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A Reum Kim, Ki Bum Ahn, Hyun Young Kim, Ho Seong Seo, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus gordonii is a predominant member of the oral microflora and has been isolated from root canals of teeth with refractory apical periodontitis. Biofilm formation is important for various dental diseases, and S. gordonii is involved in dental biofilm formation as an early colonizer. Although serine-rich repeat (SRR) adhesins of S. gordonii such as gordonii surface protein B (GspB) are associated with bacterial colonization, the role of GspB in biofilm formation is not clearly understood...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Philipp Leinen, Matthew F B Green, Taner Esat, Christian Wagner, F Stefan Tautz, Ruslan Temirov
Considering organic molecules as the functional building blocks of future nanoscale technology, the question of how to arrange and assemble such building blocks in a bottom-up approach is still open. The scanning probe microscope (SPM) could be a tool of choice; however, SPM-based manipulation was until recently limited to two dimensions (2D). Binding the SPM tip to a molecule at a well-defined position opens an opportunity of controlled manipulation in 3D space. Unfortunately, 3D manipulation is largely incompatible with the typical 2D-paradigm of viewing and generating SPM data on a computer...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Erlin Zhang, Jing Ren, Shengyi Li, Lei Yang, Gaowu Qin
Ti-Cu sintered alloys have shown good antibacterial abilities. However, the sintered method (powder metallurgy) is not convenient to produce devices with a complex structure. In this paper, Ti-Cu alloys with 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 wt.% Cu were prepared in an arc melting furnace and subjected to different heat treatments: solid solution and ageing, to explore the possibility of preparing an antibacterial Ti-Cu alloy by a casting method and to examine the effect of Cu content. Phase identification was conducted on an XRD diffraction meter, and the microstructure was observed by a metallographic microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Matthew Yankowitz, K Watanabe, T Taniguchi, Pablo San-Jose, Brian J LeRoy
Combining atomically-thin van der Waals materials into heterostructures provides a powerful path towards the creation of designer electronic devices. The interaction strength between neighbouring layers, most easily controlled through their interlayer separation, can have significant influence on the electronic properties of these composite materials. Here, we demonstrate unprecedented control over interlayer interactions by locally modifying the interlayer separation between graphene and boron nitride, which we achieve by applying pressure with a scanning tunnelling microscopy tip...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Satoshi Yanagita, Masato Imahana, Kazuaki Suwa, Hitomi Sugimura, Masayuki Nishiki
Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) standard digital image database contains many useful cases of chest X-ray images, and has been used in many state-of-the-art researches. However, the pixel values of all the images are simply digitized as relative density values by utilizing a scanned film digitizer. As a result, the pixel values are completely different from the standardized display system input value of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), called presentation value (P-value), which can maintain a visual consistency when observing images using different display luminance...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Supamas Danwittayakul, Supachai Songngam, Tipawan Fhulua, Panida Muangkasem, Sittha Sukkasi
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple point-of-use process that uses sunlight to disinfect water for drinking. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are typically used as water containers for SODIS, but a new SODIS container design has recently been developed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and can overcome the drawbacks of PET bottles. Two nesting layers of LDPE bags are used in the new design: the inner layer containing the water to be disinfected and the outer one creating air insulation to minimize heat loss from the water to the surroundings...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
Su-Ping Li, Pei-Yi Yao, Jin-Feng Li, David Kay Ferguson, Long-Rui Min, Zhen-Qing Chi, Yong Wang, Jian-Xin Yao, Jin-Geng Sha
Fossil blister pearls attached to the shells of an Anodonta mollusk from China, early Early Pleistocene, are reported here for the first time. The pearls were investigated in detail using a variety of methods. Micro-CT scanning of the fossil pearls was carried out to discover the inner structure and the pearl nucleus. Using CTAn software, changes in the gray levels of the biggest pearl, which reflect the changing density of the material, were investigated. The results provide us with some clues on how these pearls were formed...
2016: PloS One
Bastien Bonef, Miguel Lopez-Haro, Lynda Amichi, Mark Beeler, Adeline Grenier, Eric Robin, Pierre-Henri Jouneau, Nicolas Mollard, Isabelle Mouton, Eva Monroy, Catherine Bougerol
The enhancement of the performance of advanced nitride-based optoelectronic devices requires the fine tuning of their composition, which has to be determined with a high accuracy and at the nanometer scale. For that purpose, we have evaluated and compared energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) in terms of composition analysis of AlGaN/GaN multilayers. Both techniques give comparable results with a composition accuracy better than 0...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
J F Cors, A Stucki, G V Kaigala
We present a new, general concept termed Hydrodynamic Thermal Confinement (HTC), and its implementation for the creation of microscale dynamic thermo-chemical microenvironments on biological surfaces. HTC is based on a scanning probe and operates under physiological conditions. The temperature can be regulated between 30° and 80 °C with ±0.2 °C precision and temperature ramps of 5 °C s(-1) over a footprint of ∼50 μm × 80 μm in a volume of ∼50 × 80 × 15 μm(3) (∼50 pl).
October 19, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
András Gyenis, Eduardo H da Silva Neto, Ronny Sutarto, Enrico Schierle, Feizhou He, Eugen Weschke, Mariam Kavai, Ryan E Baumbach, Joe D Thompson, Eric D Bauer, Zachary Fisk, Andrea Damascelli, Ali Yazdani, Pegor Aynajian
Resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) has recently become an increasingly important tool for the study of ordering phenomena in correlated electron systems. Yet, the interpretation of RXS experiments remains theoretically challenging because of the complexity of the RXS cross section. Central to this debate is the recent proposal that impurity-induced Friedel oscillations, akin to quasi-particle interference signals observed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), can lead to scattering peaks in RXS experiments...
