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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921384/a-robust-molecular-catalyst-generated-in-situ-for-photo-and-electrochemical-water-oxidation
#1
Hussein A Younus, Nazir Ahmad, Adeel H Chughtai, Matthias Vandichel, Michael Busch, Kristof Van Hecke, Mekhman Yusubov, Shaoxian Song, Francis Verpoort
Water splitting is the key step towards artificial photosystems for solar energy conversion and storage in the form of chemical bonding. The oxidation of water is the bottle-neck of this process that hampers its practical utility and hence efficient, robust, and also easy to make catalytic systems based on cheap and earth abundant materials are of exceptional importance. Here, we present an in-situ generated cobalt catalyst [Co(II)(TCA)2(H2O)2] (TCA = 1-Mesityl-1,2,3-1H-triazole-4-carboxylate) efficiently conducting photochemical water oxidation at near-neutral conditions...
December 5, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919131/-an-intravesical-foreign-body-after-caesarean-section-and-tissue-fixing-system-tfs-operation-two-case-reports
#2
Kohei Mori, Masahiro Yanagisawa, Kotaro Hirai
Foreign body in the bladder is a relatively rare case. We encountered two cases of foreign bodies in the bladder after gynecological surgery. Case 1 was a 72-year-old woman. When she was 70 years old,an operation for her pelvic organ prolapse was performed. She visited our hospital because of discomfort in urination. We performed a transurethral lithotripsy of the bladder stone and detected a foreign body,and it was an anchor used for the Tissue Fixation System(TFS)operation (a pelvic organ prolapse operation)...
October 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917819/pulsatile-flow-conditioning-of-three-dimensional-bioengineered-cardiac-ventricle
#3
Nikita M Patel, Ravi K Birla
Current physical stimuli mechanical stretch bioreactor studies focus on conditioning planar and/or tubular engineered cardiac constructs. The current 3D bioreactor models in cardiac tissue engineering use differential pressure loading for structural support as opposed to conditioning. The development of the pulsatile flow conditioned ventricle (PFCV) provides a 3D mechanical stretch conditioning method to generate pump function in the engineered cardiac left ventricle. The study utilizes a chitosan bioengineered open ventricle scaffold, to produce the in vitro PFCV model...
December 5, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916866/relationship-between-soft-drink-consumption-and-obesity-in-9-11-years-old-children-in-a-multi-national-study
#4
Peter T Katzmarzyk, Stephanie T Broyles, Catherine M Champagne, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Rebecca Kuriyan, Anura Kurpad, Estelle V Lambert, Jose Maia, Victor Matsudo, Timothy Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Mark S Tremblay, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Pei Zhao
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD)...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916175/state-of-the-art-bridging-to-lung-transplantation-using-artificial-organ-support-technologies
#5
Keshava Rajagopal, Marius M Hoeper
Lung transplantation increasingly is being performed in recipients of higher risk and acuity. A subset of these patients has severely abnormal gas exchange and/or right ventricular dysfunction, such that artificial organ support strategies are required to bridge patients to lung transplantation. We review the rationales and currently used and potential strategies for bridging to lung transplantation and characterize bridging outcomes. Based on physiologic reasoning and a study of the existing literature, we provide a working strategy for bridging to lung transplantation...
