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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475151/ct-angiography-of-the-aorta-in-patients-with-marfan-disease-high-pitch-mdct-at-different-levels-of-tube-voltage-combined-with-sinogram-affirmed-iterative-reconstruction
#1
P Freyhardt, N Solowjowa, G Böning, J Kahn, B Aufmesser, P Haage, F Streitparth
OBJECTIVES: Aim of the study was the comparison of high-pitch dual-source CTA of the aorta acquired with different tube currents and methods of image reconstruction in patients with Marfan Disease (MFS). BACKGROUND: Patients with MFS receive repeatedly CT examinations of the entire aorta what leads to high cumulative lifetime radiation doses. Routine clinical use of low-kV-protocols in combination with iterative reconstruction for imaging of the aorta is still limited although this approach may be of great benefit for patients in need of serial follow-up scans...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474848/urology-consultation-and-emergency-department-revisits-for-children-with-urinary-stone-disease
#2
Jane Kurtzman, Lihai Song, Michelle E Ross, Charles D Scales, David I Chu, Gregory E Tasian
PURPOSE: To determine the association between urology consultation and emergency department (ED) revisits for children with urinary stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients ≤18 years-old who presented to an ED in South Carolina with a urinary stone from 1997-2015. The primary exposure was urology consultation during the index ED visit. The primary outcome was a stone-related ED revisit occurring within 180 days of discharge from an index ED visit...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474742/deep-feature-classification-of-angiomyolipoma-without-visible-fat-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-abdominal-contrast-enhanced-ct-images-with-texture-image-patches-and-hand-crafted-feature-concatenation
#3
Hansang Lee, Helen Hong, Junmo Kim, Dae Chul Jung
PURPOSE: To develop an automatic deep feature classification (DFC) method for distinguishing benign angiomyolipoma without visible fat (AMLwvf) from malignant clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from abdominal contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CE CT) images. METHODS: A dataset including 80 abdominal CT images of 39 AMLwvf and 41 ccRCC patients was used. We proposed a DFC method for differentiating the small renal masses (SRM) into AMLwvf and ccRCC using the combination of hand-crafted and deep features, and machine learning classifiers...
February 23, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474537/diagnostic-accuracy-of-postmortem-computed-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-computed-tomography-guided-biopsies-for-the-detection-of-ischaemic-heart-disease-in-a-hospital-setting
#4
Ivo M Wagensveld, Britt M Blokker, Andrea Pezzato, Piotr A Wielopolski, Nomdo S Renken, Jan H von der Thüsen, Gabriel P Krestin, M G Myriam Hunink, J Wolter Oosterhuis, Annick C Weustink
Aims: The autopsy rate worldwide is alarmingly low (0-15%). Mortality statistics are important, and it is, therefore, essential to perform autopsies in a sufficient proportion of deaths. The imaging autopsy, non-invasive, or minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) can be used as an alternative to the conventional autopsy in an attempt to improve postmortem diagnostics by increasing the number of postmortem procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and CT-guided biopsy for the detection of acute and chronic myocardial ischaemia...
February 20, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474457/effect-of-contrast-material-injection-duration-on-arterial-enhancement-at-ct-in-patients-with-various-cardiac-indices-analysis-using-computer-simulation
#5
Toru Higaki, Takeshi Nakaura, Masafumi Kidoh, Hideaki Yuki, Yasuyuki Yamashita, Yuko Nakamura, Fuminari Tatsugami, Yasutaka Baba, Makoto Iida, Kazuo Awai
Arterial peak enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) images is thought to be higher in patients with low cardiac function. Using computer simulations, we tested the hypothesis that the relationship between the cardiac index and the aortic peak CT number (PCTN) is affected by the contrast material (CM) injection duration. We created computer simulation software for the contrast enhancement of various organs and vessels based on the Bae pharmacokinetics model and implemented models for CM transmission within organs and CM diffusion in blood plasma based on the osmotic pressure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474196/adenocarcinoma-prostate-with-neuroendocrine-differentiation-potential-utility-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-and-68ga-dotanoc-pet-ct-over-68ga-psma-pet-ct
#6
Girish Kumar Parida, Sarthak Tripathy, Shreya Datta Gupta, Abhinav Singhal, Rakesh Kumar, Chandrasekhar Bal, Shamim Ahmed Shamim
Ga-PSMA PET/CT is the upcoming imaging modality for staging, restaging and response assessment of prostate cancer. However, due to neuroendocrine differentiation in some of patients with prostate cancer, they express somatostatin receptors instead of prostate specific membrane antigen. This can be exploited and other modalities like Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT and F-FDG PET/CT should be used in such cases for guiding management. We hereby discuss a similar case of 67-year-old man of adenocarcinoma prostate with neuroendocrine differentiation, which shows the potential pitfall of Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging and benefit of Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT and F-FDG PET/CT in such cases...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474098/comparing-four-radiotherapy-techniques-for-treating-the-chest-wall-plus-levels-iii-iv-draining-nodes-after-breast-reconstruction
#7
Valentina Lancellotta, Martina Iacco, Elisabetta Perrucci, Lorenzo Falcinelli, Claudio Zucchetti, Berardino de Bari, Simonetta Saldi, Cynthia Aristei
