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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242602/altered-heart-rate-regulation-by-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-mice-lacking-natriuretic-peptide-receptor-c-npr-c
#1
Motahareh Moghtadaei, Ellen Langille, Sara A Rafferty, Oleg Bogachev, Robert A Rose
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) play essential roles in the regulation of cardiovascular function. NP effects are mediated by receptors known as NPR-A, NPR-B or NPR-C. NPs have potent effects on regulation of heart rate (HR) by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), but the role of NPR-C in these effects has not been investigated. Accordingly, we have used telemetric ECG recordings in awake, freely moving wildtype and NPR-C knockout (NPR-C-/-) mice and performed heart rate variability (HRV) analysis to assess alterations in sympatho-vagal balance on the heart following loss of NPR-C...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235722/alterations-in-ventricular-pumping-in-patients-with-atrial-septal-defect-at-rest-during-dobutamine-stress-and-after-defect-closure
#2
Sigurdur S Stephensen, Ellen Ostenfeld, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Ulf Thilén, Einar Heiberg, Hakan Arheden, Marcus Carlsson
BACKGROUND: Regional ventricular pumping mechanisms in patients with volume-loaded right ventricles (RV) are altered, but the cause is unknown. The aim was to determine whether these changes in ventricular pumping mechanisms are influenced by the RV dilatation itself or the aetiology behind it. METHODS: Seventeen patients with atrial septal defects (ASD) and 10 healthy controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at rest and during dobutamine/atropine stress...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230717/utility-of-2-pyridine-aldoxime-methyl-chloride-2-pam-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Adam Blumenberg, Roshank Benabbas, Ian de Souza, Alyssa Conigliaro, Lorenzo Paladino, Elliot Warman, Richard Sinert, Sage W Wiener
Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213204/in-vitro-release-of-two-anti-muscarinic-drugs-from-soft-contact-lenses
#4
Alex Hui, Magdalena Bajgrowicz-Cieslak, Chau-Minh Phan, Lyndon Jones
The purpose of this study was to investigate the release of the anti-myopia drugs atropine sulfate and pirenzepine dihydrochloride from commercially available soft contact lenses. Standard ultraviolet (UV) absorbance-concentration curves were generated for atropine and pirenzepine. Ten commercially available contact lenses, including four multifocal lenses, were loaded by soaking in atropine or pirenzepine solutions at two different concentrations (10 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL). The release of the drugs into phosphate-buffered saline was determined over the course of 24 hours at 34°C using UV absorbance...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207845/two-episodes-of-trigeminocardiac-reflex-during-a-pan-facial-fracture-surgery-a-rare-phenomenon-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Abhishek Bhattacharjee, Prashanth Rajaram, Abhishek Khatua, K B Rudresh, Pallavi B Krishnamurthy
Trigeminocardiac reflex is a sudden physiologic response due to mechanical manipulation of any of the branches of trigeminal nerve. Trigeminocardiac reflex occurs due to pressure effect or stretching of trigeminal nerve which causes fall in blood pressure and decrease in heart rate. In this reflex arc, the trigeminal nerve serves as afferent pathway and vagus nerve, which is cardio inhibitory in nature, serves as efferent pathway. Two episodes of trigeminocardiac reflex during maxillofacial trauma surgery is not a common phenomenon...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206644/antinociceptive-and-antioxidant-activities-of-hunteria-umbellata-stem-bark-possible-role-of-the-serotonergic-opioidergic-and-dopaminergic-pathways
#6
Osaze Edosuyi, Ighodaro Igbe, Loretta Oghenekome Iniaghe
Background Hunteria umbellata (HU) (K. Schum) is used in ethnomedicine for the management of pain, diabetes mellitus and dysmenorrhoea. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of HU stem bark and the possible mechanism(s) of action. Methods The antinociceptive effect of HU was evaluated using acetic acid mouse writhing, tail flick, hot plate and formalin-induced paw licking models. To establish the possible mechanism(s) of action of HU, separate group of animals were pretreated with naloxone (1 mg/kg, i...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204056/effects-of-hemp-seed-soft-capsule-on-colonic-ion-transport-in-rats
#7
Xiao-Fang Lu, Meng-Di Jia, Sheng-Sheng Zhang, Lu-Qing Zhao
AIM: To investigate the effect of Hemp seed soft capsule (HSCC) on colonic ion transport and its related mechanisms in constipation rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal group, constipation group and HSSC group. Rats in the constipation and HSSC groups were administrated loperamide 3 mg/kg per day orally for 12 d to induce the constipation model. Then, the HSSC group was given HSSC 0.126 g/kg per day by gavage for 7 d...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200903/ardipusilloside-i-stimulates-gastrointestinal-motility-and-phosphorylation-of-smooth-muscle-myosin-by-myosin-light-chain-kinase
#8
Zhili Xu, Hanye Liang, Mingbo Zhang, Xiaojun Tao, Deqiang Dou, Liping Hu, Tingguo Kang
