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Sara L Bober, John Ciriello, Douglas L Jones
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which involves chronic, intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is a major risk factor for developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether or not CIH alone alters cardiac mechanisms to support AF is unknown. This study investigated the effects of CIH on atrial electrophysiology and arrhythmia vulnerability, and evaluated the role of autonomics in CIH promotion of AF. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 8h/day of CIH or normoxia for 7 days. Following exposure, rats were anesthetized for intracardiac electrophysiological studies...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Qianwen Gong, Miroslaw Janowski, Longqian Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Mark A Bullimore, David A Berntsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
I Buß, A Hamacher, N Sarin, M U Kassack, G V Kalayda
Oxaliplatin is a routinely used drug in the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, development of resistance is a major hurdle of the chemotherapy success. Defects in cellular accumulation represent a frequently reported feature of cells with acquired resistance to platinum drugs. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of oxaliplatin uptake and their role in oxaliplatin resistance remain poorly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of copper transporter 1 (CTR1) and organic cation transporters 1-3 (OCT1-3) for oxaliplatin uptake and resistance to the drug in sensitive and oxaliplatin-resistant ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma cells...
February 8, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Zahra Shakeran, Mehrnaz Keyhanfar, Mustafa Ghanadian
The (-)-hyoscyamine, atropine and scopolamine (hyoscine) are three valuable tropane alkaloids while scopolamine is the most important member of this group for the pharmaceutical industry due to its higher demand compared to hyoscyamine and atropine. Scopolamine is an anticholinergic reagent with several therapeutic applications. In the current study, the hairy roots culture of Daturametel was used as an advantageous method for production of scopolamine. The hairy roots are formed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and have genetic stability, high growth rate and lateral branching...
December 2017: Molecular Biology Research Communications
L Podmolíková, M F Mukanyangezi, P Nieto-Marín, D Giglio
How the proliferation of the urothelium is regulated is known to a little degree. E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates the innate immune response of the urinary bladder via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the urothelium but induces also urothelial proliferation. We wanted to assess whether muscarinic receptors are involved in the regulation of urothelial proliferation triggered by LPS stimulation. Female Fischer 344 rats were instilled with LPS or saline (control) in the urinary bladder in the absence or presence of muscarinic receptor blockade with atropine and regeneration of the urothelium was assessed 4h and 24h later...
January 27, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Irene Chaves-Coira, Margarita L Rodrigo-Angulo, Angel Nuñez
Sensory processing in the cortex should integrate inputs arriving from receptive fields located on both sides of the body. This role could be played by the corpus callosum through precise projections between both hemispheres. However, different studies suggest that cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain (BF) could also contribute to the synchronization and integration of cortical activities. Using tracer injections and optogenetic techniques in transgenic mice, we investigated whether the BF cells project bilaterally to sensory cortical areas, and have provided anatomical evidence to support a modulatory role for the cholinergic projections in sensory integration...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Daisuke Inoue, Akiko Tanaka, Shunsuke Kimura, Akiko Kiriyama, Hidemasa Katsumi, Akira Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi Ogawara, Toshikiro Kimura, Kazutaka Higaki, Reiko Yutani, Toshiyasu Sakane, Tomoyuki Furubayashi
Drug absorption after nasal application is dependent on drug clearance from the nasal cavity, which is determined by nasal mucociliary clearance (MC). We previously developed an in vitro method to evaluate MC via the translocation velocity of fluorescent microspheres (VFMS) applied to excised rat nasal mucosa. In the present study, the relationship between in vivo nasal MC and in vitro VFMS was examined to optimize our PK model for the prediction of nasal drug absorption. Appropriate inhibitors (propranolol and atropine) and enhancers (terbutaline and acetylcholine chloride) of MC were utilized to modify MC...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kyle Ball, Thomas P Vacek
A rare cause of reflex syncope is metastatic cancers involving the head and neck. These can irritate the glossopharyngeal nerve and lead to glossopharyngeal neuralgia with associated syncope. This type of syncope is difficult to treat since it commonly involves both a vasodepressor and cardioinhibitory response, and typically requires removal of the irritative focus. We report a case of a 52-year-old male who presented from home with syncope. He endorsed a 5-week history of progressively worsened positional headaches and dramatic 40-pound weight loss with night sweats over 6 months...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Mukti Mondal, Kaushik Sarkar, Partha Pratim Nath, Ashma Khatun, Sanghamitra Pal, Goutam Paul
The aim of the study was to examine the toxic effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG), an extensively used food additive, on the contraction of uterine visceral smooth muscle (UVSM) in rat and to elucidate the probable neurocrine mechanism involved in it. MSG produced significant potentiation of the force and inhibition of frequency of uterus recorded ex vivo in chronic MSG exposure and in single dose acute experiments. MSG also produced significant potentiation of force of acetylcholine induced contraction and no alterations in atropine induced contraction of uterus...
February 2, 2018: Reproductive Biology
M Diaz-Llopis, M D Pinazo-Durán
OBJECTIVE: To confirm the clinical security and effectiveness of the daily application of 0.01% superdiluted atropine eyedrops in the progression of myopia in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 200 children 9-12 years of age were randomised into a treated group and a control without treatment. Refraction under cycloplegia was performed. RESULTS: Myopia progression of the treated group was -0.14±0.35 versus -0.65±0.54 in the control group without treatment...
