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I Loaiza, M De Troch, G De Boeck
Scallops and their potential predators were collected in Sechura Bay and in front of the Illescas Reserved Zone (north Peru), during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 2016, and analyzed for the metals chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). This study showed that ~20% of the molluscs exceeded the maximum residual levels (MRLs) for human consumption in inorganic As, while ~30% of the crustaceans did. For Cd, around 10% and 40% of the molluscs and the crustaceans were above the MRLs, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jacob G Sivak, Jeremy M Sivak
It has been speculated that the unitary eyes of vertebrates and molluscs, and the compound eyes of insects and crustaceans, evolved separately. On the other hand, the common use of rhodopsin as a photoreceptor molecule, and the conservation of Pax6 as a master control gene for eye development, suggest instead that the eye evolved once. Yet, recently the molecular genetics that had seemed to suggest a definitive answer to this evolutionary point has once again become cloudy. Here we propose an alternative approach to addressing the question of eye evolution through comparative analyses of physiological optics...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Kai Wang, Chao Wen Li, Zhen Hua Wang, Jing Zhao, Shou Yu Zhang
Marine ranching is considered as an efficient tool to protect and restore the coastal fishe-ries resource. In order to assess the ecological impacts of the construction of marine ranching on rocky fishes, the feeding habits of Sebastiscus marmoratus collected at the marine ranching area off Ma'an Archipelago were studied using stomach contents analyses and stable isotope analyses. Results showed that S. marmoratus mainly preyed on amphipoda, crabs and cephalopods before the construction of marine ranching. The dominant prey species were Caprella sp...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Bin Xie, Yun Kai Li, Hu Zhang, Shuo Zhang
Stable isotope technique was applied to investigate the small and medium-size consumers including not only fish, shrimps, crabs, cephalopods, snails and bivalves, but also the specimens of their potential carbon sources, which were collected in the marine ranching area of Haizhou Bay during the spring of 2015. IsoSource model was adopted to calculate the contribution of potential carbon sources to the consumers. Biospeciemens collected in the summer of 2014 were compared with those in the spring of 2015, aiming to analyze the seasonal variation in the trophic structure of food web...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Boris Kotchoubey
Consciousness is not a process in the brain but a kind of behavior that, of course, is controlled by the brain like any other behavior. Human consciousness emerges on the interface between three components of animal behavior: communication, play, and the use of tools. These three components interact on the basis of anticipatory behavioral control, which is common for all complex forms of animal life. All three do not exclusively distinguish our close relatives, i.e., primates, but are broadly presented among various species of mammals, birds, and even cephalopods; however, their particular combination in humans is unique...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Béla Barabás, Róbert Kurdi, Claudia Zucchi, Gyula Pályi
Long-armed multifunctional organosilicon molecules display self-replicating and self-perfecting behavior in asymmetric autocatalysis (Soai reaction). Two representatives of this class were studied by statistical methods aiming at determination of probabilities of natural abundance chiral isotopomers. The results, reported here, show an astonishing richness of possibilities of the formation of chiral isotopically substituted derivatives. This feature could serve as a model for the evolution of biological chirality in prebiotic and early biotic stereochemistry...
May 7, 2018: Chirality
Jing-Duan Huang, Shin-Yu Lee, Tzu-Yin Chiang, Chung-Cheng Lu, Mong-Fong Lee
The pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, is an important cephalopod fishery species in southeastern Asia, with understudied reproductive physiology. The present study aimed to investigate the cellular characteristics of epithelial cells found in the nidamental glands (NGs) and accessory NGs (ANGs), as well as the structural connections between these two glands in mature female S. pharaonis. A histological analysis revealed two types of epithelial cells in NGs: Alcian blue-positive, PAS-negative mucosubstance-secreting cells and eosinophilic, PAS-positive granule-secreting cells...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Samantha M Logan, Brad A Seibel, Kenneth B Storey
At night, Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) rise to the ocean's surface to feed, but come morning, they descend into the ocean's oxygen minimum zone where they can avoid predators but must deal with severe hypoxia, high pressure, and very cold water. To survive this extreme environment, squid use various adaptations to enter a hypometabolic state characterized by metabolic rate suppression by 35-52%, relative to normoxic conditions. The molecular mechanisms facilitating this metabolic flexibility have yet to be elucidated in hypometabolic squid...
May 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hong Yan Liu, Tong Tong Sun, Xiao Qi Zeng, Pei Dong Zhang, Wen Tao Li, Xiu Mei Zhang
Based on cage net and longline fishing surveys in Laoshan Bay, China, from April 2015 to January 2017, a total of 279 Conger myriaster stomach samples were analyzed to study their feeding ecology, including diet composition, feeding type, feeding grade, feeding intensity, trophic niche, and trophic level. The stomach content analysis of nine key fish species (including Sebastes schlegelii, Hexagrammos otakii, Hexagrammos agrammus, Sebastiscus mamoratus, Lateolabrax maculatus, etc.), were conducted to examine the food webs in artificial reef zone...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ronald H Douglas
The timecourse and extent of changes in pupil area in response to light are reviewed in all classes of vertebrate and cephalopods. Although the speed and extent of these responses vary, most species, except the majority of teleost fish, show extensive changes in pupil area related to light exposure. The neuromuscular pathways underlying light-evoked pupil constriction are described and found to be relatively conserved, although the precise autonomic mechanisms differ somewhat between species. In mammals, illumination of only one eye is known to cause constriction in the unilluminated pupil...
