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Cephalopods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146192/calcium-imaging-method-to-visualize-the-spatial-patterns-of-neural-responses-in-the-pygmy-squid-idiosepius-paradoxus-central-nervous-system
#1
Motoki Koizumi, Shuichi Shigeno, Makoto Mizunami, Nobuaki K Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods exhibit unique behaviors such as camouflage and tactile learning. The brain functions correlated to these behaviors have long been analyzed through behavioral observations of animals subject to surgical manipulation or electrical stimulation of brain lobes. However, physiological methods have rarely been introduced to investigate the functions of each individual lobe, though physiological work on giant axons and slices of the vertical lobe system of the cephalopods have provided deep insights into ion conductance of nerves and long-term synaptic plasticity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093799/comparison-of-the-genetic-relationship-between-nine-cephalopod-species-based-on-cluster-analysis-of-karyotype-evolutionary-distance
#2
Jin-Hai Wang, Xiao-Dong Zheng
Karyotype analysis was carried out on gill cells of three species of octopods using a conventional air-drying method. The karyotype results showed that all the three species have the same diploid chromosome number, 2n=60, but with different karyograms as 2n=38M+6SM+8ST+8T, FN (fundamental number)=104 (Cistopus chinensis Zheng et al., 2012), 2n=42M+6SM+4ST+8T, FN=108 (Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920)) and 2n=32M+16SM+12T, FN=108 (Amphioctopus fangsiao (d'Orbigny, 1839-1841)). These findings were combined with data from earlier studies to infer the genetic relationships between nine species via cluster analysis using the karyotype evolutionary distance (De ) and resemblance-near coefficient (λ)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089836/three-new-species-of-heteromysis-mysida-mysidae-heteromysini-from-the-cape-peninsula-south-africa-with-first-documentation-of-a-mysid-cephalopod-association
#3
Karl J Wittmann, Charles L Griffiths
Faunistic studies in sublittoral and littoral marine habitats on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, have yielded three new species belonging to the genus Heteromysis, subgenus Heteromysis: H. cancellisp. n. associated with the diogenid hermit crab Cancellus macrothrix Stebbing, 1924, and H. fosterisp. n. extracted from 'empty' urchin and gastropod shells. The first documented mysid-cephalopod association is reported for H. octopodissp. n. which was found in dens occupied by Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, but was also captured from tide pools...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079225/digestive-enzymes-of-the-californian-two-spot-octopus-octopus-bimaculoides-pickford-and-mcconnaughey-1949
#4
Laura Elizabeth Ibarra-García, Dariel Tovar-Ramírez, Carlos Rosas, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui
Octopus bimaculoides is an important commercially fished species in the California Peninsula with aquaculture potential; however, to date limited information is available regarding its digestive physiology. The objective of this study was focused on biochemically characterizing the main enzymes involved in the digestion of O. bimaculoides. Optimum pH, temperature and thermostability were determined for amylases, lipases, trypsin and chymotrypsin; optimum pH and protease inhibitor effect were assessed for acidic and alkaline proteases, and the effect of divalent ions on trypsin and chymotrypsin activity was evaluated in enzymatic extracts from the digestive (DG) and salivary glands (SG) and crop gastric juices (GJ)...
