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Gergely Huszka, Martin A M Gijs
We report dielectric microsphere array-based optical super-resolution microscopy. A dielectric microsphere that is placed on a sample is known to generate a virtual image with resolution better than the optical diffraction limit. However, a limitation of such type of super-resolution microscopy is the restricted field-of-view, essentially limited to the central area of the microsphere-generated image. We overcame this limitation by scanning a micro-fabricated array of ordered microspheres over the sample using a customized algorithm that moved step-by-step a motorized stage, meanwhile the microscope-mounted camera was taking pictures at every step...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xianglei Yan, Xihua Zou, Wei Pan, Lianshan Yan, José Azaña
We propose a fully digital programmable optical frequency comb (OFC) generation scheme based on binary phase-sampling modulation, wherein an optimized bit sequence is applied to phase modulate a narrow-linewidth light wave. Programming the bit sequence enables us to tune both the comb spacing and comb-line number (i.e., number of comb lines). The programmable OFCs are also characterized by ultra-flat spectral envelope, uniform temporal envelope, and stable bias-free setup. Target OFCs are digitally programmed to have 19, 39, 61, 81, 101, or 201 comb lines and to have a 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, or 1 MHz comb spacing...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Amir Hossein Mirhashemi, Nasim Chiniforush, Nastaran Sharifi, Amir Mehdi Hosseini
Several techniques have been proposed to obtain a durable bond, and the efficacy of these techniques is assessed by measuring parameters such as bond strength. Laser has provided a bond strength as high as that of acid etching in vitro and has simpler use with shorter clinical time compared to acid etching. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers for etching and bonding of composite to orthodontic brackets. No previous study has evaluated the effect of these particular types of laser...
January 11, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Ji Seon Shine, Soo Jin Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Mi Yu
PURPOSE: Interface pressure is a factor that contributes to the occurrence of pressure injuries. This study aimed to investigate interface pressure at common sites of pressure injury (occipital, gluteal and peritrochanteric areas), to explore the relationships among risk factors, skin condition and interface pressure, and to identify risk factors influencing interface pressure. METHODS: A total of 100 patients admitted to the intensive care unit were enrolled at a tertiary teaching hospital in Korea...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Javier Cabrerizo, Thomas Forshaw, Clara Rodriguez-Aierbe, Jesus Garrido-Fierro
We set out to determine microscopic characteristics of the Descemet membrane interface during Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) graft preparation. Ten corneas were partially prepared, preserving half of the Descemet membrane attached to the stroma to enable visualisation of the Descemet-stroma interface. This tissue was prepared for viewing with a scanning electron microscope. The Descemet-stroma interface was categorised into three regions: centre, mid-periphery and periphery. We classified adhesions in these regions as either minor thread-like adhesions or major bridge-like adhesions with stromal detachments...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chuang Zhang, Wenxue Wang, Wenhui He, Ning Xi, Yuechao Wang, Lianqing Liu
Studies on the contractile dynamics of heart cells have attracted broad attention for the development of both heart disease therapies and cardiomyocyte-actuated micro-robotics. In this study, a linear dynamic model of a single cardiomyocyte cell was proposed at the subcellular scale to characterize the contractile behaviors of heart cells, with system parameters representing the mechanical properties of the subcellular components of living cardiomyocytes. The system parameters of the dynamic model were identified with the cellular beating pattern measured by a scanning ion conductance microscope...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Carolina Barbosa Vicari, Bárbara de Oliveira Magalhães, Jason Alan Griggs, Márcia Borba
PURPOSE: To evaluate the fatigue behavior of two crystalline-reinforced ceramics: leucite-reinforced (VL) and lithium disilicate-based (VD) glass-ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bar-shaped specimens (16 × 4 × 1.2 mm) were produced for each ceramic using prefabricated CAD/CAM blocks. For each group, 30 specimens were subjected to a three-point flexural strength test in a universal testing machine. For VL and VD, 36 and 41 specimens were subjected to a cyclic fatigue test, respectively...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Fitri Nur Indah Sari, Jyh-Ming Ting
MoS2/MoOx nanostructures have been grown on activated carbon cloth through a facile one-step microwaved-assisted hydrothermal. The growth of MoS2/MoOx on activated carbon cloth create a unique structure that favors ions intercalation. The conductive activated carbon cloth, MoO3-x, and monoclinic MoO2 provide fast electron transport while the MoS2 nanosheets/MoO3-x nanoparticles nanostructure improves the capacitance. As a result, MoS2/MoOx nanostructure decorated activated carbon cloth shows high specific capacitance of 230 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 with low contact resistance ~1...
January 4, 2018: ChemSusChem
Fabrice Donatini, Julien Pernot
In semiconductor nanowires the exciton diffusion coefficient can be determined using a scanning electron microscope fitted with a cathodoluminescence system. High spatial and temporal resolutions cathodoluminescence experiments are needed to measure independently the exciton diffusion length and lifetime in single nanowires. However, both diffusion length and lifetime can be affected by the electron beam bombardment during observation and measurement. Thus, in this work the exciton lifetime in a ZnO nanowire is measured versus the electron beam dose via a time-resolved cathodoluminescence experiment with a temporal resolution of 50 ps...