April 30, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Jia Shen Tian, Jia Bo Han, Zhi Chuang Lu, Zhi Qiang Ma, Duo Hui Li, Bai Wang, Yi Bing Liu
This study analyzed the values of δ13 C and δ15 N by the application of stable isotope technique from the marine mammals (Phoca largha, Neophocaena asiaorientalis sunameri, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and major biological species in Dalian marine area based on the animals collected due to stranding and death after bycatch from January, 2008 to June, 2017, and the fisheries resources investigation between autumn, 2016 and spring, 2017 in the same area. The trophic level was then calculated in order to establish the continuous trophic spectrum of the food web in Dalian marine area...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Lauren Sumner-Rooney, Julia D Sigwart
Molluscs demonstrate astonishing morphological diversity, and the relationships among clades have been debated for more than a century. Molluscan nervous systems range from simple 'ladder-like' cords to the complex brains of cephalopods. Chitons (Polyplacophora) are assumed to retain many molluscan plesiomorphies, lacking neural condensation and ganglionic structure, and therefore a brain. We reconstructed three-dimensional anatomical models of the nervous system in eight species of chitons in an attempt to clarify chiton neuroarchitecture and its variability...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Giovanna G Altobelli, Susan Van Noorden, Vincenzo Cimini
The existence of both calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) and neuropeptides in the retina and brain of various species of vertebrates and invertebrates is well documented. Octopus retina is particularly interesting because it represents a case of convergent evolution. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of two CBPs, calretinin and calbindin, in Octopus retina using morphology, in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Calretinin-like immunoreactivity was found in the photoreceptor cells, but unexpectedly also in the supporting cells...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Rylan Kautz, David D Ordinario, Vivek Tyagi, Priyam Patel, Tam N Nguyen, Alon A Gorodetsky
Cephalopods (e.g., squid, octopuses, and cuttlefish) have long fascinated scientists and the general public alike due to their complex behavioral characteristics and remarkable camouflage abilities. As such, these animals are explored as model systems in neuroscience and represent a well-known commercial resource. Herein, selected literature examples related to the electrical properties of cephalopod-derived biopolymers (eumelanins, chitosans, and reflectins) and to the use of these materials in voltage-gated devices (i...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Kia Seehafer, Samantha Brophy, Sara R Tom, Robyn J Crook
Cephalopod molluscs are known for their extensive behavioral repertoire and their impressive learning abilities. Their primary defensive behaviors, such as camouflage, have received detailed study, but knowledge is limited to intensive study of relatively few species. A considerable challenge facing cephalopod research is the need to establish new models that can be captive bred, are tractable for range of different experimental procedures, and that will address broad questions in biological research. The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid ( Euprymna scolopes ) is a small, tropical cephalopod that has a long history of research in the field of microbial symbiosis, but offers great promise as a novel behavioral and neurobiological model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pamela Imperadore, Ortrud Uckermann, Roberta Galli, Gerald Steiner, Matthias Kirsch, Graziano Fiorito
Octopus and cephalopods are able to regenerate injured tissues. Recent advancements in the study of regeneration in cephalopods appear promising encompassing different approaches helping to decipher cellular and molecular machinery involved in the process. However, lack of specific markers to investigate degenerative/regenerative phenomena and inflammatory events occurring after damage is limiting these studies. Label-free multiphoton microscopy is applied for the first time to the transected pallial nerve of Octopus vulgaris Various optical contrast methods including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) have been used...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Tommaso Filippini, Marcella Malavolti, Silvia Cilloni, Lauren A Wise, Federica Violi, Carlotta Malagoli, Luciano Vescovi, Marco Vinceti
Regular consumption of fish is generally recommended by authorities because fish is an important source of essential nutrients. However, the presence of potentially toxic contaminants in fish has raised many concerns about the food's safety for human health. In the present study, we used a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess the dietary habits of a representative sample of 719 individuals (319 males and 400 females) aged 18-87 years residing in Northern Italy. We estimated weekly dietary intakes of Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg), and we compared them with safety standards set by the European Food Safety Authority...
April 4, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Chengyi Xu, George T Stiubianu, Alon A Gorodetsky
Materials and systems that statically reflect radiation in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum underpin the performance of many entrenched technologies, including building insulation, energy-conserving windows, spacecraft components, electronics shielding, container packaging, protective clothing, and camouflage platforms. The development of their adaptive variants, in which the infrared-reflecting properties dynamically change in response to external stimuli, has emerged as an important unmet scientific challenge...
March 30, 2018: Science
Alexia T Scaros, Roger Croll, Sebastien Baratte
Cephalopods are non-traditional but captivating models of invertebrate neurobiology, particularly in evolutionary comparisons. Cephalopod olfactory systems have striking similarities and fundamental differences with vertebrates, arthropods, and gastropods, raising questions about the ancestral origins of those systems. We describe here the organization and development of the olfactory system of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. FMRFamide and/or related peptides and histamine are putative neurotransmitters in olfactory sensory neurons...
March 26, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Joshua A Jones, Rebecca A Metzler, Anthony J D'Addario, Carrie Burgess, Brian Regan, Samantha Spano, Ben A Cvarch, Enrique J Galvez
Nacre is a complex biomaterial made of aragonite-tablet bricks and organic mortar that is considerably resilient against breakage. Nacre has been studied with a wide range of laboratory techniques, leading to understanding key fundamentals, and informing the creation of bio-inspired materials. In this article we present an optical polarimetric technique to investigate nacre, taking advantage of the translucence and birefringence of its micro-components. We focus our study on three classes of mollusks that have nacreous shells: bivalve (Pinctada fucata), gastropod (Haliotis asisina and Haliotis rufescens) and cephalopod (Nautilus pompilius)...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
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