December 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913018/potential-impact-of-flowback-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-on-agricultural-soil-quality-metal-metalloid-bioaccessibility-microtox-bioassay-and-enzyme-activities
#6
Season S Chen, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Hydraulic fracturing has advanced the development of shale gas extraction, while inadvertent spills of flowback water may pose a risk to the surrounding environment due to its high salt content, metals/metalloids (As, Se, Fe and Sr), and organic additives. This study investigated the potential impact of flowback water on four representative soils from shale gas regions in Northeast China using synthetic flowback solutions. The compositions of the solutions were representative of flowback water arising at different stages after fracturing well establishment...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911408/defining-substrate-specificities-for-lipase-and-phospholipase-candidates
#7
Diana X Sahonero-Canavesi, Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor, Lourdes Martínez-Aguilar, Isabel M López-Lara, Otto Geiger
Microorganisms produce a wide spectrum of (phospho)lipases that are secreted in order to make external substrates available for the organism. Alternatively, other (phospho)lipases may be physically associated with the producing organism causing a turnover of intrinsic lipids and frequently giving rise to a remodeling of the cellular membranes. Although potential (phospho)lipases can be predicted with a number of algorithms when the gene/protein sequence is available, experimental proof of the enzyme activities, substrate specificities, and potential physiological functions has frequently not been obtained...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910951/molecular-imaging-with-engineered-physiology
#8
Mitul Desai, Adrian L Slusarczyk, Ashley Chapin, Mariya Barch, Alan Jasanoff
In vivo imaging techniques are powerful tools for evaluating biological systems. Relating image signals to precise molecular phenomena can be challenging, however, due to limitations of the existing optical, magnetic and radioactive imaging probe mechanisms. Here we demonstrate a concept for molecular imaging which bypasses the need for conventional imaging agents by perturbing the endogenous multimodal contrast provided by the vasculature. Variants of the calcitonin gene-related peptide artificially activate vasodilation pathways in rat brain and induce contrast changes that are readily measured by optical and magnetic resonance imaging...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910875/an-integrated-modelling-framework-from-cells-to-organism-based-on-a-cohort-of-digital-embryos
#9
Paul Villoutreix, Julien Delile, Barbara Rizzi, Louise Duloquin, Thierry Savy, Paul Bourgine, René Doursat, Nadine Peyriéras
We conducted a quantitative comparison of developing sea urchin embryos based on the analysis of five digital specimens obtained by automatic processing of in toto 3D+ time image data. These measurements served the reconstruction of a prototypical cell lineage tree able to predict the spatiotemporal cellular organisation of a normal sea urchin blastula. The reconstruction was achieved by designing and tuning a multi-level probabilistic model that reproduced embryo-level dynamics from a small number of statistical parameters characterising cell proliferation, cell surface area and cell volume evolution along the cell lineage...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909849/monitoring-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-from-tertiary-wastewater-treatment-plants-using-passive-sampling-modelled-with-performance-reference-compounds
#10
Tamanna Sultana, Craig Murray, M Ehsanul Hoque, Chris D Metcalfe
The Lake Simcoe watershed in Ontario, Canada is an important recreational area and a recharge zone for groundwater resources. Lake Simcoe is a relatively shallow lotic system that has been impacted by urban development, recreation, industry and agriculture. As part of a watershed management plan, six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in this catchment basin were selected to measure the inputs of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of wastewater origin. These WWTPs were recently upgraded to tertiary treatment for phosphorus removal...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908037/the-structure-of-hindi-stop-consonants
#11
Kushagra Singh, Nachiketa Tiwari
The pronunciation of stop consonants varies markedly with age, gender, accent, etc. Yet by extracting appropriate cues common to these varying pronunciations, it is possible to correctly identify the spoken consonant. In this paper, the structure underlying Hindi stop consonants is presented. This understanding may potentially be used as a "recipe" for their artificial synthesis. Hindi alphabet stops were analyzed for this purpose. This alphabet has an organized and comprehensive inventory of stop consonants, and its consonants invariably terminate with the neutral vowel schwa...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907857/membrane-effects-of-dihydropyrimidine-analogues-with-larvicidal-activity
#12
Mariela E Sánchez-Borzone, Maria E Mariani, Virginia Miguel, Raquel M Gleiser, Bharti Odhav, Katharigatta N Venugopala, Daniel A García
Two recently synthesized dihydropyrimidines (DHPMs) analogues have demonstrated larvicide and repellent activity against Anopheles arabiensis. DHPMs high lipophilicity suggests that these compounds may interact directly with the membrane and modify their biophysical properties. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the interaction of both compounds with artificial membranes. Changes on the properties of DPPC films were studied using Langmuir monolayers. The presence of DHPMs in the subphase modified the interfacial characteristics of DPPC compression isotherms, causing the expansion of the monolayer, inducing the disappearance of DPPC phase transition and increasing the molecular packing of the film...
November 24, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906410/ion-specificities-of-artificial-macromolecules
#13
REVIEW
Lvdan Liu, Ran Kou, Guangming Liu
Artificial macromolecules are well-defined synthetic polymers, with a relatively simple structure as compared to naturally occurring macromolecules. This review focuses on the ion specificities of artifical macromolecules. Ion specificities are influenced by solvent-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions and also by direct ion-macromolecule interactions. In aqueous solutions, the role of water-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions will be discussed. The addition of organic solvents to aqueous solutions significantly changes the ion specificities due to the formation of water-organic solvent complexes...
September 2, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902966/photo-induced-toxicity-and-oxidative-stress-responses-in-tigriopus-japonicus-exposed-to-nitro-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-artificial-light
#14
Toshimitsu Onduka, Daisuke Ojima, Katsutoshi Ito, Kazuhiko Mochida, Mana Ito, Jiro Koyama, Kazunori Fujii
Photo-induced toxicity is an important phenomenon in ecotoxicology because sunlight reaches many organisms in their natural habitats. To elucidate whether sunlight enhances the toxicity of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs), the acute toxicities of 10 nitro-PAHs and the related compound 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) to Tigriopus japonicus were assessed in darkness or under light conditions. In addition, the relationships among the toxicity of 1-NP to T. japonicus, lighting condition, and the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed were investigated in the presence or absence of the ROS scavenger ascorbic acid in the test solutions...
