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Neoadjuvant treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319171/a-reported-20-gene-expression-signature-to-predict-lymph-node-positive-disease-at-radical-cystectomy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-is-clinically-not-applicable
#1
Kim E M van Kessel, Harmen J G van de Werken, Irene Lurkin, Angelique C J Ziel-van der Made, Ellen C Zwarthoff, Joost L Boormans
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) provides a small but significant survival benefit. Nevertheless, controversies on applying NAC remain because the limited benefit must be weight against chemotherapy-related toxicity and the delay of definitive local treatment. Therefore, there is a clear clinical need for tools to guide treatment decisions on NAC in MIBC. Here, we aimed to validate a previously reported 20-gene expression signature that predicted lymph node-positive disease at radical cystectomy in clinically node-negative MIBC patients, which would be a justification for upfront chemotherapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317586/strategies-to-improve-local-control-of-resected-pancreas-adenocarcinoma
#2
Paul H Sugarbaker
BACKGROUND: Only approximately one in ten pancreas cancer patients is a candidate for potentially curative resection of this disease. Even this small fraction of patients has a poor prognosis following pancreatico-duodenectomy. The disease has an anatomic location that makes it difficult for the surgeon to maintain adequate margins of resection and prevent tumor spillage at the time of resection. Also, the disease is biologically aggressive and even with a complete visible resection of the disease, micrometastases are likely to remain behind...
March 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317007/the-role-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-the-management-of-patients-with-advanced-stage-ovarian-cancer-survey-results-from-members-of-the-society-of-gynecologic-oncologists-a-5-year-follow-up
#3
Erica Huelsmann, Israel Zighelboim, Amina Ahmed, Summer Dewdney
•NACT use among SGO members for ovarian cancer is explored given recent trials.•Fewer SGO members feel they can't predict optimal cytoreduction pre-operatively.•Laparoscopy use has increased both for diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer.•Very high optimal cytoreduction rates are reported from SGO members.•Despite recent studies, SGO members don't regularly treat patients with NACT/ID.
May 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315155/synchronous-triple-primary-cancers-of-the-pharynx-and-esophagus
#4
Seita Kataoka, Masami Omae, Yusuke Horiuchi, Akiyoshi Ishiyama, Toshiyuki Yoshio, Toshiaki Hirasawa, Yorimasa Yamamoto, Tomohiro Tsuchida, Junko Fujisaki, Kazuhiko Yamada, Masahiro Igarashi
A 72-year-old male with nausea and heartburn was found to have early pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, superficial and advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and early esophageal adenocarcinoma by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Computerized tomography demonstrated left cardiac lymph node swellings. We prioritized the treatment for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as this was the most advanced cancer among the triple primaries. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma followed by esophagectomy...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315068/efficacy-and-safety-of-nab-paclitaxel-125%C3%A2-mg-m-2-and-nab-paclitaxel-150%C3%A2-mg-m-2-compared-to-paclitaxel-in-early-high-risk-breast-cancer-results-from-the-neoadjuvant-randomized-geparsepto-study-gbg-69
#5
Jenny Furlanetto, Christian Jackisch, Michael Untch, Andreas Schneeweiss, Sabine Schmatloch, Bahriye Aktas, Carsten Denkert, Hermann Wiebringhaus, Sherko Kümmel, Mathias Warm, Stefan Paepke, Marianne Just, Claus Hanusch, John Hackmann, Jens Uwe Blohmer, Michael Clemens, Serban Dan Costa, Bernd Gerber, Valentina Nekljudova, Sibylle Loibl, Gunter von Minckwitz
PURPOSE: The GeparSepto study demonstrated that the use of nab-paclitaxel instead of paclitaxel prior to anthracycline-based chemotherapy could lead to a significantly increased pCR rate, especially in the triple negative subpopulation. We report efficacy and safety for patients treated with two different doses of nab-paclitaxel in comparison to weekly solvent-formulated paclitaxel. METHODS: Patients were treated for 12 weeks with either intravenous nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) (nP150) weekly, after study amendment 125 mg/m(2) (nP125) weekly or solvent-based paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) (P80) weekly followed by epirubicin 90 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) on day 1 for four 3-week cycles...
