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Cephalopods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911390/a-method-for-extracting-pigments-from-squid-doryteuthis-pealeii
#1
Christopher W DiBona, Thomas L Williams, Sean R Dinneen, Stephanie F Jones Labadie, Leila F Deravi
Cephalopods can undergo rapid and adaptive changes in dermal coloration for sensing, communication, defense, and reproduction purposes. These capabilities are supported in part by the areal expansion and retraction of pigmented organs known as chromatophores. While it is known that the chromatophores contain a tethered network of pigmented granules, their structure-function properties have not been fully detailed. We describe a method for isolating the nanostructured granules in squid Doryteuthis pealeii chromatophores and demonstrate how their associated pigments can be extracted in acidic solvents...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901505/first-isolation-of-miamiensis-avidus-ciliophora-scuticociliatida-associated-with-skin-ulcers-from-reared-pharaoh-cuttlefish-sepia-pharaonis
#2
Zhen Tao, Lu Liu, Xiangrui Chen, Suming Zhou, Guoliang Wang
In the winter of 2015, a skin ulcer disease outbreak occurred in a pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis population cultured on a land-based fish farm in China. Affected cuttlefish (about 60% of the population) were characterized as having developed ulcers on the dorsal skin, fin fringe, or distal mantle tip. Masses of a ciliated protozoan were isolated from skin ulcers. The ciliate was identified as Miamiensis avidus based on the morphological features of living and protargol-impregnated specimens. This identification was also supported by high sequence similarity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (100%) and another ribosomal DNA region (including the 2 internal transcribed spacers and the 5...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832738/comparative-transcriptomics-enlarges-the-toolkit-of-known-developmental-genes-in-mollusks
#3
A L De Oliveira, T Wollesen, A Kristof, M Scherholz, E Redl, C Todt, C Bleidorn, A Wanninger
BACKGROUND: Mollusks display a striking morphological disparity, including, among others, worm-like animals (the aplacophorans), snails and slugs, bivalves, and cephalopods. This phenotypic diversity renders them ideal for studies into animal evolution. Despite being one of the most species-rich phyla, molecular and in silico studies concerning specific key developmental gene families are still scarce, thus hampering deeper insights into the molecular machinery that governs the development and evolution of the various molluscan class-level taxa...
November 10, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829039/early-mode-of-life-and-hatchling-size-in-cephalopod-molluscs-influence-on-the-species-distributional-ranges
#4
Roger Villanueva, Erica A G Vidal, Fernando Á Fernández-Álvarez, Jaruwat Nabhitabhata
Cephalopods (nautiluses, cuttlefishes, squids and octopuses) exhibit direct development and display two major developmental modes: planktonic and benthic. Planktonic hatchlings are small and go through some degree of morphological changes during the planktonic phase, which can last from days to months, with ocean currents enhancing their dispersal capacity. Benthic hatchlings are usually large, miniature-like adults and have comparatively reduced dispersal potential. We examined the relationship between early developmental mode, hatchling size and species latitudinal distribution range of 110 species hatched in the laboratory, which represent 13% of the total number of live cephalopod species described to date...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796978/metal-bioaccumulation-in-two-edible-cephalopods-in-the-gulf-of-gabes-south-eastern-tunisia-environmental-and-human-health-risk-assessment
#5
Lotfi Rabaoui, Radhouan El Zrelli, Rafik Balti, Lamjed Mansour, Pierre Courjault-Radé, Nabil Daghbouj, Sabiha Tlig-Zouari
Samples of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis were collected from four areas in the Gulf of Gabes, south-eastern Tunisia, and their edible tissues (mantle and arms) were analyzed for cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc. While the concentrations of metals showed significant differences between the sampling sites, no differences were revealed between the tissues of the two species. The spatial distribution of metals analyzed showed similar pattern for both tissues of the two species, with the highest concentrations found in the central area of Gabes Gulf, and the lowest in the northern and/or southern areas...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782082/transcriptome-sequencing-and-de-novo-assembly-of-golden-cuttlefish-sepia-esculenta-hoyle
#6
Changlin Liu, Fazhen Zhao, Jingping Yan, Chunsheng Liu, Siwei Liu, Siqing Chen
Golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta Hoyle is an economically important cephalopod species. However, artificial hatching is currently challenged by low survival rate of larvae due to abnormal embryonic development. Dissecting the genetic foundation and regulatory mechanisms in embryonic development requires genomic background knowledge. Therefore, we carried out a transcriptome sequencing on Sepia embryos and larvae via mRNA-Seq. 32,597,241 raw reads were filtered and assembled into 98,615 unigenes (N50 length at 911 bp) which were annotated in NR database, GO and KEGG databases respectively...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780070/evolution-of-highly-diverse-forms-of-behavior-in-molluscs
#7
Binyamin Hochner, David L Glanzman
Members of the phylum Mollusca demonstrate the animal kingdom's tremendous diversity of body morphology, size and complexity of the nervous system, as well as diversity of behavioral repertoires, ranging from very simple to highly flexible. Molluscs include Solenogastres, with their worm-like bodies and behavior (see phylogenetic tree; Figure 1); Bivalvia (mussels and clams), protected by shells and practically immobile; and the cephalopods, such as the octopus, cuttlefish and squid. The latter are strange-looking animals with nervous systems comprising up to half a billion neurons, which mediate the complex behaviors that characterize these freely moving, highly visual predators...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743236/redescription-of-dicyemennea-eledones-wagener-1857-phylum-dicyemida-from-eledone-cirrhosa-lamarck-1798-mollusca-cephalopoda-octopoda
#8
Dhikra Souidenne, Isabelle Florent, Marc Dellinger, Mohamed Salah Romdhane, Philippe Grellier, Hidetaka Furuya
Dicyemids are common parasites found in the kidneys of many cephalopods. Species identification previously relied on old species descriptions containing considerable confusions, casting doubt on taxonomy and identification. Detailed morphological description and genotyping of all developmental stages are required for an exact taxonomy. To this end, we undertook the redescription of the dicyemid Dicyemennea eledones (Wagener, 1857), infecting the cephalopod Eledone cirrhosa (Lamarck). Samples were collected off Concarneau in the Bay of Biscay, France, and off La Goulette in the Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia...
