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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333344/the-old-and-the-new-plankton-ecological-replacement-of-associations-of-mollusc-plankton-and-giant-filter-feeders-after-the-cretaceous
#1
Amane Tajika, Alexander Nützel, Christian Klug
Owing to their great diversity and abundance, ammonites and belemnites represented key elements in Mesozoic food webs. Because of their extreme ontogenetic size increase by up to three orders of magnitude, their position in the food webs likely changed during ontogeny. Here, we reconstruct the number of eggs laid by large adult females of these cephalopods and discuss developmental shifts in their ecologic roles. Based on similarities in conch morphology, size, habitat and abundance, we suggest that similar niches occupied in the Cretaceous by juvenile ammonites and belemnites were vacated during the extinction and later partially filled by holoplanktonic gastropods...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326116/behavioural-responses-to-infrasonic-particle-acceleration-in-cuttlefish
#2
Maria Wilson, Jens Ådne Rekkedal Haga, Hans Erik Karlsen
Attacks by aquatic predators generate frontal water disturbances characterised by low-frequency gradients in pressure and particle motion. Low-frequency hearing is highly developed in cephalopods. Thus, we examined behavioural responses in juvenile cuttlefish to infrasonic accelerations mimicking main aspects of the hydrodynamic signals created by predators. In the experimental set-up, animals and their surrounding water moved as a unit to minimise lateral line activation and to allow examination of the contribution by the inner ear...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278693/crustacean-cardioactive-peptides-expression-localization-structure-and-a-possible-involvement-in-regulation-of-egg-laying-in-the-cuttlefish-sepia-officinalis
#3
Maxime Endress, Céline Zatylny-Gaudin, Erwan Corre, Gildas Le Corguillé, Louis Benoist, Jérôme Leprince, Benjamin Lefranc, Benoît Bernay, Alexandre Leduc, Jimmy Rangama, Anne-Gaëlle Lafont, Arnaud Bondon, Joël Henry
The cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) is a cephalopod mollusk distributed on the western European coast, in the West African Ocean and in the Mediterranean Sea. On the Normandy coast (France), cuttlefish is a target species of professional fishermen, so its reproduction strategy is of particular interest in the context of stock management. Egg-laying, which is coastal, is controlled by several types of regulators among which neuropeptides. The cuttlefish neuropeptidome was recently identified by Zatylny-Gaudin et al...
December 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244845/diet-and-stable-isotope-analyses-reveal-the-feeding-ecology-of-the-orangeback-squid-sthenoteuthis-pteropus-steenstrup-1855-mollusca-ommastrephidae-in-the-eastern-tropical-atlantic
#4
Véronique Merten, Bernd Christiansen, Jamileh Javidpour, Uwe Piatkowski, Oscar Puebla, Rebeca Gasca, Henk-Jan T Hoving
In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235521/infrared-actuation-induced-simultaneous-reconfiguration-of-surface-color-and-morphology-for-soft-robotics
#5
Seyedali Banisadr, Jian Chen
Cephalopods, such as cuttlefish, demonstrate remarkable adaptability to the coloration and texture of their surroundings by modulating their skin color and surface morphology simultaneously, for the purpose of adaptive camouflage and signal communication. Inspired by this unique feature of cuttlefish skins, we present a general approach to remote-controlled, smart films that undergo simultaneous changes of surface color and morphology upon infrared (IR) actuation. The smart film has a reconfigurable laminated structure that comprises an IR-responsive nanocomposite actuator layer and a mechanochromic elastomeric photonic crystal layer...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225406/unique-arm-flapping-behavior-of-the-pharaoh-cuttlefish-sepia-pharaonis-putative-mimicry-of-a-hermit-crab
#6
Kohei Okamoto, Haruhiko Yasumuro, Akira Mori, Yuzuru Ikeda
Cephalopods are able to control their arms sophisticatedly and use them for various behaviors, such as camouflage, startling predators and hunting prey. Here, we report a previously undescribed arm-flapping behavior of the pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, observed in captivity. S. pharaonis raised the first pair of arms and wrinkled the parts near the distal end, where the skin color was darkened. Additionally, S. pharaonis spread the second and third pairs of arms and bent them as if they were jointed, and flapped the distal ends...
2017: Journal of Ethology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223596/presence-and-persistence-of-the-amnesic-shellfish-poisoning-toxin-domoic-acid-in-octopus-and-cuttlefish-brains
#7
Vanessa M Lopes, Rui Rosa, Pedro R Costa
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin that causes degenerative damage to brain cells and induces permanent short-term memory loss in mammals. In cephalopod mollusks, although DA is known to accumulate primarily in the digestive gland, there is no knowledge whether DA reaches their central nervous system. Here we report, for the first time, the presence of DA in brain tissue of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), and its absence in the brains of several squid species (Loligo vulgaris, L...