January 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
S Becker, N Raatz, St Jankuhn, R John, J Meijer
Established techniques for ion implantation rely on technically advanced and costly machines like particle accelerators that only few research groups possess. We report here about a new and surprisingly simple ion implantation method that is based upon a widespread laboratory instrument: The scanning electron microscope. We show that it can be utilized to ionize atoms and molecules from the restgas by collisions with electrons of the beam and subsequently accelerate and implant them into an insulating sample by the effect of a potential building up at the sample surface...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Suriyati Mohamad, Nur Najihah Ismail, Thaigarajan Parumasivam, Pazilah Ibrahim, Hasnah Osman, Habibah A Wahab
BACKGROUND: Costus speciosus, Cymbopogon citratus, and Tabernaemontana coronaria are herbal plants traditionally used as remedies for symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) including cough. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the in vitro anti-TB activity of different solvent partitions of these plants, to identify the phytochemical compounds, and to assess the effects of the most active partitions on the growth kinetics and cellular integrity of the tubercle organism. METHODS: The in vitro anti-TB activity of different solvent partitions of the plant materials was determined against M...
January 8, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Genevieve Maquilan, Marc R Bussière, Joseph McCormack, Tara Medich, Andrzej Niemierko, Helen A Shih
PURPOSE: To quantify radiation exposure of radiation therapy technologists (RTTs) in a proton treatment facility in comparison with a photon therapy facility, to inform and establish these specialized occupational safety guidelines. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two groups of RTTs, consisting of 12 full-time passive scattering proton RTTs and 18 full-time conventional photon RTTs, wore an additional dosimetry badge at the waist for a period of 14 weeks. The 2 groups of RTTs were given identical instructions on the proper use of the badges...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Ya Shen, Xiangya Huang, Zhejun Wang, Xi Wei, Markus Haapasalo
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different temperatures (0°C, 10°C, 22°C, 37°C, and 60°C) on the cyclic fatigue life of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files using a new fatigue test model in zirconium oxide. METHODS: Three superelastic NiTi files (EndoSequence [Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA], ProFile [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK], and K3 [SybronEndo, Orange, CA]), and 3 heat-treated (K3XF [SybronEndo], Vortex [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties], and HyFlex CM [Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland]) NiTi files, all size 25/...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Zexuan Ji, Qiang Chen, Sijie Niu, Theodore Leng, Daniel L Rubin
Purpose: To automatically and accurately segment geographic atrophy (GA) in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images by constructing a voting system with deep neural networks without the use of retinal layer segmentation. Methods: An automatic GA segmentation method for SD-OCT images based on the deep network was constructed. The structure of the deep network was composed of five layers, including one input layer, three hidden layers, and one output layer...
January 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Tao Chen, Defu Liu, Fan Wu, Haojun Wang
To solve the lack of wear resistance of titanium alloys for use in biological applications, various prepared coatings on titanium alloys are often used as wear-resistant materials. In this paper, TiC bioinert coatings were fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding using mixed TiC and ZrO₂ powders as the basic pre-placed materials. A certain amount of CeO₂ powder was also added to the pre-placed powders to further improve the properties of the TiC coatings. The effects of CeO₂ additive on the phase constituents, microstructures and wear resistance of the TiC coatings were researched in detail...
December 31, 2017: Materials
Chang-Seuk Lee, Su Hwan Yu, Tae Hyun Kim
Here, we introduce the preparation of the hybrid nanocomposite-modified electrode consisting of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using the one-step electrochemical method, allowing for the simultaneous and individual detection of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA), and uric acid (UA). RGO/AuNPs nanocomposite was formed on a glassy carbon electrode by the co-reduction of GO and Au3+ using the potentiodynamic method. The RGO/AuNPs nanocomposite-modified electrode was produced by subjecting a mixed solution of GO and Au3+ to cyclic sweeping from -1...
December 30, 2017: Nanomaterials
Mostafa Fatholahi, Shahnaz Rostamizadeh, Alimohammad Amani
The present study has developed an efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of aryl-14-H-dibenzo[a,j] xanthenes through a one-pot condensation reaction of 2-naphthol and arylaldehydes in aqueous media using the nanocatalytic MCM-41-SO3H under ultrasonic illumination. The suggested route demonstrates very promising properties like higher yields, decrease in the time of reaction (5-10 min), mild and straightforward conditions, low level of toxicity, and inclusion of a cost-efficient and ecofriendly catalyst having considerable reusability...
January 3, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Yoshinori Tsuji, Satoshi Saitoh, Junji Takahashi, Chisato Abe, Tatsuya Hayashi, Masahiro Kobayashi
The controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration (CAIPIRINHA) technique can decrease scan time. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an arterial phase scan can be performed in 5 s using the CAIPIRINHA short-scan and a reference scanning technique. The generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA), the CAIPIRINHA routine (CAIPI-routine), and the CAIPIRINHA short-scanning (CAIPI-short) methods were compared. The scan time for each method was preset to 20 s, 15 s, and 10 s, respectively...
January 3, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Chaoliang Chen, Victor X D Yang
Recently, parallel high A-line speed and wide field imaging for optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has become more prevalent, resulting in a dramatic increase of data quantity which poses a challenge for real time imaging even for GPU in data processing. In this manuscript, we propose a new OCTA processing technique, Gabor optical coherence tomographic angiography (GOCTA), for label-free human retinal angiography imaging. In spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), k-space resampling and Fourier transform (FFT) are required for the entire data set of interference fringes to calculate blood flow information in previous OCTA algorithms, which are computationally intensive...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Mark T Edmonds, James L Collins, Jack Hellerstedt, Indra Yudhistira, Lídia C Gomes, João N B Rodrigues, Shaffique Adam, Michael S Fuhrer
Topological Dirac semimetals (TDSs) are three-dimensional analogs of graphene, with carriers behaving like massless Dirac fermions in three dimensions. In graphene, substrate disorder drives fluctuations in Fermi energy, necessitating construction of heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) to minimize the fluctuations. Three-dimensional TDSs obviate the substrate and should show reduced EF fluctuations due to better metallic screening and higher dielectric constants. We map the potential fluctuations in TDS Na3Bi using a scanning tunneling microscope...
December 2017: Science Advances
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