November 2016: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733834/neuroendocrine-immune-systems-response-to-environmental-stressors-in-the-cephalopod-octopus-vulgaris
#9
Anna Di Cosmo, Gianluca Polese
Under a continuous changing environment, animals are challenged with stresses and stimuli which demanding adaptation at behavioral and physiological levels. The adaptation strategies are finely regulated by animal nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Although it's been established by now the usage of integrative approach to the study the endocrine and nervous systems (neuroendocrine), yet our understanding of how they cooperate with the immune system remains far from complete. The possible role that immune system plays as a component of the network has only been recognized recently...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717573/mercury-in-the-ecosystem-of-admiralty-bay-king-george-island-antarctica-occurrence-and-trophic-distribution
#10
Caio V Z Cipro, Rosalinda C Montone, Paco Bustamante
Mercury (Hg) can reach the environment through natural and human-related sources, threatening ecosystems all over the planet due to its well known deleterious effects. Therefore, Antarctic trophic webs, despite being relatively isolated, are not exempt of its influence. To evaluate Hg concentrations in an Antarctic ecosystem, different tissues from 2 species of invertebrates, 2 of fish, 8 of birds, 4 of pinnipeds and at least 5 of vegetation were investigated (n=176). For animals, values ranged from 0.018 to 48...
October 4, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714785/behavioral-development-in-embryonic-and-early-juvenile-cuttlefish-sepia-officinalis
#11
Caitlin E O'Brien, Nawel Mezrai, Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq, Ludovic Dickel
Though a mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis possesses a sophisticated brain, advanced sensory systems, and a large behavioral repertoire. Cuttlefish provide a unique perspective on animal behavior due to their phylogenic distance from more traditional (vertebrate) models. S. officinalis is well-suited to addressing questions of behavioral ontogeny. As embryos, they can perceive and learn from their environment and experience no direct parental care. A marked progression in learning and behavior is observed during late embryonic and early juvenile development...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708680/the-cephalopod-arm-crown-appendage-formation-and-differentiation-in-the-hawaiian-bobtail-squid-euprymna-scolopes
#12
Marie-Therese Nödl, Alexandra Kerbl, Manfred G Walzl, Gerd B Müller, Heinz Gert de Couet
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods are a highly derived class of molluscs that adapted their body plan to a more active and predatory lifestyle. One intriguing adaptation is the modification of the ventral foot to form a bilaterally symmetric arm crown, which constitutes a true morphological novelty in evolution. In addition, this structure shows many diversifications within the class of cephalopods and therefore offers an interesting opportunity to study the molecular underpinnings of the emergence of phenotypic novelties and their diversification...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708048/cephalopod-susceptibility-to-asphyxiation-via-ocean-incalescence-deoxygenation-and-acidification
#13
Brad A Seibel
Squids are powerful swimmers with high metabolic rates despite constrained oxygen uptake and transport. They have evolved novel physiological strategies for survival in extreme environments that provide insight into their susceptibility to asphyxiation under anthropogenic ocean incalescence (warming), deoxygenation, and acidification. Plasticity of ecological and physiological traits, in conjunction with vertical and latitudinal mobility, may explain their evolutionary persistence and ensure their future survival...
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693688/modular-peptides-from-the-thermoplastic-squid-sucker-ring-teeth-form-amyloid-like-cross-%C3%AE-supramolecular-networks
#14
Shu Hui Hiew, Paul A Guerette, Ondrej J Zvarec, Margaret Phillips, Feng Zhou, Haibin Su, Konstantin Pervushin, Brendan P Orner, Ali Miserez
: The hard sucker ring teeth (SRT) from decapodiforme cephalopods, which are located inside the sucker cups lining the arms and tentacles of these species, have recently emerged as a unique model structure for biomimetic structural biopolymers. SRT are entirely composed of modular, block co-polymer-like proteins that self-assemble into a large supramolecular network. In order to unveil the molecular principles behind SRT's self-assembly and robustness, we describe a combinatorial screening assay that maps the molecular-scale interactions between the most abundant modular peptide blocks of suckerin proteins...
