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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729246/vagally-mediated-effects-of-brainstem-dopamine-on-gastric-tone-and-phasic-contractions-of-the-rat
#1
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, R Alberto Travagli
Dopamine (DA) containing fibers and neurons are embedded within the brainstem dorsal vagal complex (DVC); we have shown previously that DA modulates the membrane properties of neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) via DA1 and DA2 receptors. The vagally-dependent modulation of gastric tone and phasic contractions, i.e. motility, by DA, however, has not been characterized. Using microinjections of DA in the DVC while recording gastric tone and motility, the aims of the present study were: i) assess the gastric effects of brainstem DA application, ii) identify the DA receptor subtype, and, iii) identify the postganglionic pathway(s) activated...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723110/portable-sensor-for-the-detection-of-choline-and-its-derivatives-based-on-silica-isoporous-membrane-and-gellified-nanointerfaces
#2
Lisiqi Xie, Xiao Huang, Bin Su
A portable amperometric ion sensor was fabricated by integrating silica isoporous membrane (SIM) and organogel composed of polyvinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane (PVC-DCE) on a 3D-printed polymer chip. The detection of ionic species in aqueous samples could be accomplished by adding a microliter of sample droplet to the sensor and by identifying the ion-transfer potential and current magnitude at the water/organogel interface array templated by SIM. Thanks to the ultrasmall channel size (2-3 nm in diameter), high channel density (4 × 10(8) μm(-2)), and ultrathin thickness (80 nm) of SIM, the ensemble of nanoscopic water/organogel (nano-W/Gel) interface array behaved like a microinterface with two back-to-back hemispherical mass diffusion zones...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722259/l-ornithine-and-l-lysine-stimulate-gastrointestinal-motility-via-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1
#3
Junya Nakato, Yee Yin Ho, Ryo Omae, Takafumi Mizushige, Kunitoshi Uchida, Makoto Tominaga, Minji Kim, Tsuyoshi Goto, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Teruo Kawada, Saori Akiduki, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Kousaku Ohinata
SCOPE: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract senses and responds to intraluminal nutrients and these interactions often affect GI functions. We found that, among basic amino acids, L-ornithine (Orn) and L-lysine (Lys) stimulated but L-arginine (Arg) suppressed GI motility after oral administration (24 mmol/kg) in mice (Orn and Lys, 14.3 and 26.4% promotion; Arg, 7.7% suppression). We investigated the mechanism of the action of Orn and Lys on GI motility. METHODS AND RESULTS: Orn-induced promotion of small intestinal transit was significantly inhibited (P<0...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719484/amitraz-a-perpetual-silent-menace-among-children-in-developing-countries-a-case-report
#4
Sowmya Shashidhara, Suneel C Mundkur, Shrikiran A Hebbar, Ashwini Kumar, Vaisakh Sambasivan
Amitraz is an acaricide and insecticide used to treat ticks, which infest domestic animals in developing countries. Because of its widespread use, it is one of the common poisons unintentionally consumed by infants and children when left unsupervised. A 3-year-old boy was brought with unintentional consumption of Amitraz. On examination, he was found to be progressively drowsy, with an irregular pulse, bradycardia, and hypotension. He was treated with atropine, intravenous fluids, and dopamine infusion; hemodynamic stability was achieved within 36 hours after ingestion...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718233/haemodynamic-preservation-in-caesarean-sections-by-low-dose-0-5-hyperbaric-bupivacaine
#5
Maqsood Ahmad, Mumtaz Ahmad, Naveel Atif
BACKGROUND: Spinal anaesthesia is technique of choice for caesarean sections and hyperbaric bupivacaine is a recommended drug for this popular block. Although safe but few complications are haemodynamic changes, postdural puncture headache, cauda equina syndrome and radiculopathy. However, hypotension remains the common side effect which is believed to occur in 95% of patients resulting in reduction of uteroplacental perfusion causing foetal acid-base abnormalities. Various doses regimes are in safe anaesthesia practice for providing regional anaesthesia for such patients with least detrimental effects on foetal outcome...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714717/acetylcholine-contributes-to-the-integration-of-self-movement-cues-in-head-direction-cells
#6
Ryan M Yoder, Jeremy H M Chan, Jeffrey S Taube
Acetylcholine contributes to accurate performance on some navigational tasks, but details of its contribution to the underlying brain signals are not fully understood. The medial septal area provides widespread cholinergic input to various brain regions, but selective damage to medial septal cholinergic neurons generally has little effect on landmark-based navigation, or the underlying neural representations of location and directional heading in visual environments. In contrast, the loss of medial septal cholinergic neurons disrupts navigation based on path integration, but no studies have tested whether these path integration deficits are associated with disrupted head direction (HD) cell activity...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711697/role-of-muscarinic-receptors-in-the-contraction-of-jejunal-smooth-muscle-in-the-horse-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Alessandro Menozzi, Cristina Pozzoli, Enzo Poli, Giada Bontempi, Paolo Serventi, Valentina Meucci, Luigi Intorre, Simone Bertini
Nonselective antimuscarinic drugs are clinically useful in several pathologic conditions of horses, but, blocking all muscarinic receptor (MR) subtypes, may cause several side effects. The availability of selective antimuscarinic drugs could improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. We aimed to enlighten the role of different MR subtypes by evaluating the effects of nonselective, and selective M1, M2 and M3 MR antagonists on the contractions of horse jejunum. Segments of circular muscle of equine jejunum, were put into organ baths, connected to isotonic transducers, and the effects on ACh concentration-response curves, and on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractions of intestinal preparations, induced by nonselective or selective MR antagonists, compared to pre-drug level, were studied...
