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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440910/subacute-pyridostigmine-exposure-increases-heart-rate-recovery-and-cardiac-parasympathetic-tone-in-rats
#1
Manushree Bharadwaj, Carey Pope, Michael Davis, Stuart Katz, Christian Cook, Lara Maxwell
Heart rate recovery (HRR) describes the rapid deceleration of heart rate after strenuous exercise and is an indicator of parasympathetic tone. A reduction in parasympathetic tone occurs in patients with congestive heart failure, resulting in prolonged HRR. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as pyridostigmine, can enhance parasympathetic tone by increasing cholinergic input to the heart. The objective of this study was to develop a rodent model of HRR to test the hypothesis that subacute pyridostigmine administration decreases cholinesterase activity and accelerates HRR in rats...
April 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439158/trigemino-cardiac-reflex-a-phenomenon-neglected-in-maxillofacial-surgery
#2
Udupikrishna M Joshi, Ashwini Munnangi, Kundan Shah, Satishkumar G Patil, Nitin Thakur
BACKGROUND: Trigemino-cardiac reflex is a physiologic response of the body to pressure effects in the region of distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures can induce the development of this reflex, which leads to significant changes in the heart rate and sinus rhythms. This study intends to evaluate the effects of this reflex in patients with facial fractures and its subsequent management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of thirty-seven patients with facial fractures who reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Basaveswar Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga during a period from July 2015-March 2016 were considered for the study...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432022/a-crosstalk-between-muscarinic-and-crf2-receptors-regulates-cellular-adhesion-properties-of-human-colon-cancer-cells
#3
M Pelissier-Rota, N T Chartier, B Bonaz, M R Jacquier-Sarlin
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation that favor the development of colitis associated cancer. An alteration of the epithelial intestinal barrier function observed in IBD is supposed to be a consequence of stress. It has been proposed that corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor (CRF2), one of the two receptors of CRF, the principal neuromediator of stress, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce stress-mediated epithelial barrier dysfunction...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431202/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-pancreatitis
#4
REVIEW
Elisabetta Moggia, Rahul Koti, Ajay P Belgaumkar, Federico Fazio, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419939/the-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-prucalopride-does-not-facilitate-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-circular-and-longitudinal-smooth-muscle-preparations-of-equine-mid-jejunum
#5
Romain Adelin Lefebvre, Chana Callens, Inge Van Colen, Catherine John Ghislaine Delesalle
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) remains an important cause of death in horses. The recently developed selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists such as prucalopride target 5-HT4 receptors on myenteric cholinergic neurons to enhance acetylcholine release and GI motility. No clearcut in vitro evaluation whether highly selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists enhance submaximal cholinergic neurotransmission towards the muscle layer has been performed in horses. OBJECTIVES: To identify functional 5-HT4 receptors in equine jejunum...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418831/the-evaluation-of-benefit-of-newly-prepared-reversible-inhibitors-of-acetylcholinesterase-and-commonly-used-pyridostigmine-as-pharmacological-pretreatment-of-soman-poisoned-mice
#6
Jiří Kassa, Jan Korábečný, Eugenie Nepovimová
AIM: The ability of four newly prepared reversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (6-chlorotacrine, 7-phenoxytacrine, compounds 1 and 2) and currently used carbamate pyridostigmine to increase the resistance of mice against soman and the efficacy of antidotal treatment of soman-poisoned mice was evaluated. METHODS: The evaluation of the effect of pharmacological pretreatment is based on the identification of changes of soman-induced toxicity that was evaluated by the assessment of its LD50 value and its 95% confidence limit using probitlogarithmical analysis of death occurring within 24 h after administration of soman...
April 18, 2017: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417537/the-effects-and-mechanism-of-action-of-methane-on-ileal-motor-function
#7
Y M Park, Y J Lee, Z Hussain, Y H Lee, H Park
BACKGROUND: Methane has been associated with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, slowing intestinal transit time by augmenting contractile activity. However, the precise mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effect of methane on contractile activity, and whether such effects are mediated by nerve impulses or muscular contraction. METHODS: We connected guinea pig ileal muscle strips to a force/tension transducer and measured amplitudes of contraction in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1, 2, 8, 16 Hz) following methane infusion in the presence of tetradotoxin (TTX), atropine, guanethidine, or GR 113808...