March 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314842/performance-of-mid-treatment-breast-ultrasound-and-axillary-ultrasound-in-predicting-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-by-breast-cancer-subtype
#6
Rosalind P Candelaria, Roland L Bassett, William Fraser Symmans, Maheshwari Ramineni, Stacy L Moulder, Henry M Kuerer, Alastair M Thompson, Wei Tse Yang
BACKGROUND: The primary objective was to determine whether mid-treatment ultrasound measurements of index breast tumors and index axillary nodes of different cancer subtypes associate with residual cancer burden (RCB). METHODS: Patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had pre-treatment and mid-treatment breast and axillary ultrasound were included in this single-institution, retrospective cohort study. Linear regression analysis assessed associations between RCB with (a) change in index breast tumor size, (b) change in index node size, and (c) absolute number of abnormal nodes at mid-treatment...
March 17, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314323/bevacizumab-combined-with-chemotherapy-in-children-affected-by-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-single-center-experience
#7
Maria Debora DE Pasquale, Jean de Ville de Goyet, Lidia Monti, Chiara Grimaldi, Alessandro Crocoli, Aurora Castellano
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very rare in children and is traditionally associated with a poor prognosis because many patients are not amenable to conventional resection, even in the absence of metastatic disease. For patients with locally advanced or metastatic tumors, conventional chemotherapy appears to offer limited survival benefits. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report a case series of five consecutive pediatric patients with HCC who were treated with bevacizumab along with conventional platinum-based chemotherapy...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306215/primary-mediastinal-and-retroperitoneal-malignant-germ-cell-tumors-in-children-and-adolescents-results-of-the-tgm95-trial-a-study-of-the-french-society-of-pediatric-oncology-soci%C3%A3-t%C3%A3-fran%C3%A3-aise-des-cancers-de-l-enfant
#8
Hélène Sudour-Bonnange, Cécile Faure-Conter, Hélène Martelli, Frederic Hameury, Brice Fresneau, Daniel Orbach, Cécile Vérité
PURPOSE: To examine the clinical presentation, treatment and results in children and adolescents with primary mediastinal (PM) and retroperitoneal (RP) germ cell tumors (GCTs). METHODS: The TGM95 trial for malignant GCTs was conducted in France between 1995 and 2005 to evaluate a strategy adapted to prognostic factors with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and surgical management. We reviewed patients with TGCTs at PM and RP sites. RESULTS: Among 239 patients, there were 16 patients with PM and 5 with RP tumors, which represent 9% of all patients, highlighting the rarity of these extragonadal locations...
March 17, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304416/gynecologic-malignancies-in-pregnancy-balancing-fetal-risks-with-oncologic-safety
#9
Christina N Cordeiro, Mary L Gemignani
Importance: Cancer occurs in 0.05% to 0.1% of all pregnancies. Despite literature reporting good oncologic and fetal outcomes in women treated for cancer during pregnancy, as many as 44% of gynecologists would offer termination, and 37% would not administer chemotherapy or radiotherapy in pregnancy. Objectives: The aims of this study were to summarize current recommendations for the treatment of cervical and ovarian cancers in pregnancy and to review updates on existing knowledge regarding the safety of surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments in pregnancy, including both oncologic and fetal outcomes...