October 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061985/palaeobiology-of-red-and-white-blood-cell-like-structures-collagen-and-cholesterol-in-an-ichthyosaur-bone
#5
Chloé Plet, Kliti Grice, Anais Pagès, Michael Verrall, Marco J L Coolen, Wolfgang Ruebsam, William D A Rickard, Lorenz Schwark
Carbonate concretions are known to contain well-preserved fossils and soft tissues. Recently, biomolecules (e.g. cholesterol) and molecular fossils (biomarkers) were also discovered in a 380 million-year-old concretion, revealing their importance in exceptional preservation of biosignatures. Here, we used a range of microanalytical techniques, biomarkers and compound specific isotope analyses to report the presence of red and white blood cell-like structures as well as platelet-like structures, collagen and cholesterol in an ichthyosaur bone encapsulated in a carbonate concretion from the Early Jurassic (~182...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048557/linkage-of-a-to-i-rna-editing-in-metazoans-and-the-impact-on-genome-evolution
#6
Yuange Duan, Shengqian Dou, Hong Zhang, Changcheng Wu, Mingming Wu, Jian Lu
The adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editomes have been systematically characterized in various metazoan species, and many editing sites were found in clusters. However, it remains unclear whether the clustered editing sites tend to be linked in the same RNA molecules or not. By adopting a method originally designed to detect linkage disequilibrium of DNA mutations, we examined the editomes of ten metazoan species and detected extensive linkage of editing in Drosophila and cephalopods. The prevalent linkages of editing in these two clades, many of which are conserved between closely related species and might be associated with the adaptive proteomic recoding, are maintained by natural selection at the cost of genome evolution...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044653/morphological-changes-of-the-optic-lobe-from-late-embryonic-to-adult-stages-in-oval-squids-sepioteuthis-lessoniana
#7
Yung-Chieh Liu, Wen-Sung Chung, Chun-Chieh Yu, Su-Ting Hsu, Fung-Lan Chan, Tsung-Han Liu, Chia-Hao Su, Yeukuang Hwu, N Justin Marshall, Chuan-Chin Chiao
The optic lobe is the largest brain area within the central nervous system of cephalopods and it plays important roles in the processing of visual information, the regulation of body patterning, and locomotive behavior. The oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana has relatively large optic lobes that are responsible for visual communication via dynamic body patterning. It has been observed that the visual behaviors of oval squids change as the animals mature, yet little is known about how the structure of the optic lobes changes during development...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040028/elaboration-in-type-primary-structure-and-bioactivity-of-polysaccharides-derived-from-mollusks
#8
Ling Chong Wang, Liu Qing Di, Jun Song Li, Li Hong Hu, Jian Ming Cheng, Hao Wu
Over the past decades, numerous Mollusca species have received more attention in development and utilization as valuable bio-resources. Many efforts have been focused on investigating mollusk polysaccharides because of their rich content, ease of extraction, diversified sorts, specific structure, various biofunctions and potent activities. To date, many mollusks, especially species of gastropods, bivalves, or cephalopods, have been reported containing polysaccharide compounds in tissues with abundant amount, and most of polysaccharides are obtainable through combining techniques of extraction, separation and purification...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034466/biological-observations-on-the-broadfin-shark-lamiopsis-temminckii-carcharhiniformes-carcharhinidae
#9
K V Akhilesh, G B Purushottama, Thakurdas, S J Kizhakudan
Biological information was collected from 214 individuals of the broadfin shark Lamiopsis temminckii measuring 418 to 1782 mm total length, LT . Size at maturity (L50 ) for females and males was estimated at 1430 and 1368 mm LT , respectively, while mature and gravid females were observed from 1350 mm LT with litter sizes 2-8 and size at birth 418-650 mm LT . Analysis of stomach contents revealed a variety of prey, primarily crustaceans (54·0%), teleosts (42·7%) and cephalopods.
October 16, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033169/influence-of-the-submarine-volcanic-eruption-off-el-hierro-canary-islands-on-the-mesopelagic-cephalopod-s-metal-content
#10
Enrique Lozano-Bilbao, Ángel José Gutiérrez, Arturo Hardisson, Carmen Rubio, Dailos González-Weller, Natacha Aguilar, Alejandro Escánez, José María Espinosa, Paula Canales, Gonzalo Lozano
This work investigates whether a submarine volcanic eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 influenced the metal contents of two deep water cephalopod species: Abraliopsis morisii and Pyroteuthis margaritifera. This was assessed by comparing metal contents in specimens collected off the island of El Hierro and in the neighbouring islands of La Palma and Tenerife during an experimental deep water fishing trip. The concentration of 20 heavy metals was analyzed in 180 specimens of A. morisii and P...
