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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229261/revision-of-neolebouria-gibson-1976-digenea-opecoelidae-with-trilobovarium-n-g-for-species-infecting-tropical-and-subtropical-shallow-water-fishes
#1
Storm B Martin, Scott C Cutmore, Thomas H Cribb
A new opecoelid trematode is reported from fishes of the Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae and Nemipteridae off Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The new species keys to Neolebouria Gibson, 1976 and shows strong similarity to several species of that genus, but is not consistent with the type-species, N. georgiensis Gibson, 1976, or others known from temperate/polar and/or deep-sea fishes. The new species is also phylogenetically distant from N. lanceolata (Price, 1934) Reimer, 1987, the only representative of the genus for which molecular data are available...
February 22, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220075/visual-equivalence-and-amodal-completion-in-cuttlefish
#2
I-Rong Lin, Chuan-Chin Chiao
Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218427/two-vitellogenins-in-the-loliginid-squid-uroteuthis-edulis-identification-and-specific-expression-in-ovarian-follicles
#3
Hajime Kitano, Naoki Nagano, Keishi Sakaguchi, Michiya Matsuyama
Vitellogenenesis is a physiological process common in oviparous animals. The molecular profile, modifications, and utilization of vitellogenin (VTG), a precursor of yolk protein, have been characterized in various taxa to understand oogenesis within different modes of reproduction. Hormonal regulation of VTGs has been investigated in invertebrates, such as insects and crustaceans; conversely, little is known for cephalopods. In this study, we isolated two VTG genes (ue-VTG1 and ue-VTG2) from the loliginid swordtip squid, Uroteuthis edulis, via a comprehensive survey of a transcriptome database and subsequent cDNA cloning...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214715/metal-bioaccumulation-and-detoxification-processes-in-cephalopods-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Virginie Penicaud, Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe, Paco Bustamante
In recent decades, cephalopods have been shown to have very high capacities to accumulate most trace elements, regardless of whether they are essential (e.g., Cu and Zn) or non-essential (e.g., Ag and Cd). Among the different pathways of exposure to trace elements, the trophic pathway appears to be the major route of assimilation for numerous metals, including Cd, Co, Hg and Zn. Once assimilated, trace elements are distributed in the organism, accumulating in storage organs. The digestive gland is the main organ in which many trace elements accumulate, whichever of the exposure pathway...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123096/deep-conservation-of-bivalve-nacre-proteins-highlighted-by-shell-matrix-proteomics-of-the-unionoida-elliptio-complanata-and-villosa-lienosa
#5
Benjamin Marie, Jaison Arivalagan, Lucrèce Mathéron, Gérard Bolbach, Sophie Berland, Arul Marie, Frédéric Marin
The formation of the molluscan shell nacre is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell-forming tissue, the mantle. This so-called 'calcifying matrix' is a complex mixture of proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. Better molecular-level characterization of the substances that regulate nacre formation is still required. Notable advances in expressed tag sequencing of freshwater mussels, such as Elliptio complanata and Villosa lienosa, provide a pre-requisite to further characterize bivalve nacre proteins by a proteomic approach...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123014/mosaic-organization-of-body-pattern-control-in-the-optic-lobe-of-squids
#6
Tsung-Han Liu, Chuan-Chin Chiao
: Cephalopods in nature undergo highly dynamic skin coloration changes that allow rapid camouflage and intraspecies communication. The optic lobe is thought to play a key role in controlling the expansion of the chromatophores that generate these diverse body patterns. However, the functional organization of the optic lobe and neural control of the various body patterns by the optic lobe are largely unknown. We applied electrical stimulation within the optic lobe to investigate the neural basis of body patterning in the oval squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana Most areas in the optic lobe mediated predominately ipsilateral expansion of chromatophores present on the mantle, but not on the head and arms; furthermore, the expanded areas after electrical stimulation were positively correlated with an increase in stimulating voltage and stimulation depth...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098211/deep-sea-crustacean-trawling-fisheries-in-portugal-quantification-of-effort-and-assessment-of-landings-per-unit-effort-using-a-vessel-monitoring-system-vms
#7
Juan Bueno-Pardo, Sofia P Ramalho, Ana García-Alegre, Mariana Morgado, Rui P Vieira, Marina R Cunha, Henrique Queiroga
Mapping and quantifying bottom trawling fishing pressure on the seafloor is pivotal to understand its effects on deep-sea benthic habitats. Using data from the Vessel Monitoring System of crustacean trawlers along the Portuguese margin, we have identified the most exploited areas and characterized the most targeted habitats and water depths. We estimated a total trawling effort of 69596, 66766, and 63427 h y(-1) for the years 2012, 2013, and 2014 respectively which, considering the total landings estimated for this gear, yield values of 20...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074858/traces-of-an-ancient-immune-system-how-an-injured-arthropod-survived-465-million-years-ago
