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Sun Il Kwon, Alessandro Ferri, Alberto Gola, Eric Berg, Claudio Piemonte, Simon R Cherry, Emilie Roncali
Current research in the field of positron emission tomography (PET) focuses on improving the sensitivity of the scanner with thicker detectors, extended axial field-of-view, and time-of-flight (TOF) capability. These create the need for depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding to correct parallax errors. We have proposed a method to encode DOI using phosphor-coated crystals. Our initial work using photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) demonstrated the possibilities of the proposed method, however, a major limitation of PMTs for this application is poor quantum efficiency in yellow light, corresponding to the wavelengths of the converted light by the phosphor coating...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Alicia Lamanna, Heather Sheaffer, Carmen Guerra, Michael Kochman
Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Although colorectal cancer screenings are effective and recommended by all clinical practice guidelines, only 65.7% of adults ages 50 to 75 years are screened. Colorectal cancer screening is disproportionately underutilized in inner city populations. In 2011, the University of Pennsylvania Health System created a navigation program to specifically address poor colorectal cancer screening rates and increase access to colorectal cancer screening colonoscopies for patients in the underserved areas of West, South, and Southwest Philadelphia...
September 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Hamza Boukabache, Michel Pangallo, Gael Ducos, Nicola Cardines, Antonio Bellotta, Ciarán Toner, Daniel Perrin, Doris Forkel-Wirth
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has the legal obligation to protect the public and the people working on its premises from any unjustified exposure to ionising radiation. In this context, radiation monitoring is one of the main concerns of the Radiation Protection Group. After 30 y of reliable service, the ARea CONtroller (ARCON) system is approaching the end of its lifecycle, which raises the need for new, more efficient radiation monitors with a high level of modularity to ensure better maintainability...
November 30, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Denise Kendrick, Gosia Majsak-Newman, Penny Benford, Carol Coupland, Clare Timblin, Mike Hayes, Trudy Goodenough, Adrian Hawkins, Richard Reading
INTRODUCTION: Childhood poisonings are common, placing a substantial burden on health services. Case-control studies have found inconsistent evidence about modifiable risk factors for poisonings among children aged 0-4 years. This study quantifies associations between poison prevention practices and medically attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. METHODS: Multicentre case-control study conducted at hospitals, minor injury units and family practices from four study centres in England between 2010 and 2013...
November 4, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Ariane Santerre-Theil, Karine Bouchard, Dominique St-Pierre, Anne-Marie Drolet, Jocelyne Chiquette, Michel Dorval
Although most parents carrying a BRCA1/2 genetic mutation share their test result with their underage children, they report needing support to decide if, when, and how to share risk information and what reactions to expect from their children. We developed a tool to guide parents carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation share their genetic result with underage children. Here, we report on the development of this tool using a qualitative methodology. A tool prototype was developed based on the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration framework...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Katarzyna Anna Campbell, Katharine Anna Bowker, Felix Naughton, Melanie Sloan, Sue Cooper, Tim Coleman
Introduction: UK guidance recommends routine exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) screening for pregnant women and "opt-out" referrals to stop smoking services (SSS) of those with CO ≥ 4 ppm. We explored staff views on this referral pathway when implemented in one UK hospital Trust. Methods: Seventeen semi-structured interviews with staff involved in the implementation of the new referral pathway: six antenatal clinic staff (before and after implementation); five SSS staff (after). Data were analyzed using framework analysis...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
J Metzkes, K Zeil, S D Kraft, L Karsch, M Sobiella, M Rehwald, L Obst, H-P Schlenvoigt, U Schramm
In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies...
August 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Just out of reach: On the reliability of the action-sentence compatibility effect" by Megan H. Papesh (, 2015[Dec], Vol 144[6], e116-e141). In the article, the Procedure did not directly state that response options were not visible on the computer screen during Experiments 7 and 8. The first sentence of the Procedure for Experiment 7 should read, "Participants completed a modified button-press version of the experiment described in Experiment 4; unlike Experiment 4, Experiment 7 included no visible on-screen elements apart from the to-be-judged sentences, which came from Glenberg and Kaschak (2002)...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Loïc Bière, Martin Audonnet, Guillaume Clerfond, Hermeland Delagarde, Serge Willoteaux, Fabrice Prunier, Alain Furber
PURPOSE: To assess whether a first-pass perfusion sequence (FPP) improved the detection of left ventricular thrombus (LVT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-nine patients with a first STEMI were prospectively included to undergo cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) at baseline and after a 3-month follow-up. A CMR delayed analysis was performed by three blinded examiners (2 CMR experts and 1 novice) according to a two-step reading protocol. First, an analysis was performed on cine CMR and late gadolinium enhancement (routine stage)...
September 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Lifeng Wang, Jingjing Ma, Yan Huang, Dan Tang, Qing-An Huang
Passive wireless sensors have the advantages of operating without a power supply and remote sensing capability. Hence, they are very suitable for some harsh environments, such as hermetic environments, rotating parts, or very high temperature environments. The spray painting workshop is such a harsh environment, containing a large amount of flammable paint mist and organic gas. Aiming at this special environment of spray painting workshop, a passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated...
2016: Sensors
M Infantino, F Meacci, V Grossi, M Manfredi, M Benucci, M Merone, P Soda
According to the recent recommendations of the American College of Rheumatology, ANA Task Force, IIF technique should be considered the gold standard in antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) testing. To overcome the lack of standardization, biomedical industries have developed several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Two hundred and sixty-one consecutive samples with suspected autoimmune diseases were tested for ANA by means of IIF on routinely HEp-2 assay kit (Euroimmun AG). Assignment of result was made if consensus for positive/negative was reached by at least 2 out of 3 expert physicians...