April 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414607/cardiac-arrest-in-an-american-cocker-spaniel-during-a-deep-ear-flush-procedure
#8
Alexandra Gould, Fernando L Garcia-Pereira, W Dunbar Gram
CASE DESCRIPTION A 14-year-old spayed female American Cocker Spaniel with bilateral otitis media and no evidence of cardiovascular instability was anesthetized to allow performance of a deep ear flush. CLINICAL FINDINGS Otoscopic examination of the left ear revealed evidence of chronic inflammation; the ear was flushed with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Examination of the right ear revealed more severe chronic inflammation than in the left ear, including a ruptured tympanum (timing of rupture unknown)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414606/effects-of-topically-applied-heterologous-serum-on-reepithelialization-rate-of-superficial-chronic-corneal-epithelial-defects-in-dogs
#9
J Seth Eaton, Steven R Hollingsworth, Bradford J Holmberg, Michael H Brown, Patricia J Smith, David J Maggs
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of topical application of undiluted heterologous serum on time to corneal reepithelialization in dogs with superficial chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCEDs). DESIGN Multicenter, randomized, double-masked, controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS 41 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES After collection of baseline clinical and historical data, dogs were randomly assigned to receive topically applied undiluted heterologous serum (n = 22) or isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (19) along with tobramycin and atropine...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409497/identification-of-myoelectric-signals-of-pregnant-rat-uterus-new-method-to-detect-myometrial-contraction
#10
Kálmán F Szűcs, György Grosz, Miklós Süle, Anikó Nagy, Zita Tiszai, Reza Samavati, Róbert Gáspár
AIM: To develop an electromyography method for pregnant rat uterus in vivo and to separate myometrial signals from the gastrointestinal tract signals. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8) were anaesthetized and their stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were removed from the abdomen. A pair of thread electrodes was inserted into the uterus, while a pair of disk electrodes was placed subcutaneously above the myometrium. Additionally, a strain gauge sensor was fixed on the surface of the myometrium and cecum for the parallel detection of mechanical contractions in rats (n=18) with intact gastrointestinal tract...
April 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403672/toxic-megacolon-as-a-rare-complication-following-atropine-therapy-due-to-organophosphate-poisoning-a-case-report
#11
Babak Mostafazadeh, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Maryam Paeezi, Farahnaz Nikkhah
The main therapeutic basis for a case of organophosphate poisoning is a combination therapy which includes atropine as an anticholinergic drug and pralidoxime. If the poisoning is severe, a high dose of this combination of medicines may be needed, but this may cause serious side effects: paralytic ileus or even megacolon; however, these gastrointestinal events are very rare. Here, we report a case of organophosphate poisoning where atropine therapy was given and led to drug-associated toxic megacolon.
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403018/prophylactic-atropine-administration-attenuates-the-negative-haemodynamic-effects-of-induction-of-anaesthesia-with-propofol-and-high-dose-remifentanil-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Marieke Poterman, Thomas W L Scheeren, Marieke I van der Velde, Pieter L Buisman, Silvie Allaert, Michel M R F Struys, Alain F Kalmar
BACKGROUND: Induction of anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil often induces unwanted bradycardia and hypotension, raising concerns regarding tissue oxygenation. The electrophysiological cardiac effects of remifentanil can be reversed by atropine. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if prophylactic administration of atropine can attenuate the negative haemodynamic effects of propofol and a high dose of remifentanil during induction of anaesthesia. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400257/phase-amplitude-coupled-persistent-theta-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-in%C3%A2-vitro
#13
Nicholas W Johnson, Mazhar Özkan, Adrian P Burgess, Emma J Prokic, Keith A Wafford, Michael J O'Neill, Stuart D Greenhill, Ian M Stanford, Gavin L Woodhall
In vivo, theta (4-7 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) neuronal network oscillations are known to coexist and display phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). However, in vitro, these oscillations have for many years been studied in isolation. Using an improved brain slice preparation technique we have, using co-application of carbachol (10 μM) and kainic acid (150 nM), elicited simultaneous theta (6.6 ± 0.1 Hz) and gamma (36.6 ± 0.4 Hz) oscillations in rodent primary motor cortex (M1). Each oscillation showed greatest power in layer V...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395337/effects-of-vaginal-conjugated-equine-estrogens-and-ospemifene-on-the-rat-vaginal-wall-and-lower-urinary-tract
#14
P Antonio Maldonado, T Ignacio Montoya, Jesus F Acevedo, Patrick W Keller, R Ann Word
Although the positive effects of vaginal estrogens and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, ospemifene (OS), on the vaginal epithelium are well recognized, less is known regarding the effects of these therapies on the lower urinary tract or vaginal muscularis. Clinical evidence suggests that vaginally administered estrogen may improve overactive bladder-related symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of OS, vaginal conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), or both on the vaginal wall and lower urinary tract in a rat model of menopause...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394550/refractory-bradycardia-a-rare-complication-of-carboprost-tromethamine-for-induction-of-abortion
#15
Jasna Čerkez Habek, Dubravko Habek, Dario Gulin
We report a first case of refractory several-hour sinus bradycardia, a rare but already described side effect of intramuscular administration of carboprost tromethamine to induce abortion for medical indication in a patient without cardiovascular and other diseases. After administration of atropine sulfate 3x0.5 mg intravenously without effect, the patient‘s sinus rhythm spontaneously normalized as carboprost was eliminated from the body (it has a 3-hour half-life). It is reasonable to believe that the specific prostaglandin underlay the etiology of bradycardia...
