keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Atropine

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078916/in-vivo-protection-studies-of-bis-quaternary-2-hydroxyimino-n-pyridin-3-yl-acetamide-derivatives-hnk-oximes-against-tabun-and-soman-poisoning-in-swiss-albino-mice
#1
P Kumar, D Swami, D P Nagar, K P Singh, J Acharya, H N Karade, R Yadav
The study reports antidotal efficacy of three HNK [ bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives] and pralidoxime (2-PAM), against soman and tabun poisoning in Swiss albino mice. Protection index (PI) was determined (treatment doses: HNK oximes, ×0.20 of their median lethal dose (LD50) and 2-PAM, 30 mg/kg, intramuscularly (im)) together with atropine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Probit log doses with difference of 0.301 log of LD50 of the nerve agents administered and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 50% (IC50) was calculated at optimized time in brain and serum...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078480/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated-tight-junction-opening-is-involved-in-epiphora-in-late-phase-of-submandibular-gland-transplantation
#2
Ning-Yan Yang, Chong Ding, Jing Li, Yan Zhang, Ruo-Lan Xiang, Li-Ling Wu, Guang-Yan Yu, Xin Cong
Submandibular gland (SMG) autotransplantation is an effective therapy for treating severe dry eye syndrome. However, epiphora occurs in more than 40% of patients 6 months after operation. We previously found that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) plays a crucial role in regulating SMG secretion partially through the modulation on tight junction (TJ)-based paracellular pathway. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of mAChR and TJ in a rabbit long-term model of SMG transplantation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072491/paradoxical-bradycardia-during-surgical-caudal-vena-cava-occlusion-in-an-anesthetized-dog
#3
Jennifer Davis, Anthea L Raisis, Hildegriet Haitjema, Eleanor A Drynan, Giselle L Hosgood
OBJECTIVE: To describe the anesthetic management of a dog undergoing caudal vena cava (CVC) occlusion during adrenalectomy, and to discuss a reflex bradycardia that was observed during the procedure. CASE SUMMARY: General anesthesia of a 10-year-old Rhodesian ridgeback for excision of an adrenal mass and associated CVC tumor thrombus was performed. The dog was premedicated with IV methadone and anesthesia was induced with IV alfaxalone and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059581/hot-and-cold-drugs-national-park-service-medication-stability-at-the-extremes-of-temperature
#4
Patil Armenian, Danielle Campagne, Geoff Stroh, Crystal Ives Tallman, William Z D Zeng, Thomas Lin, Roy R Gerona
STUDY OBJECTIVE: National Park Service (NPS) Parkmedics provide medical care in austere environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of specific medications used by Parkmedics at extremes of temperatures likely to be faced in the field. METHODS: This is a bench research study conducted in the laboratory setting over a 4-week period. Parenteral medications were separated into 4 temperature exposure groups: A) 45°C (hot); B) -20°C (cold); C) hot then cold temperatures alternating weekly; and D) cold then hot temperatures alternating weekly...
January 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051128/electroacupuncture-treatment-partly-promotes-the-recovery-time-of-postoperative-ileus-by-activating-the-vagus-nerve-but-not-regulating-local-inflammation
#5
Jun-Fan Fang, Jian-Qiao Fang, Xiao-Mei Shao, Jun-Ying Du, Yi Liang, Wen Wang, Zhe Liu
Postoperative ileus (POI) after abdominal surgery significantly lowers the life quality of patients and increase hospital costs. However, few treatment strategies have successfully shortened the duration of POI. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a modern way of administering acupuncture and widely used in various gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in the world. Here, we studied the effect of EA on POI and its underlying mechanisms. Intestinal manipulation resulted in significant delays of GI transit, colonic transit and gastric emptying...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044440/ethylatropine-bromide-as-a-peripherally-restricted-muscarinic-antagonist
#6
Asheebo Rojas, Thota Ganesh, Alec Walker, Raymond Dingledine
Quaternary ammonium analogues of atropine that are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier are used to alleviate peripheral muscarinic toxicity in animal models of epilepsy produced by systemic administration of pilocarpine or diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Currently, methylatropine is the most popular and potent of these quaternary derivatives; however, it is expensive and produced in limited quantity. Here, we propose the use of ethylatropine bromide as an alternative to methylatropine. The synthesis of ethylatropine bromide is simple, inexpensive and has low environmental impact...
January 6, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043809/physical-training-associated-with-enalapril-but-not-to-losartan-results-in-better-cardiovascular-autonomic-effects
#7
Karina Delgado Maida, Ada Clarice Gastaldi, Tabata de Paula Facioli, João Eduardo de Araújo, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza
BACKGROUND: We investigated the cardiovascular autonomic effects of physical training associated with Enalapril or Losartan pharmacological treatments in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: SHRs, 18weeks of age (N=48) was assigned to either sedentary (N=24) and trained (N=24; aerobic training by swimming for 10wk). Each group was subdivided in 3 subgroups (N=8) vehicle (control); Enalapril (10mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); and Losartan (5mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)). All animals received a 10-week treatment in drinking water...