February 1, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Xiaoyan Jiang, Toshihide Kurihara, Hiromitsu Kunimi, Maki Miyauchi, Shin-Ichi Ikeda, Kiwako Mori, Kinya Tsubota, Hidemasa Torii, Kazuo Tsubota
Despite the global pandemic of myopia, the precise molecular mechanism of the onset of myopia remains largely unknown. This is partially because of the lack of efficient murine myopic models that allow genetic manipulation at low cost. Here we report a highly practical and reproducible lens-induced myopia model by specially designed frames and lenses for mice. A lens power dependent myopic induction in mice was shown until minus 30 diopter lenses. The phenotype was significantly stronger than form-deprivation myopia...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rachel Feldman-Goriachnik, Bing Wu, Menachem Hanani
Satellite glial cells (SGCs) surround the neurons in sympathetic ganglia and are believed to make important contributions to the function of the ganglia under normal and pathological conditions. It has been proposed that SGCs communicate chemically with the neurons, but little is known about their pharmacological properties and there is no information on whether they respond to acetylcholine (ACh), which is the major neurotransmitter in these ganglia. We used calcium imaging to examine responses of SGCs in the mouse superior cervical ganglion to ACh...
January 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Muhammet Emin Naldan, Zakir Arslan, Ayşenur Ay, Ahmet Murat Yayık
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Fentanyl and atropine are drugs used for analgesia during induction and for premedication, respectively. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of atropine used for premedication on cough developing in association with fentanyl use during anesthesia induction. METHODS: This was a single-blind, prospective, multi-arm, parallel, randomized clinical trial involving 120 patients between ages 3 and 15 years undergoing general anesthesia...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Yunfei Ma, Lianfang Du, Fan Li, Zhengqiu Zhu
We wished to ascertain if atropine is useful for suppressing the pain suffered during four-dimensional hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (4D-HyCoSy) when assessing infertility in women. A total of 252 patients were divided into two groups to receive or not receive atropine (0.5 mg) injection 30 min before 4D-HyCoSy. Pain was evaluated using a numerical rating scale (NRS): during 4D-HyCoSy; upon two-dimensional transvaginal sonography; before catheter insertion; upon insertion and fixation of the catheter into the uterine cavity; 30 min after 4D-HyCoSy...
January 30, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Lu-Yuan Lee, Ruei-Lung Lin, Mehdi Khosravi, Fadi Xu
Inhaled cigarette smoke stimulated vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibers via an action of nicotine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Recent studies have reported that nicotine at high concentrations can also activate the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptor (TRPA1) expressed in these sensory nerves. This study was carried out to characterize the airway response to inhaled nicotine aerosol and to investigate the relative roles of nAChR and TRPA1 in this response. Guinea pigs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated; one tidal volume of nicotine aerosol (2% solution) was diluted by equal volume of air and delivered directly into the lung via a tracheal cannula in a single breath...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Szymon Chowanski, Grzegorz Rosinski
In mammals, the cholinergic nervous system plays a crucial role in neuronal regulation of physiological processes. It acts on cells by two types of receptors - nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Both signal transmission pathways also operate in the central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system of insects. METHODS: In our pharmacological experiments, we studied the effects of two muscarinic agonists (carbachol, pilocarpine) and two muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) on the muscle contractile activity of visceral organs in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor...
January 24, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Baran S Kizilyildiz, Kamuran Karaman, Selvi Özen, Abdurrahman Üner
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics, outcomes and clinical features of acute intoxications among children in Van region of Turkey. METHODS: All cases with a diagnosis of acute intoxication admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department of the Yüzüncü Yıl University of Van from June 1, 2010 to November 30, 2011 were evaluated. We retrospectively examined the medical records for demographical and etiological characteristics of patients below 17 years of age...
February 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Michael R Rickels, Elys M Perez, Amy J Peleckis, Erica Alshehabi, Huong-Lan Nguyen, Darko Stefanovski, Karl Rickels, Karen L Teff
Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with the development of obesity and diabetes. In particular, olanzapine can induce peripheral insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease. To determine if this compensatory increase in insulin is mediated by parasympathetic muscarinic stimulation, we randomized fifteen healthy subjects 2:1 to receive double-blind olanzapine or placebo for 9 days under diet and activity controlled inpatient conditions...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Eunsun So, Hyun Jeong Kim, Myong-Hwan Karm, Kwang-Suk Seo, Juhea Chang, Joo Hyung Lee
Background: The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease is growing worldwide, and the proportion of patients requiring dental treatment under general anesthesia increases with increasing severity of the disease. However, outpatient anesthesia management for these patients involves great risks, as most patients with Alzheimer's disease are old and may show reduced cardiopulmonary functions and have cognitive disorders. Methods: This study retrospectively investigated 43 patients with Alzheimer's disease who received outpatient anesthesia for dental treatment between 2012-2017...
December 2017: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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