March 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304143/anal-function-after-endoluminal-loco-regional-resection-by-transanal-endoscopic-microsurgery-and-radiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer
#10
Ivano Biviano, Andrea Balla, Danilo Badiali, Silvia Quaresima, Giancarlo D'Ambrosio, Emanuele Lezoche, Enrico Corazziari, Alessandro M Paganini
AIM: In patients with rectal cancer, surgery and chemo-radiotherapy may affect the anal sphincter function. Few studies evaluated the ano-rectal function after neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (n-CRT) and/or Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of n-CRT and TEM on ano-rectal function. METHOD: Thirty-seven patients with rectal cancer underwent ano-rectal manometry and Wexner score for faecal incontinence at baseline, after n-CRT (cT2-T3N0 cancer) and at 4 and 12 months after surgery...
March 17, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302128/news-from-the-melanoma-sessions-of-the-european-cancer-congress-2017
#11
EDITORIAL
Piotr Rutkowski, Katarzyna Kozak
During the European Cancer Congress, the melanoma sessions focused on practice changing trials. Recent developments and approvals in immunotherapy and targeted agents have significantly changed the landscape of melanoma therapy in the metastatic setting and provide great promise for adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in high-risk locoregional disease. Perioperative (combined pre- and postoperative) strategies may be extremely beneficial for patients with bulky stage IIIC disease. The long-term results of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 18071 adjuvant trial ipilimumab versus placebo after complete resection of high-risk stage III melanoma, demonstrating improvement in overall survival, has established the reference bar for further trials with postoperative therapy...
March 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302003/liver-transplant-for-nonhepatocellular-carcinoma-malignancy
#12
Nihan Haberal Reyhan
Liver transplant is now an acceptable and effective treatment for specific nonhepatocellular malignancies. Worldwide, hilar cholangiocarcinoma accounts for 3% of all primary gastrointestinal malignancies and for 10% of primary hepatobiliary malignancies. For patients who have early-stage, unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, liver transplant preceded by neoadjuvant radiotherapy can result in tumor-free margins, accomplish a radical resection, and treat the underlying primary sclerosing cholangitis when present...
March 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299585/serial-imaging-using-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-and-histopathologic-assessment-in-predicting-survival-in-a-population-of-surgically-resectable-distal-oesophageal-and-gastric-adenocarcinoma-following-neoadjuvant-therapy
#13
Varun Manoharan, Soon Lee, Shanley Chong, June Yap, Nick Coupe, Robert Wilson, Neil Merrett, Weng Ng, Michael Lin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We retrospectively evaluated the value of PET/CT in predicting survival and histopathological tumour-response in patients with distal oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma following neoadjuvant treatment. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with resectable distal oesophageal adenocarcinoma and 14 with gastric adenocarcinoma between January 2002 and December 2011, who had undergone serial PET before and after neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery, were enrolled...
March 15, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295828/are-the-acosog-z0011-trial-findings-being-applied-to-breast-cancer-patients-undergoing-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#14
Olga Kantor, Catherine Pesce, Erik Liederbach, Chi-Hsiung Wang, David J Winchester, Katharine Yao
In 2010, the ACOSOG Z0011 trial showed equivalent survival and recurrence between sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone versus axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for those with a tumor positive sentinel node (SN). We examined national trends in axillary surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for clinically node positive disease in the years prior to and after the Z0011 trial publication. 12,063 women with cT1-4N1M0 invasive breast cancer who underwent NAC from 2006 to 2013 and had 1-3 positive nodes on pathology were selected from the National Cancer Data Base...
March 13, 2017: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295220/total-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-rectal-cancer-an-emerging-option
#15
REVIEW
Ethan B Ludmir, Manisha Palta, Christopher G Willett, Brian G Czito
The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has benefited from improved surgical techniques and from the implementation of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), which have markedly decreased the rates of local recurrence. However, distant metastatic disease remains the most significant cause of death for these patients. Although adjuvant chemotherapy (ChT) after neoadjuvant CRT and definitive surgery is commonly recommended, the value of adjuvant systemic therapy remains less clear. Trials evaluating adjuvant ChT for rectal cancer have been handicapped by poor compliance rates and inconsistent survival results...