OBJECTIVE: To compare the dosimetric outcomes of four radiotherapy (RT) techniques for treating the chest wall plus draining nodes after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. METHODS: Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), linac-based intensity modulated radiotherapy, helical tomotherapy (HT) and direct tomotherapy (DT) treatments were planned for 40 breast cancer patients. Dose prescription was 50 Gy. Plans were compared in terms of doses to the planning target volume, organs at risk (OARs) and the homogeneity index (HI)...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474097/vibe-mri-an-alternative-to-ct-in-the-imaging-of-sports-related-osseous-pathology
#8
Edward Rj Walton, Eamon Koh, Phil Watson
MRI is an excellent diagnostic tool in the imaging of sports related musculoskeletal pathology however, standard slice thickness acquisitions can lack the spatial resolution to accurately define and characterise osseous abnormalities. Standard MRI sequences may be supplemented with CT to reduce diagnostic uncertainty. We provide a clinical perspective, in the form of pictorial review, on the potential applications of 3D MRI sequences in the form of Volumetric Interpolated Breath-hold Examination (VIBE) in the characterisation of various musculoskeletal osseous pathologies...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473947/quality-of-preoperative-pelvic-computed-tomography-ct-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-for-rectal-cancer-in-a-region-in-ontario-a-retrospective-population-based-study
#9
Jessica Bogach, Scott Tsai, Kevin Zbuk, Raimond Wong, Vanja Grubac, Angela Coates, Gregory R Pond, Marko Simunovic
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment decisions for rectal cancer rely on preoperative staging with CT and MRI scans. We assessed the quality of such scans in a region of Ontario. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data for patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery between July 2011 and December 2014. We measured three aspects of quality: use; comprehensiveness of reporting T-category, N-category, mesorectal fascia (MRF) status; and in non-radiated patients sensitivity and specificity of reports for relevant elements...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473779/impact-of-timing-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-placement-on-outcome-in-posttraumatic-hydrocephalus
#10
Robert G Kowalski, Alan H Weintraub, Benjamin A Rubin, Donald J Gerber, Andrew J Olsen
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is a frequent sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and complication of related cranial surgery. The roles of PTH and the timing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt placement in TBI outcome have not been well described. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of hydrocephalus and timing of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement on outcome during inpatient rehabilitation after TBI. METHODS In this cohort study, all TBI patients admitted to Craig Hospital between 2009 and 2013 were evaluated for PTH, defined as ventriculomegaly, and hydrocephalus symptoms, delayed or deteriorating recovery, or elevated opening pressure on lumbar puncture...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473213/ischemic-colitis-following-left-antegrade-sclerotherapy-for-idiopathic-varicocele
#11
REVIEW
Rafael Boscolo-Berto, Veronica Macchi, Andrea Porzionato, Aldo Morra, Roberto Vezzaro, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs, Raffaele De Caro
Introduction The Tauber procedure, i.e., antegrade sclerotherapy for varicocele, can lead to ischemic colitis. The pathogenesis can involve an atypical systemic-portal communication, which could represent an infrequently reported (rare) anatomical variant. The aim of this study is to review clinical cases from the literature to highlight the anatomical bases of such complications. Materials and methods A computer-aided and hand-checked review of the literature was used to identify relevant publications. Also, the computed tomography (CT) examination of a clinical case with medico-legal implications due to severe vascular complication following Tauber's procedure was reviewed...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473129/agile-convolutional-neural-network-for-pulmonary-nodule-classification-using-ct-images
#12
Xinzhuo Zhao, Liyao Liu, Shouliang Qi, Yueyang Teng, Jianhua Li, Wei Qian
OBJECTIVE: To distinguish benign from malignant pulmonary nodules using CT images is critical for their precise diagnosis and treatment. A new Agile convolutional neural network (CNN) framework is proposed to conquer the challenges of a small-scale medical image database and the small size of the nodules, and it improves the performance of pulmonary nodule classification using CT images. METHODS: A hybrid CNN of LeNet and AlexNet is constructed through combining the layer settings of LeNet and the parameter settings of AlexNet...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473093/assessment-of-iodine-uptake-by-pancreatic-cancer-following-chemotherapy-using-dual-energy-ct
#13
REVIEW
Satomi Kawamoto, Matthew K Fuld, Daniel Laheru, Peng Huang, Elliot K Fishman
Pancreatic cancer remains a major health problem, and only less than 20% of patients have resectable disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Systemic chemotherapy is often used in the patients with borderline resectable, locally advanced unresectable disease and metastatic disease. CT is often used to assess for therapeutic response; however, conventional imaging including CT may not correctly reflect treatment response after chemotherapy. Dual-energy (DE) CT can acquire datasets at two different photon spectra in a single CT acquisition, and permits separating materials and extract iodine by applying a material decomposition algorithm...