July 25, 2016: Immunologic Research
Santosh K Misra, Santanu Bhattacharya
Preparation and application protocols play a very important role while optimizing the cationic lipid-based lipoplexes in vitro. These protocols serve as the basis for the betterment of the lipoplexes with regard to their successful application in animals and eventually human subjects. Starting from the chemical structures of used cationic lipids (CLs), optimization of the additive inclusions, methods of nanoparticle (lipoplex) formation, presence of blood serum, time intervals of lipoplex incubation, and type of efficiency read-outs in various conditions play important roles in reaching insightful conclusions...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kwabena F M Opuni, Mahmoud Al-Majdoub, Yelena Yefremova, Reham F El-Kased, Cornelia Koy, Michael O Glocker
Mass spectrometric epitope mapping has become a versatile method to precisely determine a soluble antigen's partial structure that directly interacts with an antibody in solution. Typical lengths of investigated antigens have increased up to several 100 amino acids while experimentally determined epitope peptides have decreased in length to on average 10-15 amino acids. Since the early 1990s more and more sophisticated methods have been developed and have forwarded a bouquet of suitable approaches for epitope mapping with immobilized, temporarily immobilized, and free-floating antibodies...
July 12, 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Kripa Thakur, Sathyanarayan Sudhanthar, Yakov Sigal, Nina Mattarella
Reach out and Read program (ROR) prepares young children to succeed in school by partnering with physicians and training them in handing out age appropriate books and to counsel parents about the importance of reading aloud to their children. Children served by ROR enter kindergarten with stronger vocabulary and language skills. The aim of this project was to improve the rate of distribution of books and physician advice about reading, to the families at each well child visit in the age range of six months to five years...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Simone Hantke, Felix Weninger, Richard Kurle, Fabien Ringeval, Anton Batliner, Amr El-Desoky Mousa, Björn Schuller
We propose a new recognition task in the area of computational paralinguistics: automatic recognition of eating conditions in speech, i. e., whether people are eating while speaking, and what they are eating. To this end, we introduce the audio-visual iHEARu-EAT database featuring 1.6 k utterances of 30 subjects (mean age: 26.1 years, standard deviation: 2.66 years, gender balanced, German speakers), six types of food (Apple, Nectarine, Banana, Haribo Smurfs, Biscuit, and Crisps), and read as well as spontaneous speech, which is made publicly available for research purposes...
2016: PloS One
Arthur H Fierman, Andrew F Beck, Esther K Chung, Megan M Tschudy, Tumaini R Coker, Kamila B Mistry, Benjamin Siegel, Lisa J Chamberlain, Kathleen Conroy, Steven G Federico, Patricia J Flanagan, Arvin Garg, Benjamin A Gitterman, Aimee M Grace, Rachel S Gross, Michael K Hole, Perri Klass, Colleen Kraft, Alice Kuo, Gena Lewis, Katherine S Lobach, Dayna Long, Christine T Ma, Mary Messito, Dipesh Navsaria, Kimberley R Northrip, Cynthia Osman, Matthew D Sadof, Adam B Schickedanz, Joanne Cox
Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them...
April 2016: Academic Pediatrics
José Miguel de Paz, Fernando Visconti, Mara Chiaravalle, Ana Quiñones
Early diagnosis of specific chloride toxicity in persimmon trees requires the reliable and fast determination of the leaf chloride content, which is usually performed by means of a cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming wet analysis. A methodology has been developed in this study as an alternative to determine chloride in persimmon leaves using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with multivariate calibration techniques. Based on a training dataset of 134 samples, a predictive model was developed from their NIR spectral data...
May 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Agar Brugiavini, Noemi Pace
BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in exploring the potential of social health insurance in Africa where a number of countries are currently experimenting with different approaches. Since these schemes have been introduced recently and are continuously evolving, it is important to evaluate their effectiveness in the enhancement of health care utilization and reduction of out-of-pocket expenses for potential policy suggestions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the National Health Insurance Schemes (NHIS) in Ghana affects the utilization of maternal health care services and medical out-of-pocket expenses...
December 2016: Health Economics Review
Dessy Rachmawati, Laura A N Peferoen, Daphne Y S Vogel, Inás W A Alsalem, Sandra Amor, Hetty J Bontkes, B Mary E von Blomberg, Rik J Scheper, Ingrid M W van Hoogstraten
Oral metal exposure has been associated with diverse adverse reactions, including neurotoxicity. We showed previously that dentally applied metals activate dendritic cells (MoDC) via TLR4 (Ni, Co, Pd) and TLR3 (Au). It is still unknown whether the low levels of dental metals reaching the brain can trigger local innate cells or prime them to become more responsive. Here we tested whether dentally applied metals (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Au, Hg) activate primary human microglia in vitro and, as a model, monocytic THP-1-cells, in high non-toxic as well as near-physiological concentrations...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Mayank Kumar, Vivek Srinivas, Swati Patankar
BACKGROUND: Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) and upstream AUGs (uAUGs) can regulate the translation of downstream ORFs. The AT rich genome of Plasmodium falciparum, due to the higher AT content of start and stop codons, has the potential to give rise to a large number of uORFs and uAUGs that may affect expression of their flanking ORFs. METHODS: A bioinformatics approach was used to detect uATGs associated with different genes in the parasite. To study the effect of some of these uAUGs on the expression of the downstream ORF, promoters and 5' leaders containing uAUGs and uORFs were cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter gene...
2015: Malaria Journal
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