July 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703239/reaction-screening-and-optimization-of-continuous-flow-atropine-synthesis-by-preparative-electrospray-mass-spectrometry
#8
Caitlin E Falcone, Zinia Jaman, Michael Wleklinski, Andy Koswara, David H Thompson, R Graham Cooks
Preparative electrospray (ES) exploits the acceleration of reactions in charged microdroplets to perform a small scale chemical synthesis. In combination with on-line mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, it constitutes a rapid screening tool to select reagents to generate specific products. A successful reaction in preparative ES triggers a refined microfluidic reaction screening procedure which includes the optimization for stoichiometry, temperature and residence time. We apply this combined approach for refining a flow synthesis of atropine...
July 13, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701350/effectiveness-of-interventions-to-improve-medication-use-during-rapid-sequence-intubation-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#9
Michelle C Caruso, Jenna R Dyas, Matthew R Mittiga, Andrea S Rinderknecht, Benjamin T Kerrey
PURPOSE: Results of a study to determine whether checklist-based interventions improved the selection and administration of rapid-sequence intubation (RSI) medications in a pediatric emergency department (ED) are reported. METHODS: A retrospective study of data collected during a quality-improvement project was conducted. Data sources included the electronic health record and video review. The central intervention was use of a 21-item RSI checklist, which included guidance for the physician team leader on medication selection and timing...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701002/atropine-treatment-for-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Giuseppe Lauriti, Valentina Cascini, Pierluigi Lelli Chiesa, Agostino Pierro, Augusto Zani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700617/a-new-analysis-of-heart-rate-variability-in-the-assessment-of-fetal-parasympathetic-activity-an-experimental-study-in-a-fetal-sheep-model
#11
C Garabedian, C Champion, E Servan-Schreiber, L Butruille, E Aubry, D Sharma, R Logier, P Deruelle, L Storme, V Houfflin-Debarge, J De Jonckheere
Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a recognized tool in the assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Indeed, both time and spectral analysis techniques enable us to obtain indexes that are related to the way the ANS regulates the heart rate. However, these techniques are limited in terms of the lack of thresholds of the numerical indexes, which is primarily due to high inter-subject variability. We proposed a new fetal HRV analysis method related to the parasympathetic activity of the ANS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700094/regulation-of-synaptic-acetylcholine-concentrations-by-acetylcholine-transport-in-rat-striatal-cholinergic-transmission
#12
Ikunobu Muramatsu, Junsuke Uwada, Takayoshi Masuoka, Hatsumi Yoshiki, Kiyonao Sada, Kung-Shing Lee, Matomo Nishio, Takaharu Ishibashi, Takanobu Taniguchi
In addition to hydrolysis by acetylcholine esterase (AChE), acetylcholine (ACh) is also directly taken up into brain tissues. In the present study, we examined whether the uptake of ACh is involved in the regulation of synaptic ACh concentrations. Superfusion experiments with rat striatal segments pre-incubated with [(3) H]choline were performed using an ultra-mini superfusion vessel, which was developed to minimize superfusate retention within the vessel. Hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) at concentrations less than 1 μM, selectively inhibited the uptake of [(3) H]choline by the high affinity-choline transporter 1 (CHT1) and had no effect on basal and electrically evoked [(3) H]efflux in superfusion experiments...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696367/the-evaluation-of-the-reactivating-and-neuroprotective-efficacy-of-two-newly-prepared-bispyridinium-oximes-k305-k307-in-tabun-poisoned-rats-a-comparison-with-trimedoxime-and-the-oxime-k203
#13
Jiri Kassa, Jan Misik, Jana Hatlapatkova, Jana Zdarova Karasova, Vendula Sepsova, Filip Caisberger, Jaroslav Pejchal
The ability of two newly developed oximes (K305, K307) to protect tabun-poisoned rats from tabun-induced inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms and brain damage was compared with that of the oxime K203 and trimedoxime. The reactivating and neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose were evaluated. The reactivating efficacy of a newly developed oxime K305 is lower compared to the reactivating efficacy of the oxime K203 and trimedoxime while the ability of the oxime K307 to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain roughly corresponds to the reactivating efficacy of the oxime K203 and it is slightly lower compared to trimedoxime...