February 23, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472970/comparisons-of-medical-student-knowledge-regarding-life-threatening-ct-images-before-and-after-clinical-experience
#14
Barbara Nguyen, Brady Werth, Nicholas Brewer, Jeanette G Ward, R Joseph Nold, James M Haan
Background: Currently, no national standard exists for educating medical students regarding radiography or formal research indicating the level of improvement regarding computed tomography (CT) interpretation of medical students during clinical rotations. Methods: Students were evaluated based on their response to twenty-two open-ended questions regarding diagnosis and treatment of eleven de-identified CT images of life-threatening injuries. The number of incorrect answers was compared with correct or partially correct answers between students starting third-year clinical rotations and those starting their fourth year...
August 2017: Kansas Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472891/a-review-of-traumatic-axonal-injury-following-whiplash-injury-as-demonstrated-by-diffusion-tensor-tractography
#15
REVIEW
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
Whiplash is a bony or soft tissue injury resulting from an acceleration-deceleration energy transfer in the neck. Although patients with whiplash injury often complain of cerebral symptoms, and previous studies have reported evidence indicating brain injury, such an association has not been clearly elucidated. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is tearing of axons due to indirect shearing forces during acceleration, deceleration, and rotation of the brain or to direct head trauma. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has a unique advantage to detect TAI in patients whose conventional brain CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were negative following head trauma...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472890/severe-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-cardioembolic-stroke
#16
Chang Liu, Feina Shi, Zhicai Chen, Shenqiang Yan, Xinfa Ding, Min Lou
Background: Previous studies demonstrated that cardioembolism (CE) was prone to develop hemorrhagic transformation (HT), whereas hyper-permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) might be one reason for the development of HT. We, thus, aimed to investigate whether the BBB permeability (BBBP) was higher in CE stroke than other stroke subtypes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods: This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected clinical and imaging database of AIS patients who underwent CT perfusion...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472301/revenue-increase-following-2017-multiple-procedures-payment-reduction-modification-differential-impact-on-neuroradiology-report-from-an-academic-medical-center
#17
B B Noveiry, F N Varzaneh, D M Yousem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services imposed a 25% professional component multiple procedure payment reduction for the professional component of advanced diagnostic imaging modalities in January 2012. In 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services rolled back the multiple procedure payment reduction to 5% for subsequent imaging. To evaluate the effect of this change, we analyzed 5 months of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services procedures at Johns Hopkins Medical Institution...
February 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472297/intraoperative-conebeam-ct-for-assessment-of-intracochlear-positioning-of-electrode-arrays-in-adult-recipients-of-cochlear-implants
#18
H Jia, R Torres, Y Nguyen, D De Seta, E Ferrary, H Wu, O Sterkers, D Bernardeschi, I Mosnier
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intraoperative conebeam CT has been introduced into the operating room and provides quick radiologic feedback. This study aimed to investigate its utility in the assessment of the positioning of the electrode array after cochlear implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 51 patients (65 ears) with intraoperative imaging by conebeam CT (O-arm) after cochlear implantation between 2013 and 2017. Correct placement into the cochlea was immediately identified...
February 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472296/brain-injury-lesion-imaging-using-preconditioned-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-without-skull-stripping
#19
S Soman, Z Liu, G Kim, U Nemec, S J Holdsworth, K Main, B Lee, S Kolakowsky-Hayner, M Selim, A J Furst, P Massaband, J Yesavage, M M Adamson, P Spincemallie, M Moseley, Y Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identifying cerebral microhemorrhage burden can aid in the diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury, stroke, hypertension, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. MR imaging susceptibility-based methods are more sensitive than CT for detecting cerebral microhemorrhage, but methods other than quantitative susceptibility mapping provide results that vary with field strength and TE, require additional phase maps to distinguish blood from calcification, and depict cerebral microhemorrhages as bloom artifacts...
February 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472116/post-imaging-colorectal-cancer-or-interval-cancer-rates-after-ct-colonography-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Anu E Obaro, Andrew A Plumb, Thomas R Fanshawe, Ulysses S Torres, Rachel Baldwin-Cleland, Stuart A Taylor, Steve Halligan, David N Burling
BACKGROUND: CT colonography is highly sensitive for colorectal cancer, but interval or post-imaging colorectal cancer rates (diagnosis of cancer after initial negative CT colonography) are unknown, as are their underlying causes. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of post-CT colonography and post-imaging colorectal cancer rates and causes to address this gap in understanding. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...
February 19, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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