October 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026040/stretchable-surfaces-with-programmable-3d-texture-morphing-for-synthetic-camouflaging-skins
#11
J H Pikul, S Li, H Bai, R T Hanlon, I Cohen, R F Shepherd
Technologies that use stretchable materials are increasingly important, yet we are unable to control how they stretch with much more sophistication than inflating balloons. Nature, however, demonstrates remarkable control of stretchable surfaces; for example, cephalopods can project hierarchical structures from their skin in milliseconds for a wide range of textural camouflage. Inspired by cephalopod muscular morphology, we developed synthetic tissue groupings that allowed programmable transformation of two-dimensional (2D) stretchable surfaces into target 3D shapes...
October 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017074/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-aggregata-spp-frenzel-1885-apicomplexa-aggregatidae-in-octopus-vulgaris-cuvier-1797-mollusca-cephalopoda-from-central-mediterranean
#12
Perla Tedesco, Camino Gestal, Kristina Begić, Ivona Mladineo, Sheila Castellanos-Martínez, Gaetano Catanese, Antonio Terlizzi, Graziano Fiorito
Coccidian parasites of the genus Aggregata are known to parasitize cephalopods as definitive hosts, however one of the genus members, A. octopiana, has shown an unresolved phylogeny within the same definitive host, the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Our study represents a large-scale investigation aimed at characterizing morphological traits and phylogeny of A. octopiana isolated from O. vulgaris inhabiting three distinct geographic areas of the central Mediterranean: The Adriatic, Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas...
September 11, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994612/metal-concentrations-in-samples-of-frozen-cephalopods-cuttlefish-octopus-squid-and-shortfin-squid-an-evaluation-of-dietary-intake
#13
D Sangiuliano, C Rubio, A J Gutiérrez, D González-Weller, C Revert, A Hardisson, E Zanardi, S Paz
Cephalopods are an important source of nutrients and some of the most widely consumed marine foods. However, because of contamination of the oceans and the bioaccumulative nature of toxic metals, these foods may pose a health risk. For this reason, the concentrations of some trace elements (chromium [Cr], lithium, strontium [Sr], copper [Cu], and nickel) and toxic metals (aluminum [Al], cadmium, and lead) were determined in 65 frozen samples of cuttlefish, octopus, common squid, and shortfin squid by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry to evaluate dietary intake and toxic risk...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989097/assessing-the-utility-of-transcriptome-data-for-inferring-phylogenetic-relationships-among-coleoid-cephalopods
#14
Annie R Lindgren, Frank E Anderson
Historically, deep-level relationships within the molluscan class Cephalopoda (squids, cuttlefishes, octopods and their relatives) have remained elusive due in part to the considerable morphological diversity of extant taxa, a limited fossil record for species that lack a calcareous shell and difficulties in sampling open ocean taxa. Many conflicts identified by morphologists in the early 1900s remain unresolved today in spite of advances in morphological, molecular and analytical methods. In this study we assess the utility of transcriptome data for resolving cephalopod phylogeny, with special focus on the orders of Decapodiformes (open-eye squids, bobtail squids, cuttlefishes and relatives)...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968423/advances-in-the-analysis-of-complex-food-matrices-species-identification-in-surimi-based-products-using-next-generation-sequencing-technologies
#15
Alice Giusti, Andrea Armani, Carmen G Sotelo
The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies represent a turning point in the food inspection field, particularly for species identification in matrices composed of a blend of two or more species. In this study NGS technologies were applied by testing the usefulness of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in seafood traceability. Sixteen commercial surimi samples produced both in EU and non-EU countries were analysed. Libraries were prepared using a universal primer pair able to amplify a short 16SrRNA fragment from a wide range of fish and cephalopod species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898600/rapid-associative-learning-and-stable-long-term-memory-in-the-squid-euprymna-scolopes
