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Lesley W Chan, Daniel E Morse, Michael J Gordon
Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g., insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes...
March 16, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Edward J Steele, Shirwan Al-Mufti, Kenneth A Augustyn, Rohana Chandrajith, John P Coghlan, S G Coulson, Sudipto Ghosh, Mark Gillman, Reginald M Gorczynski, Brig Klyce, Godfrey Louis, Kithsiri Mahanama, Keith R Oliver, Julio Padron, Jiangwen Qu, John A Schuster, W E Smith, Duane P Snyder, Julian A Steele, Brent J Stewart, Robert Temple, Gensuke Tokoro, Christopher A Tout, Alexander Unzicker, Milton Wainwright, Jamie Wallis, Daryl H Wallis, Max K Wallis, John Wetherall, D T Wickramasinghe, J T Wickramasinghe, N Chandra Wickramasinghe, Yongsheng Liu
We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H- W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Hanna M Butler-Struben, Samantha M Brophy, Nasira A Johnson, Robyn J Crook
Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Matthias Eggel, Herwig Grimm
Directive 2010/63/EU (henceforth "Directive") on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes mandates that every project proposal in EU member states involving procedures on living non-human vertebrates and cephalopods has to be approved in an review process, including a harm-benefit-analysis (HBA), to assess "whether the harm to the animals in terms of suffering, pain and distress is justified by the expected outcome taking into account ethical consideration and may ultimately benefit human beings, animals or the environment"...
February 28, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Aytube Lucas Coaglio, Mônica Alves Neves Diniz Ferreira, Walter Dos Santos Lima, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus Pereira
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus vasorum has different freshwater aquatic and terrestrial gastropod molluscs as an intermediate host, e.g. Arion spp. The mollusc Achatina fulica is a danger to public health, given the large diversity of nematodes utilizing it as an intermediate host, such as the parasites of the genus Angiostrongylus, of importance in human and veterinary medicine. Achatina fulica has been shown to have an excellent capacity for maintaining outbreaks and natural infections with A...
February 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Chenyang Li, Greta Gölz, Thomas Alter, Andrea Barac, Stefan Hertwig, Carolin Riedel
Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic enteropathogenic bacterium that can cause acute gastroenteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Although Y. enterocolitica is common in animals, food, and the environment, the reservoirs and transmission routes of this pathogen are still not fully understood. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in seafood in Germany, because only limited data are available on that topic. Seafood samples were purchased from retail shops in Berlin, Germany and examined for the presence of Y...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Fernando Á Fernández-Álvarez, Annie Machordom, Ricardo García-Jiménez, César A Salinas-Zavala, Roger Villanueva
Cephalopods are primarily active predators throughout life. Flying squids (family Ommastrephidae) represents the most widely distributed and ecologically important family of cephalopods. While the diets of adult flying squids have been extensively studied, the first feeding diet of early paralarvae remains a mystery. The morphology of this ontogenetic stage notably differs from other cephalopod paralarvae, suggesting a different feeding strategy. Here, a combination of Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) and DNA metabarcoding of wild-collected paralarvae gut contents for eukaryotic 18S v9 and prokaryotic 16S rRNA was applied, covering almost every life domain...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jacob E Lerner, Kathryn Ono, Keith M Hernandez, Jonathan A Runstadler, Wendy B Puryear, Michael J Polito
Gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) have been rapidly recolonizing the Northeast US coast, eliciting concern from the fishing industry. However, the ecological effect of this recovery is still unknown and as such, research is needed to better understand how the diet composition of gray seals in US waters will contribute to the ecological impact. While previous research on seal diets has focused on the analysis of hard prey remains, stable isotope analysis presents an alternative method that can be used to describe marine mammal diets when direct observation is impossible...
2018: PloS One
Blake L Spady, Philip L Munday, Sue-Ann Watson
There is increasing evidence that projected near-future carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels can alter predator avoidance behaviour in marine invertebrates, yet little is known about the possible effects on predatory behaviours. Here we tested the effects of elevated CO2 on the predatory behaviours of two ecologically distinct cephalopod species, the pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus, and the bigfin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana. Both species exhibited an increased latency to attack and altered body-pattern choice during the attack sequence at elevated CO2 ...
February 20, 2018: Global Change Biology
Gustavo Sanchez, Davin H E Setiamarga, Surangkana Tuanapaya, Kittichai Tongtherm, Inger E Winkelmann, Hannah Schmidbaur, Tetsuya Umino, Caroline Albertin, Louise Allcock, Catalina Perales-Raya, Ian Gleadall, Jan M Strugnell, Oleg Simakov, Jaruwat Nabhitabhata
Comprising more than 800 extant species, the class Cephalopoda (octopuses, squid, cuttlefish, and nautiluses) is a fascinating group of marine conchiferan mollusks. Recently, the first cephalopod genome (of Octopus bimaculoides ) was published, providing a genomic framework, which will enable more detailed investigations of cephalopod characteristics, including developmental, morphological, and behavioural traits. Meanwhile, a robust phylogeny of the members of the subclass Coleoidea (octopuses, squid, cuttlefishes) is crucial for comparative and evolutionary studies aiming to investigate the group's traits and innovations, but such a phylogeny has proven very challenging to obtain...
