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Patricia K Kuhl

Nairán Ramírez-Esparza, Adrián García-Sierra, Patricia K Kuhl
This study tested the impact of child-directed language input on language development in Spanish-English bilingual infants (N = 25, 11- and 14-month-olds from the Seattle metropolitan area), across languages and independently for each language, controlling for socioeconomic status. Language input was characterized by social interaction variables, defined in terms of speech style ("parentese" vs. standard speech) and social context (one-on-one vs. group). Correlations between parentese one-on-one and productive vocabulary at 24 months (n = 18) were found across languages and in each language independently...
October 19, 2016: Child Development
Adrian Garcia-Sierra, Nairan Ramírez-Esparza, Patricia K Kuhl
The present investigation explored the relation between the amount of language input and neural responses in English monolingual (N=18) and Spanish-English bilingual (N=19) infants. We examined the mismatch negativity (MMN); both the positive mismatch response (pMMR) and the negative mismatch response (nMMR), and identify a relationship between amount of language input and brain measures of speech discrimination for native and non-native speech sounds (i.e., Spanish, English and Chinese). Brain responses differed as a function of language input for native speech sounds in both monolinguals and bilinguals...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Mathias Sørgaard, Jesper J Linde, Jens D Hove, Jan R Petersen, Tem B S Jørgensen, Jawdat Abdulla, Merete Heitmann, Charlotte Kragelund, Thomas Fritz Hansen, Patricia M Udholm, Christian Pihl, J Tobias Kühl, Thomas Engstrøm, Jan Skov Jensen, Dan E Høfsten, Henning Kelbæk, Klaus F Kofoed
AIMS: Patients admitted with chest pain are a diagnostic challenge because the majority does not have coronary artery disease (CAD). Assessment of CAD with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is safe, cost-effective, and accurate, albeit with a modest specificity. Stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) has been shown to increase the specificity when added to CCTA, without lowering the sensitivity. This article describes the design of a randomized controlled trial, CATCH-2, comparing a clinical diagnostic management strategy of CCTA alone against CCTA in combination with CTP...
September 2016: American Heart Journal
Patricia K Kuhl, Jeff Stevenson, Neva M Corrigan, Jasper J F van den Bosch, Dilara Deniz Can, Todd Richards
Diffusion tensor imaging was used to compare white matter structure between American monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual adults living in the United States. In the bilingual group, relationships between white matter structure and naturalistic immersive experience in listening to and speaking English were additionally explored. White matter structural differences between groups were found to be bilateral and widespread. In the bilingual group, experience in listening to English was more robustly correlated with decreases in radial and mean diffusivity in anterior white matter regions of the left hemisphere, whereas experience in speaking English was more robustly correlated with increases in fractional anisotropy in more posterior left hemisphere white matter regions...
August 1, 2016: Brain and Language
Ping C Mamiya, Todd L Richards, Bradley P Coe, Evan E Eichler, Patricia K Kuhl
Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
T Christina Zhao, Patricia K Kuhl
Individuals with music training in early childhood show enhanced processing of musical sounds, an effect that generalizes to speech processing. However, the conclusions drawn from previous studies are limited due to the possible confounds of predisposition and other factors affecting musicians and nonmusicians. We used a randomized design to test the effects of a laboratory-controlled music intervention on young infants' neural processing of music and speech. Nine-month-old infants were randomly assigned to music (intervention) or play (control) activities for 12 sessions...
May 10, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Naja Ferjan Ramírez, Rey R Ramírez, Maggie Clarke, Samu Taulu, Patricia K Kuhl
Language experience shapes infants' abilities to process speech sounds, with universal phonetic discrimination abilities narrowing in the second half of the first year. Brain measures reveal a corresponding change in neural discrimination as the infant brain becomes selectively sensitive to its native language(s). Whether and how bilingual experience alters the transition to native language specific phonetic discrimination is important both theoretically and from a practical standpoint. Using whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG), we examined brain responses to Spanish and English syllables in Spanish-English bilingual and English monolingual 11-month-old infants...
April 4, 2016: Developmental Science
Patricia K Kuhl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Scientific American
T Christina Zhao, Patricia K Kuhl
Native tonal-language speakers exhibit reduced sensitivity to lexical tone differences within, compared to across, categories (higher-level linguistic category influence). Yet, sensitivity is enhanced among musically trained, non-tonal-language-speaking individuals (lower-level acoustics processing influence). The current study investigated the relative contribution of higher- and lower-level influences when both are present. Seventeen Mandarin musicians completed music pitch and lexical tone discrimination tasks...