#8
Brigitte Schoenemann, Euan N K Clarkson, Magne Høyberget
This report of a severely injured trilobite from the Middle Ordovician (~465 Ma) accords with a number of similar observations of healed lesions observed in trilobites. The uniqueness of the specimen described here is that the character of the repair-mechanisms is reflected by the secondarily built structures, which form the new surface of the ruptured compound eye. Smooth, repaired areas inside the visual surface advert to a clotting principle, rather similar to those of today, and the way in which broken parts of the exoskeleton fused during restoration seem to simulate modern samples...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048953/a-multifunction-muscle-in-squid
#9
Joseph T Thompson, Scott M Lavalva, Matthew M Loiacono
Some striated muscles are multifunctional; they serve several different roles during locomotion and movement, including acting as motors, brakes, struts, or springs. The few multifunctional muscles that have been reported occur in the cross-striated muscles of animals with complex, jointed, skeletal support systems. In the comparatively simple muscular system of a cephalopod mollusc, we identified an obliquely striated muscle, the nuchal retractor muscle, which appears to be multifunctional. The nuchal retractor is composed of two different fiber types, mitochondria-rich (MR) and mitochondria-poor (MP) fibers; shortening of these fibers retracts the head toward the mantle...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009511/color-richness-in-cephalopod-chromatophores-originating-from-high-refractive-index-biomolecules
#10
Sean R Dinneen, Richard M Osgood, Margaret E Greenslade, Leila F Deravi
Cephalopods are arguably one of the most photonically sophisticated marine animals, as they can rapidly adapt their dermal color and texture to their surroundings using both structural and pigmentary coloration. Their chromatophore organs facilitate this process, but the molecular mechanism potentiating color change is not well understood. We hypothesize that the pigments, which are localized within nanostructured granules in the chromatophore, enhance the scattering of light within the dermal tissue. To test this, we extracted the phenoxazone-based pigments from the chromatophore and extrapolated their complex refractive index (RI) from experimentally determined real and approximated imaginary portions of the RI...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000727/evidence-of-cnidarians-sensitivity-to-sound-after-exposure-to-low-frequency-noise-underwater-sources
#11
Marta Solé, Marc Lenoir, José Manuel Fontuño, Mercè Durfort, Mike van der Schaar, Michel André
Jellyfishes represent a group of species that play an important role in oceans, particularly as a food source for different taxa and as a predator of fish larvae and planktonic prey. The massive introduction of artificial sound sources in the oceans has become a concern to science and society. While we are only beginning to understand that non-hearing specialists like cephalopods can be affected by anthropogenic noises and regulation is underway to measure European water noise levels, we still don't know yet if the impact of sound may be extended to other lower level taxa of the food web...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974532/can-invertebrates-see-the-e-vector-of-polarization-as-a-separate-modality-of-light
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Labhart
The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a manner similar to that of humans perceiving spectral stimuli as specific hues...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973587/how-elephant-seals-mirounga-leonina-adjust-their-fine-scale-horizontal-movement-and-diving-behaviour-in-relation-to-prey-encounter-rate
#13
Yves Le Bras, Joffrey Jouma'a, Baptiste Picard, Christophe Guinet
Understanding the diving behaviour of diving predators in relation to concomitant prey distribution could have major practical applications in conservation biology by allowing the assessment of how changes in fine scale prey distribution impact foraging efficiency and ultimately population dynamics. The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina, hereafter SES), the largest phocid, is a major predator of the southern ocean feeding on myctophids and cephalopods. Because of its large size it can carry bio-loggers with minimal disturbance...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927699/mosaic-organization-of-body-pattern-control-in-the-optic-lobe-of-squids
#14
Tsung-Han Liu, Chuan-Chin Chiao
: Cephalopods in nature undergo highly dynamic skin coloration changes that allow rapid camouflage and intra-species communication. The optic lobe is thought to play a key role in controlling the expansion of the chromatophores that generate these diverse body patterns. However, the functional organization of the optic lobe and neural control of the various body patterns by the optic lobe are largely unknown. We applied electrical stimulation within the optic lobe to investigate the neural basis of body patterning in the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana Most areas in the optic lobe mediated predominately ipsilateral expansion of chromatophores present on the mantle but not on the head and arms; furthermore, the expanded areas after electrical stimulation were positively correlated with an increase in stimulating voltage and stimulation depth...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921363/morphomechanics-and-developmental-constraints-in-the-evolution-of-ammonites-shell-form