November 27, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900856/nanocomposite-hydrogels-and-their-applications-in-tissue-engineering
#15
Andisheh Motealleh, Nermin Seda Kehr
Nanocomposite (NC) hydrogels, organic-inorganic hybrid materials, are of great interest as artificial three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials for biomedical applications. NC hydrogels are prepared in water by chemically or physically cross-linking organic polymers with nanomaterials (NMs). The incorporation of hard inorganic NMs into the soft organic polymer matrix enhances the physical, chemical, and biological properties of NC hydrogels. Therefore, NC hydrogels are excellent candidates for artificial 3D biomaterials, particularly in tissue engineering applications, where they can mimic the chemical, mechanical, electrical, and biological properties of native tissues...
November 30, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900397/noradrenaline-receptor-mechanisms-modulate-the-angiotensin-ii-induced-water-intake-in-the-subfornical-organ-in-rats
#16
Makoto Takahashi, Junichi Tanaka
The present study was carried out to clarify the role of noradrenergic systems in the mediation of drinking response to angiotensin II (ANG II) in the rat subfornical organ (SFO). Microinjection of ANG II (10 pmol, 50 nl) into the SFO caused a robust drinking response (water volume, 1.8-8.7 ml for 20 min). Injections of either noradrenaline (NA; 0.1, 1 and 10 nmols, 50 nl) into the SFO did not produce a significant water intake. Phenylephrine (Phen; 0.1, 1, 10 nmols, 50 nl), an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, injected into the SFO elicited little drinking in the rats tested (water volume, 0...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899919/fermentation-of-ammonia-fiber-expansion-treated-and-untreated-barley-straw-in-a-rumen-simulation-technique-using-rumen-inoculum-from-cattle-with-slow-versus-fast-rate-of-fiber-disappearance
#17
Candace L Griffith, Gabriel O Ribeiro, Masahito Oba, Tim A McAllister, Karen A Beauchemin
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of 16 heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898010/applications-of-alginate-based-bioinks-in-3d-bioprinting
#18
REVIEW
Eneko Axpe, Michelle L Oyen
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is on the cusp of permitting the direct fabrication of artificial living tissue. Multicellular building blocks (bioinks) are dispensed layer by layer and scaled for the target construct. However, only a few materials are able to fulfill the considerable requirements for suitable bioink formulation, a critical component of efficient 3D bioprinting. Alginate, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, is clearly the most commonly employed material in current bioinks. Here, we discuss the benefits and disadvantages of the use of alginate in 3D bioprinting by summarizing the most recent studies that used alginate for printing vascular tissue, bone and cartilage...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895907/succinct-guide-to-liver-transplantation-for-medical-students
#19
REVIEW
Cheng-Maw Ho, Po-Huang Lee, Wing Tung Cheng, Rey-Heng Hu, Yao-Ming Wu, Ming-Chih Ho
Literature on liver transplantation for use in medical education is limited and as yet unsatisfactory. The aim of this article is to help medical students gain enough insight into the reality of being a liver transplant recipient. This is crucial so in the future they can feel confident in approaching these patients with adequate knowledge and confidence. The knowledge-tree based learning core topics are designed for a 2-h class including indication/contraindication in the real-world setting, model for end stage liver disease scoring and organ allocation policy, liver transplantation for hepatic malignancy, transplantation surgery, immunosuppression strategy in practical consideration, and management of viral hepatitis...
December 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893833/increasing-the-size-of-the-microbial-biomass-altered-bacterial-community-structure-which-enhances-plant-phosphorus-uptake
#20
Pu Shen, Daniel Vaughan Murphy, Suman J George, Hazel Lapis-Gaza, Minggang Xu, Deirdre Bridget Gleeson
Agricultural production can be limited by low phosphorus (P) availability, with soil P being constrained by sorption and precipitation reactions making it less available for plant uptake. There are strong links between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability and P cycling within soil P pools, with microorganisms being an integral component of soil P cycling mediating the availability of P to plants. Here we tested a conceptual model that proposes (i) the addition of readily-available organic substrates would increase the size of the microbial biomass thus exhausting the pool of easily-available P and (ii) this would cause the microbial biomass to access P from more recalcitrant pools...
2016: PloS One
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