March 10, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294676/-treatment-results-of-patients-with-rectum-tumor-in-a-city-hospital
#16
Zoltán Banai, Béla Lestár, Lajos Berczi, József Földi, Zsigmond Harkai, Tibor Karácsony
INTRODUCTION: Two hundred and three patients were operated on with rectal malignancy between 2007 and 2014 in our surgical department. METHODS: Of these, patients who had cancer within 16 cm of the anal verge were included. 73 patients received neoadjuvant treatment and 130 patients were treated with primary resection. The specimens were graded by the Dworak and the Rödel regression score system. RESULTS: We found strong response in 45 patients and pathologic complete remission in three patients...
March 2017: Magyar Sebészet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293715/a-phase-1-study-of-gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel-s-1-gas-combination-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-patients-with-locally-advanced-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#17
Naru Kondo, Yoshiaki Murakami, Kenichiro Uemura, Takeshi Sudo, Yasushi Hashimoto, Naoya Nakagawa, Shinya Takahashi, Hiroki Ohge, Taijiro Sueda
PURPOSE: To determine a recommended dose for a biweekly combination neoadjuvant chemotherapy including gemcitabine, nab-paclitaxel, and S-1 (GAS) for patients with locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (LAPC). METHODS: Patients with borderline resectable or unresectable LAPC without distant metastasis were eligible for this study. The planned dosages of gemcitabine (mg/m(2), day 1), nab-paclitaxel (mg/m(2), day 1), and S-1 (mg/day, days 1-7) were 800/100/60-100 at level 1, and 1000/125/60-100 at level 2...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293088/do-pathological-variables-have-prognostic-significance-in-rectal-adenocarcinoma-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-and-surgery
#18
Luca Reggiani Bonetti, Simona Lionti, Federica Domati, Valeria Barresi
AIM: To clarify which factors may influence pathological tumor response and affect clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma treated with neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery. METHODS: Tumor regression grade (TRG) according to the Dworak system and yTNM stage were assessed and correlated with pre-treatment clinico-pathological variables in 215 clinically locally advanced (cTNM stage II and III) rectal carcinomas. Prognostic value of all pathological and clinical factors on disease free survival (DFS) and cancer specific survival (CSS) was analyzed by Kaplan Meier and Cox-regression analyses...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291773/comprehensive-molecular-exploration-identified-promoter-dna-methylation-of-the-crbp1-gene-as-a-determinant-of-radiation-sensitivity-in-rectal-cancer
#19
K Yokoi, K Yamashita, S Ishii, T Tanaka, N Nishizawa, A Tsutsui, H Miura, H Katoh, T Yamanashi, M Naito, T Sato, T Nakamura, M Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) for advanced rectal cancer (RC) is a well-evidenced therapy; however, some RC patients have no therapeutic response. Patient selection for NCRT so that non-responsive patients are excluded has been subjective. To date, no molecular markers indicating radiation sensitivity have been reported. METHODS: We irradiated six colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and identified HCT116 cells as radiation-sensitive and HCT15 and DLD-1 cells as radiation resistant...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291424/giant-melanotic-neuroectodermal-tumor-of-infancy-melanotic-progonoma-of-the-head-and-neck-report-of-a-malignant-case
#20
Giancarlo Nicosia, Pietro Spennato, Ferdinando Aliberti, Daniele Cascone, Lucia Quaglietta, Maria Elena Errico, Mario Muto, Franco Ionna, Giuseppe Cinalli
Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare congenital pigmented neoplasm of neural crest origin, locally aggressive, growing rapidly and developing during the 1st year of life. It most commonly arises from the maxilla, cranial vault, and mandible. Occasionally, it exhibits malignant behavior with local lymph nodes involvement. Cases misdiagnosed and left untreated for a long time can present challenges due to the tumor mass and infiltration. In these cases, adjuvant chemotherapy can be extremely helpful before radical excision...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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