#15
Alexander Erlich, Derek E Moulton, Alain Goriely, Regis Chirat
The idea that physical processes involved in biological development underlie morphogenetic rules and channel morphological evolution has been central to the rise of evolutionary developmental biology. Here, we explore this idea in the context of seashell morphogenesis. We show that a morphomechanical model predicts the effects of variations in shell shape on the ornamental pattern in ammonites, a now extinct group of cephalopods with external chambered shell. Our model shows that several seemingly unrelated characteristics of synchronous, ontogenetic, intraspecific, and evolutionary variations in ornamental patterns among various ammonite species may all be understood from the fact that the mechanical forces underlying the oscillatory behavior of the shell secreting system scale with the cross-sectional curvature of the shell aperture...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911390/a-method-for-extracting-pigments-from-squid-doryteuthis-pealeii
#16
Christopher W DiBona, Thomas L Williams, Sean R Dinneen, Stephanie F Jones Labadie, Leila F Deravi
Cephalopods can undergo rapid and adaptive changes in dermal coloration for sensing, communication, defense, and reproduction purposes. These capabilities are supported in part by the areal expansion and retraction of pigmented organs known as chromatophores. While it is known that the chromatophores contain a tethered network of pigmented granules, their structure-function properties have not been fully detailed. We describe a method for isolating the nanostructured granules in squid Doryteuthis pealeii chromatophores and demonstrate how their associated pigments can be extracted in acidic solvents...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901505/first-isolation-of-miamiensis-avidus-ciliophora-scuticociliatida-associated-with-skin-ulcers-from-reared-pharaoh-cuttlefish-sepia-pharaonis
#17
Zhen Tao, Lu Liu, Xiangrui Chen, Suming Zhou, Guoliang Wang
In the winter of 2015, a skin ulcer disease outbreak occurred in a pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis population cultured on a land-based fish farm in China. Affected cuttlefish (about 60% of the population) were characterized as having developed ulcers on the dorsal skin, fin fringe, or distal mantle tip. Masses of a ciliated protozoan were isolated from skin ulcers. The ciliate was identified as Miamiensis avidus based on the morphological features of living and protargol-impregnated specimens. This identification was also supported by high sequence similarity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (100%) and another ribosomal DNA region (including the 2 internal transcribed spacers and the 5...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832738/comparative-transcriptomics-enlarges-the-toolkit-of-known-developmental-genes-in-mollusks
#18
A L De Oliveira, T Wollesen, A Kristof, M Scherholz, E Redl, C Todt, C Bleidorn, A Wanninger
BACKGROUND: Mollusks display a striking morphological disparity, including, among others, worm-like animals (the aplacophorans), snails and slugs, bivalves, and cephalopods. This phenotypic diversity renders them ideal for studies into animal evolution. Despite being one of the most species-rich phyla, molecular and in silico studies concerning specific key developmental gene families are still scarce, thus hampering deeper insights into the molecular machinery that governs the development and evolution of the various molluscan class-level taxa...
November 10, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829039/early-mode-of-life-and-hatchling-size-in-cephalopod-molluscs-influence-on-the-species-distributional-ranges
#19
Roger Villanueva, Erica A G Vidal, Fernando Á Fernández-Álvarez, Jaruwat Nabhitabhata
Cephalopods (nautiluses, cuttlefishes, squids and octopuses) exhibit direct development and display two major developmental modes: planktonic and benthic. Planktonic hatchlings are small and go through some degree of morphological changes during the planktonic phase, which can last from days to months, with ocean currents enhancing their dispersal capacity. Benthic hatchlings are usually large, miniature-like adults and have comparatively reduced dispersal potential. We examined the relationship between early developmental mode, hatchling size and species latitudinal distribution range of 110 species hatched in the laboratory, which represent 13% of the total number of live cephalopod species described to date...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796978/metal-bioaccumulation-in-two-edible-cephalopods-in-the-gulf-of-gabes-south-eastern-tunisia-environmental-and-human-health-risk-assessment
#20
Lotfi Rabaoui, Radhouan El Zrelli, Rafik Balti, Lamjed Mansour, Pierre Courjault-Radé, Nabil Daghbouj, Sabiha Tlig-Zouari
Samples of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis were collected from four areas in the Gulf of Gabes, south-eastern Tunisia, and their edible tissues (mantle and arms) were analyzed for cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc. While the concentrations of metals showed significant differences between the sampling sites, no differences were revealed between the tissues of the two species. The spatial distribution of metals analyzed showed similar pattern for both tissues of the two species, with the highest concentrations found in the central area of Gabes Gulf, and the lowest in the northern and/or southern areas...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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