Ardipusilloside-I is a natural triterpenoid saponin, which was isolated from Ardisia pusilla A. DC. The aim of the study was to evaluate the stimulation of ardipusilloside-I on gastrointestinal motility in vitro and in vivo. The experiment of smooth muscle contraction directly monitored the contractions of the isolated jejunal segment (IJS) in different contractile states, and the effects of ardipusilloside-I on myosin were measured in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin using the activities of 20 kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation and myosin Mg2+-ATPase...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198091/-treatments-for-slowing-the-progression-of-myopia
#9
REVIEW
Nir Erdinest, Yair Morad
Myopia is the most common refractive error and is now endemic over the entire industrial world, particularly in Asia. High myopia is one of the major causes of blindness in the world. Slowing the progress of myopia is possible, the most effective treatment being atropine ophthalmic drops, given in a dose-dependent fashion. Although high-dose atropine (1% and 0.5%) was found to be highly effective in slowing myopia progression, low-dose atropine (0.01%) was found to have the lowest rebound effect (accelerated myopia progression after treatment cessation) and was therefore, the most effective treatment in the long term...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191791/electrophysiological-investigation-of-the-effect-of-structurally-different-bispyridinium-non-oxime-compounds-on-human-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-activity-an-in-vitro-structure-activity-analysis
#10
Corinna Scheffel, Karin V Niessen, Sebastian Rappenglück, Klaus T Wanner, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Thomas Seeger
Organophosphorus compounds, including nerve agents and pesticides, exert their toxicity through irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and functional impairment of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Current therapy comprises oximes to reactivate AChE and atropine to antagonize effects induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Nicotinic malfunction leading to depression of the central and peripheral respiratory system is not directly treated calling for alternative therapeutic interventions...
November 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185178/vasorelaxant-activities-and-the-underlying-pharmacological-mechanisms-of-gynura-procumbens-merr-leaf-extracts-on-rat-thoracic-aorta
#11
Zafar Iqbal, Idris Bello, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Ashfaq Ahmad, Qaiser Jabeen, Yam Mun Fei
Previous studies have investigated the cardiovascular activity of Gynura procumbens Merr. single-solvent extracts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro vasorelaxant properties and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of serial extracts and fractions of Gynura procumbens (GP). The leaves of GP were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water using the maceration method. Suspended aortic ring preparations were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE 1 µM), followed by cumulative addition of GP extracts (0...
November 28, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183815/bioscavenger-is-effective-as-a-delayed-therapeutic-intervention-following-percutaneous-vx-poisoning-in-the-guinea-pig
#12
T M Mann, M E Price, C L Whitmore, R L Perrott, T R Laws, R R McColm, E R Emery, J E H Tattersall, A C Green, H Rice
The prolonged systemic exposure that follows skin contamination with low volatility nerve agents, such as VX, requires treatment to be given over a long time due to the relatively short half-lives of the therapeutic compounds used. Bioscavengers, such as butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), have been shown to provide effective post-exposure protection against percutaneous nerve agent when given immediately on signs of poisoning and to reduce reliance on additional treatments. In order to assess the benefits of administration of bioscavenger at later times, its effectiveness was assessed when administration was delayed for 2h after the appearance of signs of poisoning in guinea-pigs challenged with VX (4×LD50)...
November 25, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180481/validity-and-variability-of-xbrs-instantaneous-cardiac-baroreflex-sensitivity
#13
Karel H Wesseling, John M Karemaker, Paolo Castiglioni, Emil Toader, Andrei Cividjian, Jos J Settels, Luc Quintin, Berend E Westerhof
Spontaneous oscillations of blood pressure (BP) and interbeat interval (IBI) may reveal important information on the underlying baroreflex control and regulation of BP We evaluated the method of continuously measured instantaneous baroreflex sensitivity by cross correlation (xBRS) validating its mean value against the gold standard of phenylephrine (Phe) and nitroprusside (SNP) bolus injections, and focusing on its spontaneous changes quantified as variability around the mean. For this purpose, we analyzed data from an earlier study of eight healthy males (aged 25-46 years) who had received Phe and SNP in conditions of baseline and autonomic blocking agents: atropine, propranolol, and clonidine...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180132/the-effect-of-intravitreal-cholinergic-drugs-on-motor-control
#14
Gregory L Willis, Christopher B Freelance
The retina bears embryological, neurochemical and functional similarities to the circadian and dopamine systems of the brain. Recent studies have shown that the intravitreal injection of minute quantities of L-dopa and of the melatonin receptor antagonist ML-23 have anti-Parkinsonian potential. Furthermore, it has been suggested that light therapy may be potentially useful in treating some aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is hypothesized that this treatment works via the circadian system. Given that little is known about the mechanism by which such treatments work the present study was designed to examine the role of the acetyl cholinergic system of the retina in gross bodily movement...