September 29, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672501/comparative-cephalopod-shell-strength-and-the-role-of-septum-morphology-on-stress-distribution
#15
Robert Lemanis, Stefan Zachow, René Hoffmann
The evolution of complexly folded septa in ammonoids has long been a controversial topic. Explanations of the function of these folded septa can be divided into physiological and mechanical hypotheses with the mechanical functions tending to find widespread support. The complexity of the cephalopod shell has made it difficult to directly test the mechanical properties of these structures without oversimplification of the septal morphology or extraction of a small sub-domain. However, the power of modern finite element analysis now permits direct testing of mechanical hypothesis on complete, empirical models of the shells taken from computed tomographic data...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660622/leisingera-sp-jc1-a-bacterial-isolate-from-hawaiian-bobtail-squid-eggs-produces-indigoidine-and-differentially-inhibits-vibrios
#16
Samantha M Gromek, Andrea M Suria, Matthew S Fullmer, Jillian L Garcia, Johann Peter Gogarten, Spencer V Nyholm, Marcy J Balunas
Female members of many cephalopod species house a bacterial consortium in the accessory nidamental gland (ANG), part of the reproductive system. These bacteria are deposited into eggs that are then laid in the environment where they must develop unprotected from predation, pathogens, and fouling. In this study, we characterized the genome and secondary metabolite production of Leisingera sp. JC1, a member of the roseobacter clade (Rhodobacteraceae) of Alphaproteobacteria isolated from the jelly coat of eggs from the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646066/characterization-of-the-adhesive-dermal-secretion-of-euprymna-scolopes-berry-1913-cephalopoda
#17
Janek von Byern, Norbert Cyran, Waltraud Klepal, Marie Therese Nödl, Lisa Klinger
Bio-adhesion is a common and crucial process in nature and is used by several different species for camouflage, prey capture, hatching or to avoid drifting. Four genera of cephalopods belonging to four different families (Euprymna, Sepiolidae; Idiosepius, Idiosepiidae; Nautilus, Nautilidae; and Sepia, Sepiidae) produce glue for temporary attachment. Euprymna species live in near-shore benthic habitats of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, are nocturnal and bury into the seafloor during the day. The animals secrete adhesives through their epithelial glands to completely coat themselves with sand...
August 22, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640955/divergence-of-cryptic-species-of-doryteuthis-plei-blainville-1823-loliginidae-cephalopoda-in-the-western-atlantic-ocean-is-associated-with-the-formation-of-the-caribbean-sea
#18
João Bráullio de L Sales, Luis F da S Rodrigues-Filho, Yrlene do S Ferreira, Jeferson Carneiro, Nils E Asp, Paul W Shaw, Manuel Haimovici, Unai Markaida, Jonathan Ready, Horacio Schneider, Iracilda Sampaio
Although recent years have seen an increase in genetic analyses that identify new species of cephalopods and phylogeographic patterns, the loliginid squid of South America remain one of the least studied groups. The suggestion that Doryteuthis plei may represent distinct lineages within its extensive distribution along the western Atlantic coasts from Cape Hatteras, USA (36°N) to northern Argentina (35°S) is consistent with significant variation in a number of environmental variables along this range including in both temperature and salinity...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629028/comparative-visual-ecology-of-cephalopods-from-different-habitats
#19
Wen-Sung Chung, N Justin Marshall
Previous investigations of vision and visual pigment evolution in aquatic predators have focused on fish and crustaceans, generally ignoring the cephalopods. Since the first cephalopod opsin was sequenced in late 1980s, we now have data on over 50 cephalopod opsins, prompting this functional and phylogenetic examination. Much of this data does not specifically examine the visual pigment spectral absorbance position (λmax) relative to environment or lifestyle, and cephalopod opsin functional adaptation and visual ecology remain largely unknown...
September 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623858/trace-metals-in-target-tissues-and-stomach-contents-of-the-top-predator-sailfish-istiophorus-platypterus-from-the-eastern-pacific-concentrations-and-contrasting-behavior-of-biomagnification
#20
Dalia Moreno-Sierra, Magdalena E Bergés-Tiznado, Fernando Márquez-Farías, Yassir E Torres-Rojas, Jorge R Ruelas-Inzunza, Federico Páez-Osuna
Cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc were analyzed in the dorsal muscle, liver, gonad, and stomach contents of 67 sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, from the Eastern Pacific. Muscle exhibited the following pattern (μg/g wet weight): Zn (15.05 ± 1.24) > Cu (0.461 ± 0.026) > Cd (0.434 ± 0.099) > Pb (0.025 ± 0.001); liver Zn (119.1 ± 7.6) > Cd (95.1 ± 11.0) > Cu (39.7 ± 2.6) > Pb (0.047 ± 0.004); and gonad Zn (96.8 ± 7.8) > Cd (2.16 ± 0.38) > Cu (2...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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