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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046318/central-serotonin-and-the-control-of-arterial-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-infant-rats-influence-of-sleep-state-and-sex
#1
Jennifer L Magnusson, Kevin James Cummings
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is associated with serotonin (5-HT) neuron abnormalities. There is evidence of autonomic dysfunction during sleep in infants eventually succumbing to SIDS, as well as cardiovascular collapse prior to death. Neonatal rodents deficient in central 5-HT display hypotension and bradycardia. We hypothesized that central 5-HT reduces cardiac vagal tone and increases sympathetic vascular tone and, given the firing pattern of 5-HT neurons, that these effects are greater in quiet sleep (QS) than in active sleep (AS)...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042447/anisocoria-secondary-to-anticholinergic-mydriasis-from-homeopathic-similasan-pink-eye-relief-drops
#2
Lin Chen, Joseph C Yeung, Dennis R Anderson
A 70-year-old-woman developed anisocoria after applying homeopathic eye drops (Similasan Pink Eye Relief) to her left eye. Her pupil was dilated for two weeks and did not respond to light or near stimuli for one week. Both 0.1 % and 1% pilocarpine failed to constrict her left pupil, and magnetic resonance imaging of her brain did not reveal any abnormality. The eye drops she had used contain belladonna extracts, which have a natural atropine component. This case demonstrates the importance, when evaluating a patient presenting with anisocoria, of knowing the chemical ingredients of the homeopathic eye drops, which often are not listed...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Medicine & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038781/comparison-between-fish-and-linseed-oils-administered-orally-for-the-treatment-of-experimentally-induced-keratoconjunctivitis-sicca-in-rabbits
#3
Danielle Alves Silva, Gisele Alborgetti Nai, Rogério Giuffrida, Rafael Cabral Barbero, Jacqueline Marcussi Pereira Kuhn, Andressa Caroline da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Zakir Pereira, Maria Fernanda Abbade, Luiz Felipe da Costa Zulim, Carolina Silva Guimarães Pereira, Silvia Franco Andrade
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two sources of omega 3 and 6, fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO), orally administered, alone or in combination, for treating experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Seven animals were allocated to the C group (negative control), and KCS was induced in 21 animals by topically applying 1% atropine sulfate drops for 7 days. Treatment with atropine was maintained throughout the study period (12 weeks)...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034154/intraocular-pressure-monitoring-by-rebound-tonometry-in-children-with-myopia
#4
Jenchieh Weng, I-Lun Tsai, Li-Lin Kuo, Ching-Yao Tsai, Lin-Chung Woung, Ya-Chuan Hsiao
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Topical atropine treatment is generally accepted to retard the progression of myopia, but it is associated with side effects such as photophobia and elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP measurements in children are challenging. The traditional applanation tonometry by direct contact with the cornea will require patient's cooperation. The rebound tonometer, using a dynamic electromechanical method for measuring IOP, shows good correlation with traditional tonometry...
July 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033721/an-audit-of-in-hospital-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-saudi-arabia-a-retrospective-study
#5
Abdullah Mohammed Kaki, Kamal Waheeb Alghalayini, Mohamed Nabil Alama, Adnan Abdullah Almazroaa, Norah Abdullah A Khathlan, Hassan Sembawa, Beena M Ouseph
OBJECTIVES: Data reflecting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) efforts in Saudi Arabia are limited. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics, and estimated the outcome, of in-hospital CPR in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia over 4 years. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted between January 2009 and December 2012 and included 4361 patients with sudden cardiopulmonary arrest. Resuscitation forms were reviewed. Demographic data, resuscitation characteristics, and survival outcomes were recorded...
October 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033720/reducing-by-50-the-incidence-of-maternal-hypotension-during-elective-caesarean-delivery-under-spinal-anesthesia-effect-of-prophylactic-ondansetron-and-or-continuous-infusion-of-phenylephrine-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Jose Ramon Ortiz-Gómez, Francisco Javier Palacio-Abizanda, Francisco Morillas-Ramirez, Inocencia Fornet-Ruiz, Ana Lorenzo-Jiménez, Maria Lourdes Bermejo-Albares
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic administrations of ondansetron or phenylephrine have been reported to provide a protective effect against hypotension in women undergoing cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia (SA). The main hypothesis is that ondansetron improves the hemodynamic response, especially combined with phenylephrine infusion. METHODS: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study included 265 healthy pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery under SA...
October 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031332/right-ventricular-function-during-pharmacological-and-exercise-stress-testing-in-horses
#7
A Decloedt, D De Clercq, S Ven, L Vera, G van Loon
The disproportionate rise of pulmonary artery pressure compared to systemic blood pressure during exercise can lead to detrimental right ventricular remodelling in endurance athletes. Horses may act as an extreme model of these athletic cardiovascular adaptations, as they show a three fold increase in pulmonary pressures during exercise. Right ventricular function was examined in ten healthy horses using post-exercise and pharmacological stress echocardiography in a randomised cross-over design. Exercise testing was performed on a treadmill while pharmacological testing was performed using an atropine-dobutamine infusion...
