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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430205/controlled-membrane-translocation-provides-a-mechanism-for-signal-transduction-and-amplification
#1
Matthew J Langton, Flore Keymeulen, Maria Ciaccia, Nicholas H Williams, Christopher A Hunter
Transmission and amplification of chemical signals across lipid bilayer membranes is of profound significance in many biological processes, from the development of multicellular organisms to information processing in the nervous system. In biology, membrane-spanning proteins are responsible for the transmission of chemical signals across membranes, and signal transduction is often associated with an amplified signalling cascade. The ability to reproduce such processes in artificial systems has potential applications in sensing, controlled drug delivery and communication between compartments in tissue-like constructs of synthetic vesicles...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429314/evolutionary-origin-of-euglena
#2
Bożena Zakryś, Rafał Milanowski, Anna Karnkowska
Euglenids (Excavata, Discoba, Euglenozoa, Euglenida) is a group of free-living, single-celled flagellates living in the aquatic environments. The uniting and unique morphological feature of euglenids is the presence of a cell covering called the pellicle. The morphology and organization of the pellicle correlate well with the mode of nutrition and cell movement. Euglenids exhibit diverse modes of nutrition, including phagotrophy and photosynthesis. Photosynthetic species (Euglenophyceae) constitute a single subclade within euglenids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427684/rapid-and-high-capacity-ultrasonic-assisted-adsorption-of-ternary-toxic-anionic-dyes-onto-mof-5-activated-carbon-artificial-neural-networks-partial-least-squares-desirability-function-and-isotherm-and-kinetic-study
#3
Hanieh Askari, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Kheibar Dashtian, Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi Azghandi
The present paper focused on the ultrasonic assisted simultaneous removal of fast green (FG), eosin Y (EY) and quinine yellow (QY) from aqueous media following using MOF-5 as a metal organic framework and activated carbon hybrid (AC-MOF-5). The structure and morphology of AC-MOF-5 was identified by SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. The interactive and main effects of variables such as pH, initial dyes concentration (mgL(-1)), adsorbent dosage (mg) and sonication time (min) on removal percentage were studied by central composite design (CCD), subsequent desirability function (DF) permit to achieved real variable experimental condition...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426800/neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-short-term-mortality-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-treated-with-an-artificial-liver-support-system
#4
Zeng Fan, Chen EnQiang, Du Ling Yao, Yan LiBo, Li Hong, Bai Lang, Feng Ping, Tang Hong
AIM: Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure has high short-term mortality. Artificial liver support systems (ALSS) may improve outcome and avoid liver transplantation, but predicting short-term prognosis in such patients is difficult. This study aimed to determine whether the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammation marker, predicted mortality in patients treated with ALSS. METHODS: A total of 560 patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure were enrolled, 338 were treated with ALSS and the others treated with standard of care(SOC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424669/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut-of-the-hong-kong-whipping-frog-polypedates-megacephalus-and-a-validation-using-probiotics
#5
Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, Chieh-Yin Weng, Yi-Ju Yang, Daryi Wang
The concerted activity of intestinal microbes is crucial to the health and development of their host organisms. Investigation of microbial interactions in the gut should deepen our understanding of how these micro-ecosystems function. Due to advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, various bioinformatic strategies have been proposed to investigate these microbial interactions. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal microbial community and difficulties in monitoring their interactions, at present there is a gap between the theory and biological application...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420257/gestational-diabetes-management-using-smart-mobile-telemedicine
#6
Mercedes Rigla, Iñaki Martínez-Sarriegui, Gema García-Sáez, Belén Pons, Maria Elena Hernando
Gestational diabetes (GDM) burden has been increasing progressively over the past years. Knowing that intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes confers high risk for macrosomia as well as for future type 2 diabetes and obesity of the offspring, health care organizations try to provide effective control in spite of the limited resources. Artificial-intelligence-augmented telemedicine has been proposed as a helpful tool to facilitate an efficient widespread medical assistance to GDM. The aim of the study we present was to test the feasibility and acceptance of a mobile decision-support system for GDM, developed in the seventh framework program MobiGuide Project, which includes computer-interpretable clinical practice guidelines, access to data from the electronic health record as well as from glucose, blood pressure, and activity sensors...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419946/water-immiscible-bioinert-coatings-and-film-formation-from-aqueous-dispersions-of-poly-2-methoxyethyl-acrylate-microspheres
#7
Takuma Kureha, Seina Hiroshige, Shusuke Matsui, Daisuke Suzuki
Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (pMEA) microspheres are prepared through facile free-radical polymerization in water without additives and impurities, such as surfactants, other polymers, and organic solvents, which are usually used to synthesize pMEA chains. Clean and pure (non-factionalized and non-cross-linking) pMEA microspheres exhibit plasma-protein adsorption resistances on their surface regardless of their charged state. They are characterized in terms of the adsorbed amounts of proteins at pH 7. In addition, these soft and deformable pMEA microspheres are suitable for forming substrates coated with pMEA microspheres and free-standing films by injecting pMEA dispersion and evaporating the aqueous medium through fusion between the pMEA chains at the surface without the precoating agent and cross-linker...