December 5, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212727/deep-pelagic-food-web-structure-as-revealed-by-in-situ-feeding-observations
#8
C Anela Choy, Steven H D Haddock, Bruce H Robison
Food web linkages, or the feeding relationships between species inhabiting a shared ecosystem, are an ecological lens through which ecosystem structure and function can be assessed, and thus are fundamental to informing sustainable resource management. Empirical feeding datasets have traditionally been painstakingly generated from stomach content analysis, direct observations and from biochemical trophic markers (stable isotopes, fatty acids, molecular tools). Each approach carries inherent biases and limitations, as well as advantages...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182635/the-evolution-and-adaptation-of-a-to-i-rna-editing
#9
REVIEW
Arielle L Yablonovitch, Patricia Deng, Dionna Jacobson, Jin Billy Li
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional modification that affects the information encoded from DNA to RNA to protein. RNA editing can generate a multitude of transcript isoforms and can potentially be used to optimize protein function in response to varying conditions. In light of this and the fact that millions of editing sites have been identified in many different species, it is interesting to examine the extent to which these sites have evolved to be functionally important...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146192/calcium-imaging-method-to-visualize-the-spatial-patterns-of-neural-responses-in-the-pygmy-squid-idiosepius-paradoxus-central-nervous-system
#10
Motoki Koizumi, Shuichi Shigeno, Makoto Mizunami, Nobuaki K Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods exhibit unique behaviors such as camouflage and tactile learning. The brain functions correlated to these behaviors have long been analyzed through behavioral observations of animals subject to surgical manipulation or electrical stimulation of brain lobes. However, physiological methods have rarely been introduced to investigate the functions of each individual lobe, though physiological work on giant axons and slices of the vertical lobe system of the cephalopods have provided deep insights into ion conductance of nerves and long-term synaptic plasticity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093799/comparison-of-the-genetic-relationship-between-nine-cephalopod-species-based-on-cluster-analysis-of-karyotype-evolutionary-distance
#11
Jin-Hai Wang, Xiao-Dong Zheng
Karyotype analysis was carried out on gill cells of three species of octopods using a conventional air-drying method. The karyotype results showed that all the three species have the same diploid chromosome number, 2n=60, but with different karyograms as 2n=38M+6SM+8ST+8T, FN (fundamental number)=104 (Cistopus chinensis Zheng et al., 2012), 2n=42M+6SM+4ST+8T, FN=108 (Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920)) and 2n=32M+16SM+12T, FN=108 (Amphioctopus fangsiao (d'Orbigny, 1839-1841)). These findings were combined with data from earlier studies to infer the genetic relationships between nine species via cluster analysis using the karyotype evolutionary distance (De ) and resemblance-near coefficient (λ)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089836/three-new-species-of-heteromysis-mysida-mysidae-heteromysini-from-the-cape-peninsula-south-africa-with-first-documentation-of-a-mysid-cephalopod-association
#12
Karl J Wittmann, Charles L Griffiths
Faunistic studies in sublittoral and littoral marine habitats on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, have yielded three new species belonging to the genus Heteromysis, subgenus Heteromysis: H. cancellisp. n. associated with the diogenid hermit crab Cancellus macrothrix Stebbing, 1924, and H. fosterisp. n. extracted from 'empty' urchin and gastropod shells. The first documented mysid-cephalopod association is reported for H. octopodissp. n. which was found in dens occupied by Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, but was also captured from tide pools...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079225/digestive-enzymes-of-the-californian-two-spot-octopus-octopus-bimaculoides-pickford-and-mcconnaughey-1949
#13
Laura Elizabeth Ibarra-García, Dariel Tovar-Ramírez, Carlos Rosas, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui
Octopus bimaculoides is an important commercially fished species in the California Peninsula with aquaculture potential; however, to date limited information is available regarding its digestive physiology. The objective of this study was focused on biochemically characterizing the main enzymes involved in the digestion of O. bimaculoides. Optimum pH, temperature and thermostability were determined for amylases, lipases, trypsin and chymotrypsin; optimum pH and protease inhibitor effect were assessed for acidic and alkaline proteases, and the effect of divalent ions on trypsin and chymotrypsin activity was evaluated in enzymatic extracts from the digestive (DG) and salivary glands (SG) and crop gastric juices (GJ)...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061985/palaeobiology-of-red-and-white-blood-cell-like-structures-collagen-and-cholesterol-in-an-ichthyosaur-bone
#14
Chloé Plet, Kliti Grice, Anais Pagès, Michael Verrall, Marco J L Coolen, Wolfgang Ruebsam, William D A Rickard, Lorenz Schwark