October 2016: Science Advances
Jinsoo Uh, M Ayaz Khan, Chiaho Hua
This study aimed to develop a practical and accurate 4-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method using a non-navigator, image-based internal respiratory surrogate derived by dimensionality reduction (DR). The use of DR has been previously suggested but not implemented for reconstructing 4D MRI, despite its practical advantages. We compared multiple image-acquisition schemes and refined a retrospective-sorting process to optimally implement a DR-derived surrogate. The comparison included an unconventional scheme that acquires paired slices alternately to mitigate the internal surrogate's dependency on a specific slice location...
November 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Soo-Kyeong Song, Sang-Rok Lee, Lae-Young Jung, Yi-Shik Kim, Sun-Hwa Lee, Kyoung-Suk Rhee, Jei-Keon Chae, Won-Ho Kim, Jae-Ki Ko
OBJECTIVE: Wall shear stress contributes to atherosclerosis progression and plaque rupture. There were limited studies for hypertension as influence factor on whole blood viscosity (WBV) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. We evaluated the relations between WBV and hypertension in patients who visited to the emergency room by acute chest pain. DESIGN AND METHOD: From April 2013 through June 2015, we prospectively enrolled 471 acute chest pain patients who visited emergency room...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Marcus Ang, Yijun Cai, Anna C S Tan
Purpose. To describe a novel technique of adapting a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to image corneal vascularization. Methods. In this pilot cross-sectional study, we obtained 3 × 3 mm scans, where 100,000 A-scans are acquired per second with optical axial resolution of 8 μm and lateral resolution of 20 μm. This was performed with manual "XYZ" focus without the anterior segment lens, until the focus of the corneoscleral surface was clearly seen and the vessels of interest were in focus on the corresponding red-free image...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Alessio Gambetta, Marco Cassinerio, Davide Gatti, Paolo Laporta, Gianluca Galzerano
Direct optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy (DFCS) is proving to be a fundamental tool in many areas of science and technology thanks to its unique performance in terms of ultra-broadband, high-speed detection and frequency accuracy, allowing for high-fidelity mapping of atomic and molecular energy structure. Here we present a novel DFCS approach based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot micro-cavity resonator (SMART) providing a simple, compact and accurate method to resolve the mode structure of an optical frequency comb...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gavin D Merrifield, James Mullin, Lindsay Gallagher, Carl Tucker, Maurits A Jansen, Martin Denvir, William M Holmes
Increasing scientific interest in the zebrafish as a model organism across a range of biomedical and biological research areas raises the need for the development of in vivo imaging tools appropriate to this subject. Development of the embryonic and early stage forms of the subject can currently be assessed using optical based techniques due to the transparent nature of the species at these early stages. However this is not an option during the juvenile and adult stages when the subjects become opaque. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques would allow for the longitudinal and non-invasive assessment of development and health in these later life stages...
October 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Nicola Rossi, Floris R Braakman, Davide Cadeddu, Denis Vasyukov, Gözde Tütüncüoglu, Anna Fontcuberta I Morral, Martino Poggio
Self-assembled nanowire (NW) crystals can be grown into nearly defect-free nanomechanical resonators with exceptional properties, including small motional mass, high resonant frequency and low dissipation. Furthermore, by virtue of slight asymmetries in geometry, a NW's flexural modes are split into doublets oscillating along orthogonal axes. These characteristics make bottom-up grown NWs extremely sensitive vectorial force sensors. Here, taking advantage of its adaptability as a scanning probe, we use a single NW to image a sample surface...
October 17, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Eric M Moult, Nadia K Waheed, Eduardo A Novais, WooJhon Choi, ByungKun Lee, Stefan B Ploner, Emily D Cole, Ricardo N Louzada, Chen D Lu, Philip J Rosenfeld, Jay S Duker, James G Fujimoto
PURPOSE: To investigate choriocapillaris (CC) alteration in patients with nascent geographic atrophy (nGA) and/or drusen-associated geographic atrophy (DAGA) using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: A 1,050-nm wavelength, 400 kHz A-scan rate swept-source optical coherence tomography prototype was used to perform volumetric swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography over 6 mm × 6 mm fields of view in patients with nGA and/or DAGA...
September 30, 2016: Retina
Fumihiko Watanabe, Kazuhiko Hiroyasu, Kazuhiko Ueda
BACKGROUND: Fractured connections between implants and implant abutments or abutment screws are frequently encountered in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate fracture strength using a torsion test at the interface between the implant and the abutment. METHODS: Thirty screw-type implant with diameters of 3.3, 3.8, 4.3, 5.0, and 6.0 mm were submitted to a torsion test. Implants of each size were connected to abutments with abutment screws tightened to 20 N · cm...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Akiko Haruyama, Atsushi Kameyama, Junji Kato, Shinji Takemoto, Yutaka Oda, Eiji Kawada, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Masahiro Furusawa
This study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of 1-step self-etch adhesives (1-SEAs) and 2-step self-etch adhesives (2-SEAs) to pulp chamber dentin immediately after bleaching with 2 types of common bleaching techniques. Pulp chamber dentin of bovine teeth was bleached using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution with quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing unit (Group 1) and 3.5% H2O2-containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) (Pyrenees®) activated with 405-nm violet diode laser for 15 min (Group 2). Unbleached specimens were placed in distilled water for 15 min and used as controls...
2016: BioMed Research International
Amany M Fekry
A new sensitive simple electrochemical sensor for Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride (MOXI) detection has been successfully performed. The sensor built on carbon paste (CP) modified with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs are biocompatible stable noble materials especially in biological sensing. The silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (SNMCPE) displayed high electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of 1.0mM MOXI in Britton Robinson (BR) buffer of pH range (2.0-9.0). The techniques used to do this work are cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)...
July 25, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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