September 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030700/pyloric-stenosis-an-enigma-more-than-a-century-after-the-first-successful-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Yousef El-Gohary, Abdelhafeez Abdelhafeez, Elizabeth Paton, Ankush Gosain, Andrew J Murphy
Despite hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) being one of the most frequently treated pediatric surgical conditions, its etiology remains incompletely understood. We review the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with an emphasis on the evolution of surgical techniques that led to laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, the most frequently performed technique for HPS today. In addition, we review key developments in the understanding of HPS etiology and treatment, including the postulated etiology of work-induced hypertrophy of the pylorus, its association with prokinetic macrolide antibiotics, and the emerging role of atropine sulfate as a medical treatment for HPS or a rescue treatment for incomplete myotomy...
October 13, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025730/apelin-13-inhibits-gastric-motility-through-vagal-cholinergic-pathway-in-rats
#9
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Melahat Gök, R Alberto Travagli
The expression of apelin and its receptors (APJ) in central autonomic networks suggests that apelin may regulate gastrointestinal motor functions. In rodents, central administration of apelin-13 has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying, however, the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. Using male adult Sprague-Dawley rats, the aims of the present study were i) to determine the expression of APJ receptor in DVC, ii) to assess the effects central application of apelin-13 into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) on gastric tone and motility and iii) to investigate the neuronal pathways responsible for apelin-induced alterations...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024789/in-vitro-pharmacological-characterization-of-the-bispyridinium-non-oxime-compound-mb327-and-its-2-and-3-regioisomers
#10
K V Niessen, T Seeger, S Rappenglück, T Wein, G Höfner, K T Wanner, H Thiermann, F Worek
The primary toxic mechanism of organophosphorus compounds, i.e. nerve agents or pesticides, is based on the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. In consequence of the impaired hydrolysis, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine accumulates in cholinergic synapses and disturbs functional activity of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by overstimulation and subsequent desensitization. The resulting cholinergic syndrome will become acute life-threatening, if not treated adequately. The current standard treatment, consisting of administration of a competitive mAChR antagonist (e...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019905/bezold-jarisch-reflex-occurred-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-giant-intra-abdominal-teratoma-during-induction-of-anesthesia-a-case-report
#11
Kai-Ming Yuan, Shu-Ying Fu, Jun Li, Wang-Ning Shangguan, Qing-Quan Lian
RATIONALE: Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) occurs when the cardioinhibitory receptors in the walls of ventricles are activated by various stimuli, with typical features of bradycardia, vasorelaxation, and hypotension. This reflex usually happens in parturient intrathecal anesthesia, as a result of decreased venous return by compression of inferior vena cava, but it is only rarely reported during general anesthesia. PATIENT CONCERNS: Severe bradycardia and hypotension, indicating BJR, occurred during the induction of general anesthesia in a 3-month-old female child with giant intra-abdominal teratoma...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018754/how-to-effectively-manage-myopia
#12
Ann Yi-Chiun Chuang
Myopia has become epidemic in the world. Without effective control, the progression may lead to excessive myopia with severe complications affecting vision and ocular alignment. The genetic factors and environmental factors of myopia are closely interrelated to each other. Asian ethnicity and parental myopia, among other genetic factors, influence the refractive outcome dramatically when environmental risk factors such as hours of near work and reading distance are analyzed. Outdoor activities are protective measures that retard myopia progression...