Carbonate concretions are known to contain well-preserved fossils and soft tissues. Recently, biomolecules (e.g. cholesterol) and molecular fossils (biomarkers) were also discovered in a 380 million-year-old concretion, revealing their importance in exceptional preservation of biosignatures. Here, we used a range of microanalytical techniques, biomarkers and compound specific isotope analyses to report the presence of red and white blood cell-like structures as well as platelet-like structures, collagen and cholesterol in an ichthyosaur bone encapsulated in a carbonate concretion from the Early Jurassic (~182...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048557/linkage-of-a-to-i-rna-editing-in-metazoans-and-the-impact-on-genome-evolution
#15
Yuange Duan, Shengqian Dou, Hong Zhang, Changcheng Wu, Mingming Wu, Jian Lu
The adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editomes have been systematically characterized in various metazoan species, and many editing sites were found in clusters. However, it remains unclear whether the clustered editing sites tend to be linked in the same RNA molecules or not. By adopting a method originally designed to detect linkage disequilibrium of DNA mutations, we examined the editomes of ten metazoan species and detected extensive linkage of editing in Drosophila and cephalopods. The prevalent linkages of editing in these two clades, many of which are conserved between closely related species and might be associated with the adaptive proteomic recoding, are maintained by natural selection at the cost of genome evolution...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044653/morphological-changes-of-the-optic-lobe-from-late-embryonic-to-adult-stages-in-oval-squids-sepioteuthis-lessoniana
#16
Yung-Chieh Liu, Wen-Sung Chung, Chun-Chieh Yu, Su-Ting Hsu, Fung-Lan Chan, Tsung-Han Liu, Chia-Hao Su, Yeukuang Hwu, N Justin Marshall, Chuan-Chin Chiao
The optic lobe is the largest brain area within the central nervous system of cephalopods and it plays important roles in the processing of visual information, the regulation of body patterning, and locomotive behavior. The oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana has relatively large optic lobes that are responsible for visual communication via dynamic body patterning. It has been observed that the visual behaviors of oval squids change as the animals mature, yet little is known about how the structure of the optic lobes changes during development...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040028/elaboration-in-type-primary-structure-and-bioactivity-of-polysaccharides-derived-from-mollusks
#17
Ling Chong Wang, Liu Qing Di, Jun Song Li, Li Hong Hu, Jian Ming Cheng, Hao Wu
Over the past decades, numerous Mollusca species have received more attention in development and utilization as valuable bio-resources. Many efforts have been focused on investigating mollusk polysaccharides because of their rich content, ease of extraction, diversified sorts, specific structure, various biofunctions and potent activities. To date, many mollusks, especially species of gastropods, bivalves, or cephalopods, have been reported containing polysaccharide compounds in tissues with abundant amount, and most of polysaccharides are obtainable through combining techniques of extraction, separation and purification...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034466/biological-observations-on-the-broadfin-shark-lamiopsis-temminckii-carcharhiniformes-carcharhinidae
#18
K V Akhilesh, G B Purushottama, Thakurdas, S J Kizhakudan
Biological information was collected from 214 individuals of the broadfin shark Lamiopsis temminckii measuring 418 to 1782 mm total length, LT . Size at maturity (L50 ) for females and males was estimated at 1430 and 1368 mm LT , respectively, while mature and gravid females were observed from 1350 mm LT with litter sizes 2-8 and size at birth 418-650 mm LT . Analysis of stomach contents revealed a variety of prey, primarily crustaceans (54·0%), teleosts (42·7%) and cephalopods.
October 16, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033169/influence-of-the-submarine-volcanic-eruption-off-el-hierro-canary-islands-on-the-mesopelagic-cephalopod-s-metal-content
#19
Enrique Lozano-Bilbao, Ángel José Gutiérrez, Arturo Hardisson, Carmen Rubio, Dailos González-Weller, Natacha Aguilar, Alejandro Escánez, José María Espinosa, Paula Canales, Gonzalo Lozano
This work investigates whether a submarine volcanic eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 influenced the metal contents of two deep water cephalopod species: Abraliopsis morisii and Pyroteuthis margaritifera. This was assessed by comparing metal contents in specimens collected off the island of El Hierro and in the neighbouring islands of La Palma and Tenerife during an experimental deep water fishing trip. The concentration of 20 heavy metals was analyzed in 180 specimens of A. morisii and P...
October 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026040/stretchable-surfaces-with-programmable-3d-texture-morphing-for-synthetic-camouflaging-skins
#20
J H Pikul, S Li, H Bai, R T Hanlon, I Cohen, R F Shepherd
Technologies that use stretchable materials are increasingly important, yet we are unable to control how they stretch with much more sophistication than inflating balloons. Nature, however, demonstrates remarkable control of stretchable surfaces; for example, cephalopods can project hierarchical structures from their skin in milliseconds for a wide range of textural camouflage. Inspired by cephalopod muscular morphology, we developed synthetic tissue groupings that allowed programmable transformation of two-dimensional (2D) stretchable surfaces into target 3D shapes...
October 13, 2017: Science
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