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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627384/cadherin-genes-and-evolutionary-novelties-in-the-octopus
#1
REVIEW
Z Yan Wang, Clifton W Ragsdale
All animals with large brains must have molecular mechanisms to regulate neuronal process outgrowth and prevent neurite self-entanglement. In vertebrates, two major gene families implicated in these mechanisms are the clustered protocadherins and the atypical cadherins. However, the molecular mechanisms utilized in complex invertebrate brains, such as those of the cephalopods, remain largely unknown. Recently, we identified protocadherins and atypical cadherins in the octopus. The octopus protocadherin expansion shares features with the mammalian clustered protocadherins, including enrichment in neural tissues, clustered head-to-tail orientations in the genome, and a large first exon encoding all cadherin domains...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620831/cephalopod-biology-and-care-a-cost-fa1301-cephsinaction-training-school-anaesthesia-and-scientific-procedures
#2
Vanessa M Lopes, Eduardo Sampaio, Katina Roumbedakis, Nobuaki K Tanaka, Lucía Carulla, Guillermo Gambús, Theodosia Woo, Catarina P P Martins, Virginie Penicaud, Colette Gibbings, Jessica Eberle, Perla Tedesco, Isabel Fernández, Tania Rodríguez-González, Pamela Imperadore, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito
Cephalopods are the sole invertebrates included in the list of regulated species following the Directive 2010/63/EU. According to the Directive, achieving competence through adequate training is a requisite for people having a role in the different functions (article 23) as such carrying out procedures on animals, designing procedures and projects, taking care of animals, killing animals. Cephalopod Biology and Care Training Program is specifically designed to comply with the requirements of the "working document on the development of a common education and training framework to fulfil the requirements under the Directive 2010/63/EU"...
September 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620313/digestive-physiology-of-octopus-maya-and-o-mimus-temporality-of-digestion-and-assimilation-processes
#3
REVIEW
Pedro Gallardo, Alberto Olivares, Rosario Martínez-Yáñez, Claudia Caamal-Monsreal, Pedro M Domingues, Maite Mascaró, Ariadna Sánchez, Cristina Pascual, Carlos Rosas
Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although, there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on Octopus vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of Octopus maya and Octopus mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22-30°C) and sub-tropical (15-24°C) ecosystems, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619362/peroxiredoxin-1-from-cuttlefish-sepiella-maindroni-molecular-characterization-of-development-and-its-immune-response-against-vibrio-alginolyticus
#4
Weiwei Song, Changkao Mu, Ronghua Li, Chunlin Wang
The aim of this work was constructive to understand the function of peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family member Peroxiredoxin 1 in Sepiella maindroni (SmPrx1) through molecular mechanisms of reproduction, embryonic development and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus. The full-length cDNA of SmPrx1 was of 1062 bp, contains a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 79bp, a 3' UTR of 359 bp, an open reading frame of 624 bp encoding 207 amino acids. The conserved peroxidase catalytic center "FYPLDFTFVCPTEI" and "GEVCPA" were observed in the sequence of SmPrx1; this indicated that it was a member of 2-Cys Prx...
June 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604648/prevalence-variability-and-bioconcentration-of-saxitoxin-group-in-different-marine-species-present-in-the-food-chain
#5
Javiera Oyaneder Terrazas, Héctor R Contreras, Carlos García
The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs)...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596735/diet-composition-and-variability-of-wild-octopus-vulgaris-and-alloteuthis-media-cephalopoda-paralarvae-a-metagenomic-approach
#6
Lorena Olmos-Pérez, Álvaro Roura, Graham J Pierce, Stéphane Boyer, Ángel F González
The high mortality of cephalopod early stages is the main bottleneck to grow them from paralarvae to adults in culture conditions, probably because the inadequacy of the diet that results in malnutrition. Since visual analysis of digestive tract contents of paralarvae provides little evidence of diet composition, the use of molecular tools, particularly next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, offers an alternative to understand prey preferences and nutrient requirements of wild paralarvae. In this work, we aimed to determine the diet of paralarvae of the loliginid squid Alloteuthis media and to enhance the knowledge of the diet of recently hatched Octopus vulgaris paralarvae collected in different areas and seasons in an upwelling area (NW Spain)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581017/revisiting-the-genus-photobacterium-taxonomy-ecology-and-pathogenesis
#7
Alejandro M Labella, David R Arahal, Dolores Castro, Manuel L Lemos, Juan J Borrego
The genus Photobacterium, one of the eight genera included in the family Vibrionaceae, contains 27 species with valid names and it has received attention because of the bioluminescence and pathogenesis mechanisms that some of its species exhibit. However, the taxonomy and phylogeny of this genus are not completely elucidated; for example, P. logei and P. fischeri are now considered members of the genus Aliivibrio, and previously were included in the genus Vibrio. In addition, P. damselae subsp. piscicida was formed as a new combination for former Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida...