January 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018635/a-new-wavelet-based-ecg-delineator-for-the-evaluation-of-the-ventricular-innervation
#13
Matteo Cesari, Jesper Mehlsen, Anne-Birgitte Mehlsen, Helge Bjarup Dissing Sorensen
T-wave amplitude (TWA) has been proposed as a marker of the innervation of the myocardium. Until now, TWA has been calculated manually or with poor algorithms, thus making its use not efficient in a clinical environment. We introduce a new wavelet-based algorithm for the delineation QRS complexes and T-waves, and the automatic calculation of TWA. When validated in the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia database, the QRS detector achieved sensitivity and positive predictive value of 99.84% and 99.87%, respectively. The algorithm was validated also on the QT database and it achieved sensitivity of 99...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018024/circulatory-dynamics-during-pulmonary-vein-isolation-using-the-second-generation-cryoballoon
#14
Takatsugu Kajiyama, Shinsuke Miyazaki, Tomonori Watanabe, Kazuya Yamao, Shigeki Kusa, Miyako Igarashi, Hiroaki Nakamura, Hitoshi Hachiya, Yoshito Iesaka
BACKGROUND: Circulatory dynamics change during pulmonary vein (PV) isolation using cryoballoons. This study sought to investigate the circulatory dynamics during cryoballoon-based PV isolation procedures and the contributing factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study retrospectively included 35 atrial fibrillation patients who underwent PV isolation with 28-mm second-generation cryoballoons and single 3-minute freeze techniques. Blood pressures were continuously monitored via arterial lines...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989908/the-effects-of-hydroxyethyl-starch-6-and-crystalloid-on-volume-preloading-changes-following-spinal-anesthesia
#15
Masoud Saghafinia, Alireza Jalali, Mahnaz Eskandari, Nahid Eskandari, Marzieh Lak
BACKGROUND: Hypotension is one of the most common complications after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Normally, preloading with fluids, especially crystalloids, is used to prevention of hypotension. METHODS: In the present randomized clinical trial study, 120 parturients presenting for elective cesarean section with the American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I and II received either 15 cc normal saline or 7 cc/kg hydroxyethyl starch 6% (Voluven) fluid...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989834/the-change-of-picrotoxin-induced-epileptiform-discharges-to-the-beta-oscillation-by-carbachol-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#16
Ayumi Hashimoto, Toyohiro Sawada, Kiyohisa Natsume
The study aimed to determine whether and how the activation of the acetylcholine receptor affects epileptiform discharges in the CA3 region in a rat hippocampus. Picrotoxin (100 μM), a GABAA receptor antagonist, was applied to a hippocampal slice to induce epileptiform discharges. The effects of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, on the discharges were examined at the several concentrations (1-30 μM). Carbachol had different impacts on epileptiform discharges at the different concentrations. Relatively low concentrations of carbachol (<10 μM) increased the frequency but decreased the amplitude of the discharges...
2017: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976496/development-of-contractile-properties-in-the-fetal-porcine-urinary-bladder
#17
Lotte K Jakobsen, Karina F Trelborg, Ulf Simonsen, Karl-Erik Andersson, L H Olsen
BackgroundIn early fetal life, the bladder is merely a conduit allowing urine to pass through freely into the amniotic cavity. As the striated external urethral sphincter evolves, the bladder acquires its reservoir and voiding functions. We characterized the myogenic and neurogenic contractions of the normal fetal porcine bladder from midterm until close to full-term gestation.MethodsContractile responses were measured in vitro using bladder strips from fetuses at 60 (N=23) and 100 days (N=21) of gestation...
October 4, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974440/hijiki-and-sodium-arsenite-stimulate-growth-of-human-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cells-through-erk1-2-activation
#18
Wanida Cholpraipimolrat, Tawit Suriyo, Nuchanart Rangkadilok, Sumontha Nookabkaew, Jutamaad Satayavivad
Hijiki seaweed (Hijikia fusiformes) contains high levels of inorganic arsenic, a known carcinogen. However, scientific reports on carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of this seaweed are limited. This study investigated the effects of seaweed extracts contaminated with arsenic on two colorectal cancer cell lines. Two seaweed extracts, including Hijiki and red seaweed, induced H508 but not HT29 cell proliferation. Growth induction of H508 cells after treatments with Hijiki and sodium arsenite at concentrations equivalent to arsenic found in Hijiki was observed by both MTT and BrdU assays...
September 30, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974348/cardiac-arrest-induced-by-muscarinic-or-adenosine-receptors-agonists-is-reversed-by-dpcpx-through-double-mechanism
#19
Henrique Camara, Edilson Dantas da Silva Junior, Antônio G Garcia, Aron Jurkiewicz, Juliano Quintella Dantas Rodrigues
In the right atrium (RA), adenosine and acetylcholine inhibit the pacemaker function of the sinoatrial node and induce cardiac arrest. Pre-incubation of receptor antagonists is known to inhibit the cardiac arrest induced by these agonists; however, the effect of antagonist administration after established cardiac arrest has not been described. Therefore, we assessed whether specific receptor antagonists could revert cardiac arrest induced by adenosine and muscarinic receptors activation. RA isolated from adults Wistar rats were mounted in an organ bath containing Krebs solution...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970658/pain-measurement-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-behavioral-pain-tools-versus-analgesia-nociception-index
#20
Ali Jendoubi, Ahmed Abbes, Salma Ghedira, Mohamed Houissa
INTRODUCTION: Pain is highly prevalent in critically ill trauma patients, especially those with a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Behavioral pain tools such as the behavioral pain scale (BPS) and critical-care pain observation tool are recommended for sedated noncommunicative patients. Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive method to evaluate autonomic nervous system activity. The analgesia nociception index (ANI) device (Physiodoloris(®), MDoloris Medical Systems, Loos, France) allows noninvasive HRV analysis...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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