June 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388054/radiolabeled-dibenzodiazepinone-type-antagonists-give-evidence-of-dualsteric-binding-at-the-m2-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#16
Andrea Pegoli, Xueke She, David Wifling, Harald Hübner, Günther Bernhardt, Peter Gmeiner, Max Keller
The dualsteric ligand approach, aiming at ligands with improved subtype selectivity, has been increasingly applied to muscarinic receptors (MRs). In this article, we present the synthesis and characterization of a M2R subtype-preferring radiolabeled dibenzodiazepinone-type antagonist ([(3)H]UNSW-MK259, [(3)H]19) and its homodimeric analogue [(3)H]UR-AP060 ([(3)H]33). Saturation binding studies at the M2R, using the orthosteric antagonist atropine to determine unspecific binding, proved that the monomeric and the dimeric compound bind to the orthosteric binding site (apparent Kd: 0...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387362/discovery-of-new-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-antagonists-from-scopolia-tangutica
#17
Nana Du, Yanfang Liu, Xiuli Zhang, Jixia Wang, Jianqiang Zhao, Jian He, Han Zhou, Lijuan Mei, Xinmiao Liang
Scopolia tangutica (S. tangutica) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for antispasmodics, anesthesia, analgesia and sedation. Its pharmacological activities are mostly associated with the antagonistic activity at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs) of several known alkaloids such as atropine and scopolamine. With our recent identification of four hydroxycinnamic acid amides from S. tangutica, we hypothesized that this plant may contain previously unidentified alkaloids that may also contribute to its in vivo effect...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386068/salvia-fruticosa-induces-vasorelaxation-in-rat-isolated-thoracic-aorta-role-of-the-pi3k-akt-enos-no-cgmp-signaling-pathway
#18
M Akhtar Anwar, Ali A Samaha, Samar Ballan, Alaaeldin I Saleh, Rabah Iratni, Ali H Eid
Salvia fruticosa (SF) Mill. is traditionally used for its antihypertensive actions. However, little is known about its pharmacologic and molecular mechanisms of action. Here we determined the effects of an ethanolic extract of SF leaves on rings of isolated thoracic aorta from Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results show that SF extract increased nitric oxide production and relaxed endothelium-intact rings in a dose-dependent (0.3 µg/ml-1 mg/ml) manner, and the maximum arterial relaxation (Rmax) was significantly reduced with endothelium denudation...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382919/-doping-relevant-substances-in-horse-feed
#19
C Herholz, N Zink, H Laska, M Gumpendobler, C Trolliet, S Probst
Horse feed material of Swiss and foreign production available on the Swiss market was tested with regard to possible contamination with 7 different alkaloids, atropine and colchicine. Twenty-eight feed samples as well as 2 poppy seed samples were analyzed. Out of 28 feed samples 18 were positive for prohibited substances in Equestrian sports. The concentration of prohibited substances was in none of the samples high enough to cause an effect on the body of the horse. The poppy seed sample, which was obtained by conventional harvesting and cleaning methods, contained a very high Morphine concentration compared to the sample which was harvested by hand...
April 2017: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381448/central-command-increases-muscular-oxygenation-of-the-non-exercising-arm-at-the-early-period-of-voluntary-one-armed-cranking
#20
Kei Ishii, Kanji Matsukawa, Ryota Asahara, Nan Liang, Kana Endo, Mitsuhiro Idesako, Kensuke Michioka, Yu Sasaki, Hironobu Hamada, Kaori Yamashita, Tae Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Kataoka, Makoto Takahashi
This study aimed to examine whether central command increases oxygenation in non-contracting arm muscles during contralateral one-armed cranking and whether the oxygenation response caused by central command differs among skeletal muscles of the non-exercising upper limb. In 13 male subjects, the relative changes in oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) of the non-contracting arm muscles [the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR)] were measured during voluntary one-armed cranking (intensity, 35-40% of maximal voluntary effort) and mental imagery of the one-armed exercise for 1 min...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
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