July 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693885/post-exposure-treatment-with-the-oxime-rs194b-rapidly-reverses-early-and-advanced-symptoms-in-macaques-exposed-to-sarin-vapor
#14
Yvonne J Rosenberg, Lingjun Mao, Xiaoming Jiang, Jonathan Lees, Limin Zhang, Zoran Radic, Palmer Taylor
Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides trigger a common mechanism of neurotoxicity resulting from critical targeting and inhibition of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Therapeutic countermeasures have thus focused on either administering an oxime post-exposure, that can rapidly reactivate OP-inhibited AChE, or by preventing OP poisoning through administering pre-exposure treatments that scavenge OPs before they inhibit their physiological AChE targets...
July 8, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682887/atropine-0-5-eyedrops-for-the-treatment-of-children-with-low-myopia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yan-Rong Wang, Hong-Li Bian, Qi Wang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of atropine 0.5% eyedrops (ATE) for the treatment of children with low myopia (LM). METHODS: In this study, a total of 126 children with LM were randomly divided into an intervention group (administered 0.5% ATE) and a control group (administered a placebo), with 63 children in each group. The outcome measurements were changes in the spherical equivalent (SE), and axial length (AL), as well as adverse events (AEs)...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678304/effect-of-4-month-intermittent-atropine-penalization-in-amblyopic-children-for-whom-patch-therapy-had-failed
#16
Bo Ram Seol, Young Suk Yu, Seong-Joon Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of 4-month intermittent atropine penalization in children with amblyopia for whom patch therapy had failed and to analyze the factors associated with treatment success. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included participants who visited the hospital between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015. Forty-one children with amblyopia for whom patch therapy had failed were included and their medical records were analyzed retrospectively...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671922/a-case-of-bilateral-pigment-dispersion-syndrome-following-many-years-of-uninterrupted-treatment-with-atropine-1-for-bilateral-congenital-cataracts
#17
Corrado Gizzi, Jibran Mohamed-Noriega, Ian Murdoch
PURPOSE: Describe an unusual case of bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) following years of uninterrupted treatment with atropine 1% for bilateral congenital cataracts, speculate on potential mechanisms leading to this condition. DESIGN: This is a case report. CASE: A 45-year-old white patient on long-term treatment with atropine 1% ointment since his infancy for bilateral congenital cataracts developed PDS with secondary ocular hypertension...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671625/vitamin-c-deficiency-reduces-muscarinic-receptor-coronary-artery-vasoconstriction-and-plasma-tetrahydrobiopterin-concentration-in-guinea-pigs
#18
Gry Freja Skovsted, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg, Maiken Marie Lindblad, Stine Normann Hansen, Jens Lykkesfeldt
Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10-12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph...
July 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669492/atropine-for-the-prevention-of-myopia-progression-in-children-a-report-by-the-american-academy-of-ophthalmology
#19
Stacy L Pineles, Raymond T Kraker, Deborah K VanderVeen, Amy K Hutchinson, Jennifer A Galvin, Lorri B Wilson, Scott R Lambert
PURPOSE: To review the published literature on the efficacy of topical atropine for the prevention of myopic progression in children. METHODS: Literature searches were last conducted in December 2016 in the PubMed database with no date restrictions, but were limited to studies published in English, and in the Cochrane Library database without any restrictions. The combined searches yielded 98 citations, 23 of which were reviewed in full text. Of these, 17 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently were assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist...
June 29, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663611/financial-implications-of-intravenous-anesthetic-drug-wastage-in-operation-room
#20
Suvarna Kaniyil, A Krishnadas, Arun Kumar Parathody, K T Ramadas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anesthetic drugs and material wastage are common in operation rooms (ORs). In this era of escalating health-care expenditure, cost reduction strategies are highly relevant. The aim of this study was to assess the amount of daily intravenous anesthetic drug wastage from major ORs and to estimate its financial burden. Any preventive measures to minimize drug wastage are also looked for. METHODS: It was a prospective study conducted at the major ORs of a tertiary care hospital after getting the Institutional Research Committee approval...
April 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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