April 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419477/the-effectiveness-of-riboflavin-and-ultraviolet-light-pathogen-reduction-technology-in-eliminating-trypanosoma-cruzi-from-leukoreduced-whole-blood
#8
Teresa Jimenez-Marco, Beatriz Cancino-Faure, Enrique Girona-Llobera, M Magdalena Alcover, Cristina Riera, Roser Fisa
BACKGROUND: The parasitic Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. Other infection routes, both in endemic and in nonendemic areas, include organ and marrow transplantation, congenital transmission, and blood transfusion. Asymptomatic chronic chagasic individuals may have a low and transient parasitemia in peripheral blood and, consequently, they can unknowingly transmit the disease via blood transfusion. Riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light pathogen reduction is a method to reduce pathogen transfusion transmission risk based on damage to the pathogen nucleic acids...
April 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419148/how-long-to-rest-in-unpredictably-changing-habitats
#9
Mirosław Slusarczyk, Jacek Starzyński, Piotr Bernatowicz
In the present study, we investigated the optimum length of prolonged dormancy (developmental arrest extending over favourable periods) of organisms under uncertain environmental conditions. We used an artificial life model to simulate the evolution of suspended development in the ontogenesis of organisms inhabiting unpredictably changing habitats. A virtual population of semelparous parthenogenetic individuals that varied in a duration of developmental arrest competed for limited resources. At a constant level of available resources, uninterrupted development was the superior life strategy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418080/phototoxic-potential-of-undispersed-and-dispersed-fresh-and-weathered-macondo-crude-oils-to-gulf-of-mexico-marine-organisms
#10
Bryson E Finch, Solmaz Marzooghi, Dominic M Di Toro, William A Stubblefield
Crude oils contain a mixture of hydrocarbons including phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have the ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. PAH absorption of UV light can substantially increase their toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential for phototoxicity of fresh and naturally weathered Macondo crude oils alone and in combination with the dispersant Corexit 9500 to mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis)...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417363/carbohydrate-depolymerization-by-intricate-cellulosomal-systems
#11
Johanna Stern, Lior Artzi, Sarah Moraïs, Carlos M G A Fontes, Edward A Bayer
Cellulosomes are multi-enzymatic nanomachines that have been fine-tuned through evolution to efficiently deconstruct plant biomass. Integration of cellulosomal components occurs via highly ordered protein-protein interactions between the various enzyme-borne dockerin modules and the multiple copies of the cohesin modules located on the scaffoldin subunit. Recently, designer cellulosome technology has been established to provide insights into the architectural role of catalytic (enzymatic) and structural (scaffoldin) cellulosomal constituents for the efficient degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416316/effect-of-passive-ultrasonic-activation-on-organic-tissue-dissolution-from-simulated-grooves-in-root-canals-using-sodium-hypochlorite-with-or-without-surfactants-and-edta
#12
Roberto Estevez, Antonio J Conde, Oliver Valencia de Pablo, Francisco de la Torre, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Rafael Cisneros
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the porcine palatal mucosa dissolution from artificial grooves using a final rinse with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with or without a surfactant or ultrasonic activation (PUI). METHODS: The root canals of 130 human maxillary central incisors were chemomechanically prepared and the teeth split. A standardized longitudinal intracanal groove was created in 1 of the root halves. One hundred thirty porcine palatal mucosa samples were collected, adapted in order to fit into the grooves, and weighed...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415237/latent-geometry-of-bipartite-networks
#13
Maksim Kitsak, Fragkiskos Papadopoulos, Dmitri Krioukov
Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode projections lead to significant loss of information and artificial inflation of the projected network with fully connected subgraphs...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414344/measurement-of-thickness-of-highly-inhomogeneous-crude-oil-slicks
#14
Surya Cheemalapati, Heather P Forth, Hao Wang, Karthik Raj Konnaiyan, Jeffrey M Morris, Anna L Pyayt
As part of the Deepwater Horizon toxicity testing program, a number of laboratories generated oil slicks in the laboratory to study potential toxic effects of these oil slicks on aquatic organisms. Understanding the details of how these slicks affect aquatic organisms requires careful correlation between slick thickness and the observed detrimental effects. Estimating oil film thickness on water can be challenging since the traditional color-based technique used in the field is very imprecise. Also, as we demonstrate here, the films formed on the water surface are highly nonuniform on a microscale level, and thus uniform thin film thickness measurement techniques based on optical interference do not work...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413754/an-approach-toward-replacing-vanadium-a-single-organic-molecule-for-the-anode-and-cathode-of-an-aqueous-redox-flow-battery