2018: PeerJ
Jun Aruga
Lophotrochozoa is a sister taxon of Ecdysozoa in the Protostomia that includes mollusks, annelids, brachiopods, and platyhelminths. Recent studies have clarified the structure, expression, and roles of lophotrochozoan Zic family genes. Zic genes in oligochaete annelid Tubifex tubifex (freshwater sludge worm) and polychaete annelid Capitella teleta (bristle worm) are commonly expressed in a subset of developing brain and mesoderm derivatives. The latter includes the naïve mesoderm and the associated chaetal sacs in each body segment, although the segmentation processes differ between the two species...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Heyu Lin, Min Yu, Xiaolei Wang, Xiao-Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Vibrios are among the most diverse and ecologically important marine bacteria, which have evolved many characteristics and lifestyles to occupy various niches. The relationship between genome features and environmental adaptation strategies is an essential part for understanding the ecological functions of vibrios in the marine system. The advent of complete genome sequencing technology has provided an important method of examining the genetic characteristics of vibrios on the genomic level...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Luís Amaral, António Raposo, Zilda Morais, Alice Coimbra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Asia Pacific Allergy
Frederike D Hanke, Daniel C Osorio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Davide Gaglio, Timothée R Cook, Alistair McInnes, Richard B Sherley, Peter G Ryan
Marine predators, such as seabirds, are useful indicators of marine ecosystem functioning. In particular, seabird diet may reflect variability in food-web composition due to natural or human-induced environmental change. Diet monitoring programmes, which sample diet non-invasively, are valuable aids to conservation and management decision-making. We investigated the diet of an increasing population of greater crested terns Thalasseus bergii in the Western Cape, South Africa, during three successive breeding seasons (2013 to 2015), when populations of other seabirds feeding on small pelagic schooling fish in the region were decreasing...
2018: PloS One
Víctor López, María Cascella, Giovanni Benelli, Filippo Maggi, Carlota Gómez-Rincón
Anisakiasis is a fish-borne parasitic disease caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish, as well as cephalopods, contaminated by third instar larvae (L3) of species belonging to the genus Anisakis (Anisakidae). Origanum compactum is a small herbaceous aromatic plant endemic to Spain and Morocco. In Morocco, the plant is used under infusion to treat heart diseases and intestinal pains or as preservative for foodstuffs. This is the first time that the O. compactum essential oil is tested against the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex...
January 24, 2018: Parasitology Research
Amane Tajika, Alexander Nützel, Christian Klug
Owing to their great diversity and abundance, ammonites and belemnites represented key elements in Mesozoic food webs. Because of their extreme ontogenetic size increase by up to three orders of magnitude, their position in the food webs likely changed during ontogeny. Here, we reconstruct the number of eggs laid by large adult females of these cephalopods and discuss developmental shifts in their ecologic roles. Based on similarities in conch morphology, size, habitat and abundance, we suggest that similar niches occupied in the Cretaceous by juvenile ammonites and belemnites were vacated during the extinction and later partially filled by holoplanktonic gastropods...
2018: PeerJ
Maria Wilson, Jens Ådne Rekkedal Haga, Hans Erik Karlsen
Attacks by aquatic predators generate frontal water disturbances characterised by low-frequency gradients in pressure and particle motion. Low-frequency hearing is highly developed in cephalopods. Thus, we examined behavioural responses in juvenile cuttlefish to infrasonic accelerations mimicking main aspects of the hydrodynamic signals created by predators. In the experimental set-up, animals and their surrounding water moved as a unit to minimise lateral line activation and to allow examination of the contribution by the inner ear...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Maxime Endress, Céline Zatylny-Gaudin, Erwan Corre, Gildas Le Corguillé, Louis Benoist, Jérôme Leprince, Benjamin Lefranc, Benoît Bernay, Alexandre Leduc, Jimmy Rangama, Anne-Gaëlle Lafont, Arnaud Bondon, Joël Henry
The cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) is a cephalopod mollusk distributed on the western European coast, in the West African Ocean and in the Mediterranean Sea. On the Normandy coast (France), cuttlefish is a target species of professional fishermen, so its reproduction strategy is of particular interest in the context of stock management. Egg-laying, which is coastal, is controlled by several types of regulators among which neuropeptides. The cuttlefish neuropeptidome was recently identified by Zatylny-Gaudin et al...
December 24, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Véronique Merten, Bernd Christiansen, Jamileh Javidpour, Uwe Piatkowski, Oscar Puebla, Rebeca Gasca, Henk-Jan T Hoving
In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging...
2017: PloS One
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