#16
Emily A Zepeda, Robert J Veline, Robyn J Crook
Learning and memory in cephalopod molluscs have received intensive study because of cephalopods' complex behavioral repertoire and relatively accessible nervous systems. While most of this research has been conducted using octopus and cuttlefish species, there has been relatively little work on squid. Euprymna scolopes Berry, 1913, a sepiolid squid, is a promising model for further exploration of cephalopod cognition. These small squid have been studied in detail for their symbiotic relationship with bioluminescent bacteria, and their short generation time and successful captive breeding through multiple generations make them appealing models for neurobiological research...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889973/origin-of-the-reflectin-gene-and-hierarchical-assembly-of-its-protein
#17
Zhe Guan, Tiantian Cai, Zhongmin Liu, Yunfeng Dou, Xuesong Hu, Peng Zhang, Xin Sun, Hongwei Li, Yao Kuang, Qiran Zhai, Hao Ruan, Xuanxuan Li, Zeyang Li, Qihui Zhu, Jingeng Mai, Qining Wang, Luhua Lai, Jianguo Ji, Haiguang Liu, Bin Xia, Taijiao Jiang, Shu-Jin Luo, Hong-Wei Wang, Can Xie
Cephalopods, the group of animals including octopus, squid, and cuttlefish, have remarkable ability to instantly modulate body coloration and patterns so as to blend into surrounding environments [1, 2] or send warning signals to other animals [3]. Reflectin is expressed exclusively in cephalopods, filling the lamellae of intracellular Bragg reflectors that exhibit dynamic iridescence and structural color change [4]. Here, we trace the possible origin of the reflectin gene back to a transposon from the symbiotic bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and report the hierarchical structural architecture of reflectin protein...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883798/eye-development-in-sepia-officinalis-embryo-what-the-uncommon-gene-expression-profiles-tell-us-about-eye-evolution
#18
Boudjema Imarazene, Aude Andouche, Yann Bassaglia, Pascal-Jean Lopez, Laure Bonnaud-Ponticelli
In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. To approach the evolution of photosensitive structures and visual function, cephalopods are particularly interesting organisms due to their most highly centralized nervous system and their camerular eyes which constitute a convergence with those of vertebrates. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) including pax, six, eya, and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873395/comparing-demersal-megafaunal-species-diversity-along-the-depth-gradient-within-the-south-aegean-and-cretan-seas-eastern-mediterranean
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Panagiota Peristeraki, George Tserpes, Nikolaos Lampadariou, Kostantinos I Stergiou
Knowledge on biodiversity patterns of demersal megafaunal species in the Mediterranean and particularly in its eastern basin is still very scarce. In the present study, fine-scale diversity patterns in relation to depth were analyzed for three major megafaunal groups (fish, cephalopods and crustaceans) in three subareas of the eastern Mediterranean (Crete, Cyclades and Dodecanese islands). The analysis was based on data from the Mediterranean International Trawl Survey conducted during 2005-2014 and the relationship between depth and two different diversity measures (species richness and Shannon-Weaver) was examined using Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM) techniques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861006/cephalopods-as-predators-a-short-journey-among-behavioral-flexibilities-adaptions-and-feeding-habits
#20
REVIEW
Roger Villanueva, Valentina Perricone, Graziano Fiorito
The diversity of cephalopod species and the differences in morphology and the habitats in which they live, illustrates the ability of this class of molluscs to adapt to all marine environments, demonstrating a wide spectrum of patterns to search, detect, select, capture, handle, and kill prey. Photo-, mechano-, and chemoreceptors provide tools for the acquisition of information about their potential preys. The use of vision to detect prey and high attack speed seem to be a predominant pattern in cephalopod species distributed in the photic zone, whereas in the deep-sea, the development of mechanoreceptor structures and the presence of long and filamentous arms are more abundant...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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