August 2015: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Barbara T Conboy, Rechele Brooks, Andrew N Meltzoff, Patricia K Kuhl
Infants learn phonetic information from a second language with live-person presentations, but not television or audio-only recordings. To understand the role of social interaction in learning a second language, we examined infants' joint attention with live, Spanish-speaking tutors and used a neural measure of phonetic learning. Infants' eye-gaze behaviors during Spanish sessions at 9.5-10.5 months of age predicted second-language phonetic learning, assessed by an event-related potential measure of Spanish phoneme discrimination at 11 months...
2015: Developmental Neuropsychology
Patricia K Kuhl
Explaining how every typically developing child acquires language is one of the grand challenges of cognitive neuroscience. Historically, language learning provoked classic debates about the contributions of innately specialized as opposed to general learning mechanisms. Now, new data are being brought to bear from studies that employ magnetoencephalograph (MEG), electroencephalograph (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on young children. These studies examine the patterns of association between brain and behavioral measures...
2014: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Christine Moon, Randall C Zernzach, Patricia K Kuhl
Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP) experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word "baby" depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
T Christina Zhao, Patricia K Kuhl
Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians...
March 2015: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Patricia K Kuhl, Rey R Ramírez, Alexis Bosseler, Jo-Fu Lotus Lin, Toshiaki Imada
Historic theories of speech perception (Motor Theory and Analysis by Synthesis) invoked listeners' knowledge of speech production to explain speech perception. Neuroimaging data show that adult listeners activate motor brain areas during speech perception. In two experiments using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated motor brain activation, as well as auditory brain activation, during discrimination of native and nonnative syllables in infants at two ages that straddle the developmental transition from language-universal to language-specific speech perception...
August 5, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nairán Ramírez-Esparza, Adrián García-Sierra, Patricia K Kuhl
Language input is necessary for language learning, yet little is known about whether, in natural environments, the speech style and social context of language input to children impacts language development. In the present study we investigated the relationship between language input and language development, examining both the style of parental speech, comparing 'parentese' speech to standard speech, and the social context in which speech is directed to children, comparing one-on-one (1:1) to group social interactions...
November 2014: Developmental Science
Alexis N Bosseler, Samu Taulu, Elina Pihko, Jyrki P Mäkelä, Toshiaki Imada, Antti Ahonen, Patricia K Kuhl
The development of speech perception shows a dramatic transition between infancy and adulthood. Between 6 and 12 months, infants' initial ability to discriminate all phonetic units across the world's languages narrows-native discrimination increases while non-native discrimination shows a steep decline. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether brain oscillations in the theta band (4-8 Hz), reflecting increases in attention and cognitive effort, would provide a neural measure of the perceptual narrowing phenomenon in speech...
2013: Frontiers in Psychology
Lisa F Akiyama, Todd R Richards, Toshiaki Imada, Stephen R Dager, Liv Wroblewski, Patricia K Kuhl
Due to the rapid anatomical changes that occur within the brain structure in early human development and the significant differences between infant brains and the widely used standard adult templates, it becomes increasingly important to utilize appropriate age- and population-specific average templates when analyzing infant neuroimaging data. In this study we created a new and highly detailed age-specific unbiased average head template in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system for healthy, typically developing 6-month-old infants by performing linear normalization, diffeomorphic normalization and iterative averaging processing on 60 subjects' structural images...
2013: PloS One
Patricia K Kuhl, Sharon Coffey-Corina, Denise Padden, Jeffrey Munson, Annette Estes, Geraldine Dawson
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that affects social behavior and language acquisition. ASD exhibits great variability in outcomes, with some individuals remaining nonverbal and others exhibiting average or above average function. Cognitive ability contributes to heterogeneity in autism and serves as a modest predictor of later function. We show that a brain measure (event-related potentials, ERPs) of word processing in children with ASD, assessed at the age of 2 years (N = 24), is a broad and robust predictor of receptive language, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior at ages 4 and 6 years, regardless of the form of intensive clinical treatment during the intervening years...
2013: PloS One
Dilara Deniz Can, Todd Richards, Patricia K Kuhl
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months. Early gray-matter concentration in the right cerebellum, early white-matter concentration in the right cerebellum, and early white-matter concentration in the left posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC)/cerebral peduncle were positively and strongly associated with infants' receptive language ability at 12 months...
January 2013: Brain and Language
Christine Moon, Hugo Lagercrantz, Patricia K Kuhl
AIMS: To test the hypothesis that exposure to ambient language in the womb alters phonetic perception shortly after birth. This two-country study aimed to see whether neonates demonstrated prenatal learning by how they responded to vowels in a category from their native language and another non-native language, regardless of how much postnatal experience the infants had. METHOD: A counterbalanced experiment was conducted in Sweden (n = 40) and the USA (n = 40) using Swedish and English vowel sounds...
February 2013: Acta Paediatrica
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