November 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175154/immature-status-epilepticus-in-vitro-models-reveal-differences-in-cholinergic-control-and-hfo-properties-of-adult-ca3-interictal-discharges-in-temporal-vs-septal-hippocampus
#15
Apostolos Mikroulis, Christos Panagiotis Lisgaras, Caterina Psarropoulou
We have earlier demonstrated that a Status Epilepticus (SE) during CNS development has long lasting effects on cholinergic neurotransmission, detectable in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we aimed to localize changes in temporal (T) vs septal (S) hippocampus and to correlate adult CA3 interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) frequency changes to those of Ripples (R) and Fast Ripples (FR) of the High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs). Spontaneous IEDs were induced by bathing slices in Mg2+-free ACSF or in 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, 50µM) and data were analyzed separately for each model...
November 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170645/drugs-interfering-with-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-their-effects-on-place-navigation
#16
REVIEW
Jan Svoboda, Anna Popelikova, Ales Stuchlik
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have been found to regulate many diverse functions, ranging from motivation and feeding to spatial navigation, an important and widely studied type of cognitive behavior. Systemic administration of non-selective antagonists of mAChRs, such as scopolamine or atropine, have been found to have adverse effects on a vast majority of place navigation tasks. However, many of these results may be potentially confounded by disruptions of functions other than spatial learning and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169285/relaxant-effect-of-curcuma-longa-on-rat-tracheal-smooth-muscle-and-its-possible-mechanisms
#17
Bahman Emami, Farzaneh Shakeri, Vahideh Ghorani, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
CONTEXT: Turmeric is a spice obtained from the root of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) with anti-aging, anticancer, anti-Alzheimer's disease, antioxidant and other medicinal properties. OBJECTIVE: The relaxant effect of C. longa on rat tracheal smooth muscle and its possible mechanisms were investigated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of hydro-ethanol extract of C. longa (6.25, 12...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167072/induction-of-anaesthesia-with-remifentanil-after-bolus-midazolam-administration-in-landrace-large-white-swine
#18
Argyro Zacharioudaki, Pavlos Lelovas, Theodoros N Sergentanis, George Karlis, Axel K Hansen, Apostolos Papalois, Theodoros Xanthos
OBJECTIVE: To investigate an alternative combination for anaesthesia induction in swine. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, 'blinded' experimental study. ANIMALS: Forty-five Landrace/Large White swine weighing 20.0±1.5 kg. METHODS: Pulse oximetry, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were measured after premedication with ketamine, midazolam and atropine as well as after intubation following induction with a fixed dose of 0.2 mg kg-1 midazolam combined with 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 μg kg-1 remifentanil (groups R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5, respectively)...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166296/emergency-intubations-in-a-high-volume-pediatric-emergency-department
#19
Jen Heng Pek, Gene Yong-Kwang Ong
INTRODUCTION: Resuscitation of critically ill children can be chaotic, and emergency airway management is often fraught with difficulties. This study aimed to characterize the Singaporean landscape of tracheal intubation in a pediatric emergency unit, placing emphasis on safety outcomes, procedural process of care, and provider training. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases presented to the KK Women's and Children's Hospital from January 2009 to December 2013 with intubation carried out within the pediatric emergency unit was done...
November 21, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165767/influence-of-laryngeal-mask-airway-lma-insertion-anesthesia-on-cognitive-function-after-microsurgery-in-pediatric-neurosurgery
#20
C-H Fan, B Peng, F-C Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the influence of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion anesthesia and endotracheal intubation on cognitive function during anesthesia for neurosurgery microscopy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 76 pediatric patients who underwent neurosurgery microscopy were selected. They were randomly divided in the LMA insertion group with 35 cases and the endotracheal intubation group with 41 cases. Before the operation, the two groups were injected with 0...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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