#15
Tobias Janoschka, Christian Friebe, Martin D Hager, Norbert Martin, Ulrich S Schubert
By combining a viologen unit and a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical in one single combi-molecule, an artificial bipolar redox-active material, 1-(4-(((1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)carbonyl)benzyl)-1'-methyl-[4,4'-bipyridine]-1,1'-diium-chloride (VIOTEMP), was created that can serve as both the anode (-0.49 V) and cathode (0.67 V vs. Ag/AgCl) in a water-based redox-flow battery. While it mimics the redox states of flow battery metals like vanadium, the novel aqueous electrolyte does not require strongly acidic media and is best operated at pH 4...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413080/effect-of-oral-exposure-to-artificially-weathered-deepwater-horizon-crude-oil-on-blood-chemistries-hepatic-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-organ-weights-and-histopathology-in-western-sandpipers-calidris-mauri
#16
Steven J Bursian, Karen M Dean, Kendal E Harr, Lisa Kennedy, Jane E Link, Ivan Maggini, Chris Pritsos, Karen L Pritsos, R E Schmidt, Christopher G Guglielmo
Shorebirds were among birds exposed to Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) crude oil during the 2010 Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The western sandpiper (Calidris mauri) was chosen as one of four species for initial oral dosing studies conducted under Phase 2 of the avian toxicity studies for the DWH Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA). Thirty western sandpipers were assigned to one of three treatment groups, 10 birds per group. The control group was sham gavaged and the treatment groups were gavaged with 1 or 5mL oil kg bw(-1) daily for 20 days...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412386/characterization-of-rodent-constitutively-active-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-variants-and-their-constitutive-transactivation-mechanisms
#17
Hirotaka Ishii, Yujiro Hattori, Arisa Munetomo, Hiroshi Watanabe, Yasuo Sakuma, Hitoshi Ozawa
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNAs exhibit remarkable heterogeneity owing to complicated alternative splicing. Some encode C-terminally-truncated ERα proteins, which display ligand-independent transactivation or dominant-negative activity. We previously characterized C-terminally-truncated ERα mRNA variants with cryptic sequences in humans and mice, and demonstrated that helices in the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of ERα variants contribute to ligand-independent transcriptional activity. However, existence of non-conventional coding exons and generation of constitutively active ERα variants have remained to be examined in rats...
April 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411451/anisotropic-tough-double-network-hydrogel-from-fish-collagen-and-its-spontaneous-in%C3%A2-vivo-bonding-to-bone
#18
Md Tariful Islam Mredha, Nobuto Kitamura, Takayuki Nonoyama, Susumu Wada, Keiko Goto, Xi Zhang, Tasuku Nakajima, Takayuki Kurokawa, Yasuaki Takagi, Kazunori Yasuda, Jian Ping Gong
Soft supporting tissues in the human body, such as cartilages and ligaments, are tough materials and firmly fixed to bones. These soft tissues, once injured, cannot regenerate spontaneously invivo. Developing tough and biocompatible hydrogels as artificial soft supporting tissues would substantially improve outcomes after soft tissue injury. Collagen is the main rigid component in soft connective tissues which is organized in various hierarchical arrays. We have successfully developed a novel class of collagen fibril-based tough hydrogels based on the double network (DN) concept using swim bladder collagen (SBC) extracted from Bester sturgeon fish...
April 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409789/lasing-in-organic-mixed-crystal-thin-films-with-cavities-composed-of-naturally-formed-cracks
#19
Masaaki Mantoku, Masao Ichida, Ikurou Umezu, Akira Sugimura, Tamao Aoki-Matsumoto
This study investigates the possibility that a crack pair that is naturally formed in the course of sample preparation functions as a laser cavity. Lasing with longitudinal mode structures has been reported in mixed-crystal thin films composed of fluorene and anthracene without artificial cavity structure. In the present study, it was shown that lasing is observed only when an excitation spot covers parallel pairs of cracks. The longitudinal mode intervals of the stimulated emission spectra for several crack pairs were found to be proportional to the inverse of the crack spacing...
April 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405299/multifunctionality-is-affected-by-interactions-between-green-roof-plant-species-substrate-depth-and-substrate-type
#20
Yann Dusza, Sébastien Barot, Yvan Kraepiel, Jean-Christophe Lata, Luc Abbadie, Xavier Raynaud
Green roofs provide ecosystem services through evapotranspiration and nutrient cycling that depend, among others, on plant species, substrate type, and substrate depth. However, no study has assessed thoroughly how interactions between these factors alter ecosystem functions and multifunctionality of green roofs. We simulated some green roof conditions in a pot experiment. We planted 20 plant species from 10 genera and five families (Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) on two substrate types (natural vs...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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