March 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560755/cephalopod-embryonic-shells-as-a-tool-to-reconstruct-reproductive-strategies-in-extinct-taxa
#8
Vladimir Laptikhovsky, Svetlana Nikolaeva, Mikhail Rogov
An exhaustive study of existing data on the relationship between egg size and maximum size of embryonic shells in 42 species of extant cephalopods demonstrated that these values are approximately equal regardless of taxonomy and shell morphology. Egg size is also approximately equal to mantle length of hatchlings in 45 cephalopod species with rudimentary shells. Paired data on the size of the initial chamber versus embryonic shell in 235 species of Ammonoidea, 46 Bactritida, 13 Nautilida, 22 Orthocerida, 8 Tarphycerida, 4 Oncocerida, 1 Belemnoidea, 4 Sepiida and 1 Spirulida demonstrated that, although there is a positive relationship between these parameters in some taxa, initial chamber size cannot be used to predict egg size in extinct cephalopods; the size of the embryonic shell may be more appropriate for this task...
May 30, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558278/mayfly-and-fish-species-identification-and-sex-determination-in-bleak-alburnus-alburnus-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#9
G Maasz, P Takács, P Boda, G Varbiro, Z Pirger
Besides food quality control of fish or cephalopods, the novel mass spectrometry (MS) approaches could be effective and beneficial methods for the investigation of biodiversity in ecological research. Our aims were to verify the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS in the rapid identification of closely related species, and to further develop it for sex determination in phenotypically similar fish focusing on the low mass range. For MALDI-TOF MS spectra analysis, ClinProTools software was applied, but our observed classification was also confirmed by Self Organizing Map...
May 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555185/molecular-determinants-of-cephalopod-muscles-and-their-implication-in-muscle-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Letizia Zullo, Sara M Fossati, Pamela Imperadore, Marie-Therese Nödl
The ability to regenerate whole-body structures has been studied for many decades and is of particular interest for stem cell research due to its therapeutic potential. Several vertebrate and invertebrate species have been used as model systems to study pathways involved in regeneration in the past. Among invertebrates, cephalopods are considered as highly evolved organisms, which exhibit elaborate behavioral characteristics when compared to other mollusks including active predation, extraordinary manipulation, and learning abilities...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473775/the-role-of-the-cephalopod-digestive-gland-in-the-storage-and-detoxification-of-marine-pollutants
#11
REVIEW
Ana P Rodrigo, Pedro M Costa
The relevance of cephalopods for fisheries and even aquaculture, is raising concerns on the relationship between these molluscs and environmental stressors, from climate change to pollution. However, how these organisms cope with environmental toxicants is far less understood than for other molluscs, especially bivalves, which are frontline models in aquatic toxicology. Although, sharing the same basic body plan, cephalopods hold distinct adaptations, often unique, as they are active predators with high growth and metabolic rates...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462204/analysis-of-provincial-and-municipal-regulations-governing-crustacean-welfare-in-italy
#12
Gaetano Liuzzo, Roberto Rossi, Federica Giacometti, Giulia Mescolini, Silvia Piva, Andrea Serraino
The trade in live crustaceans implies keeping these animals alive after capture and/or farming until purchase by the final consumer. Regarding animal welfare, the European Union includes cephalopods in Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, but there are no further regulations on crustaceans in EU legislation. The present study analysed the provisions of Italian municipal regulations on animal welfare applicable to crustaceans. Only 62 of the 110 municipal websites of the provincial capitals reported a regulation safeguarding animal welfare...
January 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425503/nerve-degeneration-and-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-the-case-of-the-pallial-nerve
#13
Pamela Imperadore, Sameer B Shah, Helen P Makarenkova, Graziano Fiorito
Regeneration is a process that restores structure and function of tissues damaged by injury or disease. In mammals complete regeneration is often unsuccessful, while most of the low phyla animals can re-grow many parts of their body after amputation. Cephalopod molluscs, and in particular Octopus vulgaris, are well known for their capacity to regenerate their arms and other body parts, including central and peripheral nervous system. To better understand the mechanism of recovery following nerve injury in this species we investigated the process of axon regrowth and nerve regeneration after complete transection of the Octopus pallial nerves...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420879/evolutionary-genetics-fantastic-beasts-cephalopod-rna-recoding
#14
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401960/sperm-whale-long-range-echolocation-sounds-revealed-by-antares-a-deep-sea-neutrino-telescope
#15