December 24, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043418/the-effectiveness-of-patient-tailored-treatment-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning
#8
Chih-Chuan Lin, Dong-Zong Hung, Hsien-Yi Chen, Kuang-Hung Hsu
BACKGROUND: To determine a new pralidoxime (PAM) treatment guideline based on the severity of acute organophosphate intoxication patients, APACHE II score, and dynamic changes in serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity. METHODS: This is a randomization trial. All patients received supportive care measurements and atropinization. Each enrolled patient was treated with 2 gm PAM intravenously as the loading dose. The control group was treated according to the WHO's recommended PAM regimen, and the experimental group was treated according to their APACHE II scores and dynamic changes in BuChE activity...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043416/antidiarrhoeal-investigation-of-apium-leptophyllum-pers-by-modulation-of-na-k-atpase-nitrous-oxide-and-intestinal-transit-in-rats
#9
Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Rakesh Sagar, Anjan Kumar, Amrita Bhaiji, Subrat Kumar Bhattamishra
BACKGROUND: Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) is an annual herb with traditional appreciation for various pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this herb is insufficient. The aim of the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate flavonoidal fraction of A. leptophyllum fruit (FFALF) against diarrhoea on albino rats. METHODS: The antidiarrhoeal study was conducted by castor oil induce diarrhoea, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling and intestinal transit by charcoal meal test...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043192/a-comparison-of-neuroprotective-efficacy-of-two-novel-reactivators-of-acetylcholinesterase-called-k920-and-k923-with-the-oxime-k203-and-trimedoxime-in-tabun-poisoned-rats
#10
Jiri Kassa, Jan Misik, Jana Hatlapatkova, Jana Zdarova Karasova
The ability of two newly developed bispyridinium oximes (K920, K923) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime using a functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (130 μg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by functional observational battery at 2 hours after tabun administration...
January 2, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035645/reflex-arc-of-the-teeth-clenching-induced-pressor-response-in-rats
#11
Ichiro Shoji, Takehito Kemuriyama, Megumi Tandai-Hiruma, Satoshi Maruyama, Akimasa Tashiro, Hidetaka Yokoe, Yasuhiro Nishida
Although "teeth clenching" induces pressor response, the reflex tracts of the response are unknown. In this study, dantrolene administration inhibited teeth clenching generated by electrical stimulation of the masseter muscles and completely abolished the pressor response. In addition, trigeminal ganglion block or hexamethonium administration completely abolished the pressor response. Local anesthesia of molar regions significantly reduced the pressor response to 27 ± 10%. Gadolinium (mechanoreceptor blocker of group III muscle afferents) entrapment in masticatory muscles also significantly reduced the pressor response to 62 ± 7%...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013356/diuretic-effect-of-extracts-fractions-and-two-compounds-2%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-19%C3%AE-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid-and-5-hydroxy-3-6-7-8-4-pentamethoxyflavone-from-rubus-rosaefolius-sm-rosaceae-leaves-in-rats
#12
Priscila de Souza, Thaise Boeing, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Camile Cecconi Cechinel-Zanchett, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Marcel Petreanu, Rivaldo Niero, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
Although diuretics have been widely used to treat hypertension along with others cardiovascular and renal disorders, no scientific data have been recorded to support the diuretic properties of Rubus rosaefolius Sm. (Rosaceae), a plant popularly used in Brazil to treat hypertension. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with: vehicle; hydrochlorothiazide; aqueous (AERR) and methanolic (MERR) extracts; dichloromethane (DCM), hexane (HEX) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions; and the isolated compounds 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (TUA) and 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF)...
