electronic response and low dissipation. However, the chiral nature of the charge carriers that is responsible for the high mobility also makes it difficult to control their motion and prevents electronic switching. Here, we show how to manipulate the charge carriers by using a circular p-n junction whose size can be continuously tuned from the nanometre to the micrometre scale...
September 18, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920437/real-time-metabolic-interactions-between-two-bacterial-species-using-a-carbon-based-ph-microsensor-as-a-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy-secm-probe
#15
Vrushali Subhash Joshi, Partha Sarathi Sheet, Nyssa Cullin, Jens Kreth, Dipankar Koley
We have developed a carbon-based, fast-response potentiometric pH microsensor for use as a scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) chemical probe to quantitatively map the microbial metabolic exchange between two bacterial species, commensal Streptococcus gordonii and pathogenic Streptococcus mutans. The 25-μm diameter H+ ion-selective microelectrode or pH microprobe showed a Nernstian slope of 59 mV/pH and high selectivity against major ions such Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. In addition, the unique conductive membrane composition aided us in performing an amperometric approach curve to position the probe and obtain a high-resolution pH map of the microenvironment produced by the lactate-producing S...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919435/ultrasensitive-and-rapid-immuno-detection-of-human-ige-anti-therapeutic-horse-sera-using-an-electrochemical-immunosensor
#16
Isis C Prado, André L A Souza, David W Provance-Jr, Ricardo J Cassella, Salvatore G De-Simone
Antivenom allergy disease mediated by patient IgE is an important public health care concern. To improve detection of hypersensitive individuals prior to passive antibody therapy, an amperometric immunosensor was developed to detect reactive human IgE. Whole horse IgG3 (hoIgG3) was immobilized onto the surface of carbon or gold screen-printed electrodes through a cross-linking solution of glutaraldehyde on a chitosan film. Sera from persons with a known allergic response to hoIgG3 or non-allergic individuals was applied to the sensor...
September 14, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917879/laccase-tempo-oxidation-in-the-production-of-mechanically-strong-arabinoxylan-and-glucomannan-aerogels
#17
Kirsti Parikka, Ida Nikkilä, Leena Pitkänen, Abdul Ghafar, Tuula Sontag-Strohm, Maija Tenkanen
New wheat arabinoxylan and konjac glucomannan hydrogels and aerogels were prepared by hemiacetal crosslinking induced by laccase/TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) -catalysed oxidation, which selectively converts the primary hydroxyl groups to aldehydes. The degree of oxidation of the product aldehydes was ca. 10% of the total carbohydrates of the polysaccharides, and the determination of storage and viscous moduli of the oxidised samples showed that they had formed true hydrogels. Two freezing methods for the hydrogels, conventional freezing and ice crystal templating, were investigated for aerogel production, the ice crystal templated products especially were mechanically strong in compression test against the ice crystals' growth direction...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913542/metal-release-profiles-of-orthodontic-bands-brackets-and-wires-an-in-vitro-study
#18
B Wendl, H Wiltsche, E Lankmayr, H Winsauer, A Walter, A Muchitsch, N Jakse, M Wendl, T Wendl
AIM: The present study evaluated the temporal release of Co Cr, Mn, and Ni from the components of a typical orthodontic appliance during simulated orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several commercially available types of bands, brackets, and wires were exposed to an artificial saliva solution for at least 44 days and the metals released were quantified in regular intervals using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Elan DRC+, Perkin Elmer, USA)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912939/effect-of-er-yag-laser-and-sandblasting-in-recycling-of-ceramic-brackets
#19
Soghra Yassaei, Hossein Aghili, Azadeh Hosseinzadeh Firouzabadi, Hamidreza Meshkani
Introduction: This study was performed to determine the shear bond strength of rebonded mechanically retentive ceramic brackets after recycling with Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser or sandblasting. Methods: Twenty-eight debonded ceramic brackets plus 14 intact new ceramic brackets were used in this study. Debonded brackets were randomly divided into 2 groups of 14. One group was treated by Er:YAG laser and the other with sandblasting. All the specimens were randomly bonded to 42 intact human upper premolars...
2017: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910686/a-simple-and-environment-friendly-approach-for-synthesizing-macroporous-polymers-from-aqueous-foams
#20
Haotian Tan, Shuhua Tu, Yongliang Zhao, Haitao Wang, Qiangguo Du
We propose a facile and environment-friendly approach for the preparation of macroporous polyacrylamide (PAM) via thermal-initiated polymerization of aqueous foams that are stabilized by surface-modified silica nanoparticles. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is used to delicately adjust the surface amphiphilicity of silica to stabilize aqueous foams. The air bubble size and size distribution is affected by the wettability of silica particles, solid content and air volume fraction in the foams. The morphology of macroporous polymers is observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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