M André, A Caballé, M van der Schaar, A Solsona, L Houégnigan, S Zaugg, A M Sánchez, J V Castell, M Solé, F Vila, D Djokic, S Adrián-Martínez, A Albert, M Anghinolfi, G Anton, M Ardid, J-J Aubert, T Avgitas, B Baret, J Barrios-Martí, S Basa, V Bertin, S Biagi, R Bormuth, M C Bouwhuis, R Bruijn, J Brunner, J Busto, A Capone, L Caramete, J Carr, S Celli, T Chiarusi, M Circella, A Coleiro, R Coniglione, H Costantini, P Coyle, A Creusot, A Deschamps, G De Bonis, C Distefano, I Di Palma, C Donzaud, D Dornic, D Drouhin, T Eberl, I El Bojaddaini, D Elsässer, A Enzenhöfer, K Fehn, I Felis, L A Fusco, S Galatà, P Gay, S Geißelsöder, K Geyer, V Giordano, A Gleixner, H Glotin, R Gracia-Ruiz, K Graf, S Hallmann, H van Haren, A J Heijboer, Y Hello, J J Hernandez-Rey, J Hößl, J Hofestädt, C Hugon, G Illuminati, C W James, M de Jong, M Jongen, M Kadler, O Kalekin, U Katz, D Kießling, A Kouchner, M Kreter, I Kreykenbohm, V Kulikovskiy, C Lachaud, R Lahmann, D Lefèvre, E Leonora, S Loucatos, M Marcelin, A Margiotta, A Marinelli, J A Martínez-Mora, A Mathieu, K Melis, T Michael, P Migliozzi, A Moussa, C Mueller, E Nezri, G E Păvălaş, C Pellegrino, C Perrina, P Piattelli, V Popa, T Pradier, C Racca, G Riccobene, K Roensch, M Saldaña, D F E Samtleben, M Sanguineti, P Sapienza, J Schnabel, F Schüssler, T Seitz, C Sieger, M Spurio, Th Stolarczyk, A Sánchez-Losa, M Taiuti, A Trovato, M Tselengidou, D Turpin, C Tönnis, B Vallage, C Vallée, V Van Elewyck, D Vivolo, S Wagner, J Wilms, J D Zornoza, J Zuñiga
Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388405/trade-off-between-transcriptome-plasticity-and-genome-evolution-in-cephalopods
#16
Noa Liscovitch-Brauer, Shahar Alon, Hagit T Porath, Boaz Elstein, Ron Unger, Tamar Ziv, Arie Admon, Erez Y Levanon, Joshua J C Rosenthal, Eli Eisenberg
RNA editing, a post-transcriptional process, allows the diversification of proteomes beyond the genomic blueprint; however it is infrequently used among animals for this purpose. Recent reports suggesting increased levels of RNA editing in squids thus raise the question of the nature and effects of these events. We here show that RNA editing is particularly common in behaviorally sophisticated coleoid cephalopods, with tens of thousands of evolutionarily conserved sites. Editing is enriched in the nervous system, affecting molecules pertinent for excitability and neuronal morphology...
April 6, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378762/offshore-exposure-experiments-on-cuttlefish-indicate-received-sound-pressure-and-particle-motion-levels-associated-with-acoustic-trauma
#17
Marta Solé, Peter Sigray, Marc Lenoir, Mike van der Schaar, Emilia Lalander, Michel André
Recent findings on cephalopods in laboratory conditions showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the statocyst, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The question remained about the contribution of the consequent near-field particle motion influence from the tank walls, to the triggering of the trauma. Offshore noise controlled exposure experiments (CEE) on common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), were conducted at three different depths and distances from the source and particle motion and sound pressure measurements were performed at each location...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373845/perfused-gills-reveal-fundamental-principles-of-ph-regulation-and-ammonia-homeostasis-in-the-cephalopod-octopus-vulgaris
#18
Marian Y Hu, Po-Hsuan Sung, Ying-Jey Guh, Jay-Ron Lee, Pung-Pung Hwang, Dirk Weihrauch, Yung-Che Tseng
In contrast to terrestrial animals most aquatic species can be characterized by relatively higher blood [Formula: see text] concentrations despite its potential toxicity to the central nervous system. Although many aquatic species excrete [Formula: see text] via specialized epithelia little information is available regarding the mechanistic basis for NH3/[Formula: see text] homeostasis in molluscs. Using perfused gills of Octopus vulgaris we studied acid-base regulation and ammonia excretion pathways in this cephalopod species...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372850/effects-of-prey-characteristics-on-the-feeding-behaviors-of-an-apex-marine-predator-the-california-moray-gymnothorax-mordax
#19
Amber R Diluzio, Vikram B Baliga, Benjamin A Higgins, Rita S Mehta
Moray eels comprise a large radiation of elongate marine predators that are thought to swallow large prey whole but also circumvent gape constraints by manipulating prey into more manageable pieces. Prey manipulation behaviors include shaking, rotation, knotting, and ramming prey against another object to assist in swallowing. Most morays feed on a wide variety of prey that vary in mechanical properties such as stiffness and toughness, which could potentially affect feeding behaviors. There is little diet data informing us of the maximum prey size morays can swallow whole and whether maximum prey size differs between prey types...
March 8, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347904/bioaccumulation-and-biomagnification-of-ultraviolet-absorbents-in-marine-wildlife-of-the-pearl-river-estuarine-south-china-sea
#20
Xianzhi Peng, Yujuan Fan, Jiabin Jin, Songsong Xiong, Jun Liu, Caiming Tang
Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in ecosystems is an important criterion for assessing environmental risks of contaminants. This study investigated bioaccumulation and biomagnification of 13 organic ultraviolet absorbents (UVAs) in marine wildlife organisms in the Pearl River Estuary, South China Sea. The UVAs could accumulate in the organisms with biota - sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) of 0.003-2.152. UV531 was the most abundant and showed the highest tendency to accumulate in the organisms with a median BSAF of 1...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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