December 24, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011585/the-role-of-sympathetic-and-vagal-cardiac-control-on-complexity-of-heart-rate-dynamics
#13
Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Carlos Alberto Aguiar Silva, Helio C Salgado, Rubens Fazan
Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) by nonlinear approaches has been gaining interest due to their ability to extract additional information from heart rate (HR) dynamics, not detectable by traditional approaches. Nevertheless, the physiological interpretation of nonlinear approaches remains unclear. Therefore, we propose long-term (60 min) protocols involving selective blockade of cardiac autonomic receptors to investigate the contribution of sympathetic and parasympathetic function upon nonlinear dynamics of HRV...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006945/neonatal-capsaicin-administration-impairs-postnatal-development-of-the-cardiac-chronotropy-and-inotropy-in-rats
#14
J Kuncová, A Jirkovská, J Švíglerová, M Marková, D Meireles, M Čedíková
The present study evaluated the impact of neonatal administration of capsaicin (neurotoxin from red hot pepper used for sensory denervation) on postnatal development of the heart rate and ventricular contractility. In the rats subjected to capsaicin administration (100 mg/kg) on postnatal days 2 and 3 and their vehicle-treated controls at the ages of 10 to 90 days, function of the sympathetic innervation of the developing heart was characterized by evaluation of chronotropic responses to metipranolol and atropine, norepinephrine concentrations in the heart, and norepinephrine release from the heart atria...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003407/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-control-baseline-activity-and-hebbian-stimulus-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-fusiform-cells-of-the-dorsal-cochlear-nucleus
#15
Roxana A Stefanescu, Susan E Shore
Cholinergic modulation contributes to adaptive sensory processing by controlling spontaneous and stimulus-evoked neural activity and long term synaptic plasticity. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus, in vitro activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) alters the spontaneous activity of DCN neurons and interacts with NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and endocannabinoid receptors to modulate the plasticity of parallel fiber synapses onto fusiform cells by converting Hebbian LTP to anti-Hebbian LTD. Because noise exposure and tinnitus are known to increase spontaneous activity in fusiform cells as well as alter stimulus-timing dependent plasticity (StTDP), it is important to understand the contribution of mAChRs to in vivo spontaneous activity and plasticity in fusiform cells...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995106/comparing-prophylactic-effect-of-phenylephrine-and-ephedrine-on-hypotension-during-spinal-anesthesia-for-hip-fracture-surgery
#16
Rahman Abbasivash, Shahryar Sane, Mitra Golmohammadi, Shahram Shokuhi, Fereshteh Danaye Toosi
BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia is an accepted technique in hip fracture surgery and prevention of this complication by sympathomimetic agents is of potential clinical significance. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of prophylactic phenylephrine versus ephedrine in the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia in hip fracture surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two patients undergoing hip fracture surgery with the American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II were randomized to receive prophylaxis with ephedrine or phenylephrine immediately before the spinal anesthesia...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992665/naloxone-antagonises-soman-induced-central-respiratory-depression-in-rats
#17
Ranko Škrbić, Miloš P Stojiljković, Slavko S Ćetković, Silva Dobrić, Dejan Jeremić, Maja Vulović
The influence of naloxone on respiration impaired by the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent soman in anaesthetized rats was investigated. Soman, administered in a dose that was ineffective in blocking the electrically induced contractions of the phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation in situ, induced a complete block of the spontaneous respiratory movements of the diaphragm, indicating the domination of central over the peripheral effects. Naloxone dose-dependently antagonised the soman-induced respiratory blockade...
December 19, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988399/spasmogenic-and-spasmolytic-activities-of-agastache-mexicana-ssp-mexicana-and-a-mexicana-ssp-xolocotziana-methanolic-extracts-on-the-guinea-pig-ileum
#18
Rosa Ventura-Martinez, Rodolfo Rodriguez, María Eva Gonzalez-Trujano, Guadalupe E Angeles-Lopez, Myrna Deciga-Campos, Claudia Gomez
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Agastache mexicana has been used in traditional medicine for relief of abdominal pain and treatment of other diseases. Two subspecies have been identified: A. mexicana ssp. mexicana (AMM) and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (AMX) and both are used traditionally without distinction or in combination. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the effect of methanol extracts of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana on gut motility and their possible mechanism of action...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988303/anticonvulsant-efficacy-of-antihistamine-cyproheptadine-in-rats-exposed-to-the-chemical-warfare-nerve-agent-soman
#19
Jennifer L Winkler, Jacob W Skovira, Robert K Kan
Organophosphate compounds, such as soman and sarin, are highly toxic chemical warfare nerve agents that cause a build-up of acetylcholine in synapses and neuromuscular junctions. Current therapies aim to prevent seizures and protect against brain injury following exposure. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the antihistamine cyproheptadine in improving survival and controlling seizures in rats exposed to soman. Rats were pretreated with the oxime reactivator HI-6 (125mg/kg, ip) 30min prior to soman exposure (225μg/kg, sc) and then treated with atropine methylnitrate (AMN, 2...
December 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984428/%C3%AE-adrenergic-responsiveness-in-the-type-2-diabetic-heart-effects-on-cardiac-reserve
#20
Genevieve A Wilson, Luke C Wilson, Regis R Lamberts, Kamran Majeed, Sudish Lal, Gerard T Wilkins, James C Baldi
: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with reduced cardiac reserve and aerobic capacity. Altered myocardial autonomic nervous regulation has been demonstrated in humans with diabetes (indirectly) and animal models (directly). PURPOSE: To determine the chronotopic and inotropic response of the type 2 diabetic heart to β-adrenergic stimulation. METHODS: 8 people with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes and 7 matched controls performed a DEXA scan and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak test...
December 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
keyword
keyword
50067
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"