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Math fluency

Cristina E Nanu, Jake McMullen, Petriina Munck, Minna M Hannula-Sormunen
Previous studies in a variety of countries have shown that there are substantial individual differences in children's spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON), and these differences are positively related to the development of early numerical skills in preschool and primary school. A total of 74 5-year-olds participated in a 7-year follow-up study, in which we explored whether SFON measured with very small numerosities at 5 years of age predicts mathematical skills and knowledge, math motivation, and reading in fifth grade at 11 years of age...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jeanette Taylor, Chelsea R Ennis, Sara A Hart, Amy J Mikolajewski, Christopher Schatschneider
The goal of this study was to identify home environmental and temperament/behavior variables that best predict standardized reading comprehension scores among school-aged children. Data from 269 children aged 9-16 (M = 12.08; SD = 1.62) were used in discriminant function analyses to create the Home and Behavior indices. Family income was controlled in each index. The final Home and Behavior models each classified around 75% of cases correctly (reading comprehension at grade level vs. not). Each index was then used to predict other outcomes related to reading...
July 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
Hyesang Chang, Lisa Sprute, Erin A Maloney, Sian L Beilock, Marc G Berman
Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Agnese Capodieci, Rhonda Martinussen
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the types of errors made by youth with and without a parent-reported diagnosis of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on a math fluency task and investigate the association between error types and youths' performance on measures of processing speed and working memory. Method: Participants included 30 adolescents with ADHD and 39 typically developing peers between 14 and 17 years old matched in age and IQ. All youth completed standardized measures of math calculation and fluency as well as two tests of working memory and processing speed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Ellen Van Der Plas, Lauren Erdman, Brian J Nieman, Rosanna Weksberg, Darci T Butcher, Deborah L O'connor, Susanne Aufreiter, Johann Hitzler, Sharon L Guger, Russell J Schachar, Shinya Ito, Brenda J Spiegler
Knowledge about cognitive late effects in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is largely based on standardized neuropsychological measures and parent reports. To examine whether cognitive neuroscience paradigms provided additional insights into neurocognitive and behavioral late effects in ALL survivors, we assessed cognition and behavior using a selection of cognitive neuroscience tasks and standardized measures probing domains previously demonstrated to be affected by chemotherapy. 130 ALL survivors and 158 control subjects, between 8 and 18 years old at time of testing, completed the n-back (working memory) and stop-signal (response inhibition) tasks...
October 10, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Meixia Zhu, Dan Cai, Ada W S Leung
Studies have shown that number line estimation is important for learning. However, it is yet unclear if number line estimation predicts different mathematical skills in different grades after controlling for age, non-verbal cognitive ability, attention, and working memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of number line estimation on two mathematical skills (calculation fluency and math problem-solving) in grade 2 and grade 4. One hundred and forty-eight children from Shanghai, China were assessed on measures of number line estimation, non-verbal cognitive ability (non-verbal matrices), working memory (N-back), attention (expressive attention), and mathematical skills (calculation fluency and math problem-solving)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
M José Justicia-Galiano, M Eva Martín-Puga, Rocío Linares, Santiago Pelegrina
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible mediational mechanisms between math anxiety and math performance. Specifically, we sought to test the simultaneous mediating role of working memory and math self-concept...
May 31, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Riikka Sorvo, Tuire Koponen, Helena Viholainen, Tuija Aro, Eija Räikkönen, Pilvi Peura, Ann Dowker, Mikko Aro
BACKGROUND: Children have been found to report and demonstrate math anxiety as early as the first grade. However, previous results concerning the relationship between math anxiety and performance are contradictory, with some studies establishing a correlation between them while others do not. These contradictory results might be related to varying operationalizations of math anxiety. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence of math anxiety and its relationship with basic arithmetic skills in primary school children, with explicit focus on two aspects of math anxiety: anxiety about failure in mathematics and anxiety in math-related situations...
March 3, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Han L J van der Maas, Enkhbold Nyamsuren
We analyze the cognitive strategies underlying performance in the Number task, a Math game that requires both arithmetic fluency and mathematical creativity. In this game all elements in a set of numbers (for instance, 2, 5, 9) have to be used precisely once to create a target number (for instance, 27) with basic arithmetic operations (solution: [5-2] × 9). We argue that some instances of this game are NP complete, by showing its relation to the well-known Partition problem. We propose heuristics based on the distinction in forward and backward reasoning...
November 20, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
Sara Caviola, Giulia Gerotto, Irene C Mammarella
The literature on intervention programs to improve arithmetical abilities is fragmentary and few studies have examined training on the symbolic representation of numbers (i.e. Arabic digits). In the present research, three groups of 3rd- and 5th-grade schoolchildren were given training on mental additions: 76 were assigned to a computer-based strategic training (ST) group, 73 to a process-based training (PBT) group, and 71 to a passive control (PC) group. Before and after the training, the children were given a criterion task involving complex addition problems, a nearest transfer task on complex subtraction problems, two near transfer tasks on math fluency, and a far transfer task on numerical reasoning...
November 2016: Acta Psychologica
Lynn S Fuchs, Jennifer K Gilbert, Sarah R Powell, Paul T Cirino, Douglas Fuchs, Carol L Hamlett, Pamela M Seethaler, Tammy D Tolar
The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of prealgebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of Grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of Grade 2; and prealgebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of Grade 4...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
Kiersten Hensley, Angelica Rankin, John Hosp
As the number of computerized curriculum-based measurement (CBM) tools increases, it is necessary to examine whether or not student performance can generalize across a variety of test administration modes (i.e., paper or computer). The purpose of this study is to compare math fact fluency on paper versus computer for 197 upper elementary students. Students completed identical sets of probes on paper and on the computer, which were then scored for digits correct, problems correct, and accuracy. Results showed a significant difference in performance between the two sets of probes, with higher fluency rates on the paper probes...
2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Aïna Chalabaev, Rémi Radel, E J Masicampo, Vincent Dru
In four experiments, we tested whether embodied triggers may reduce stereotype threat. We predicted that left-side sensorimotor inductions would increase cognitive performance under stereotype threat, because such inductions are linked to avoidance motivation among right-handers. This sensorimotor-mental congruence hypothesis rests on regulatory fit research showing that stereotype threat may be reduced by avoidance-oriented interventions, and motor congruence research showing positive effects when two parameters of a motor action activate the same motivational system (avoidance or approach)...
August 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Tashauna L Blankenship, Meagan O'Neill, Alleyne Ross, Martha Ann Bell
The contributions of working memory and recollection to academic achievement are typically examined separately and most often with children who have learning difficulties. This study is the first to observe both types of memory in the same study and in typically developing children. Academic achievement focused on standardized assessments of math fluency, calculation, reading fluency, and passage comprehension. As noted in previous studies, working memory was associated with each assessed measure of academic achievement...
October 1, 2015: Learning and Individual Differences
Caitlin Tenison, John R Anderson
A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from calculation to retrieval). In the current study, we use hidden Markov modeling to identify transitions in the learning process. This method accounts for the gradual speedup in problem solving and also uncovers abrupt changes in reaction time, which reflect changes in the cognitive processes that participants are using to solve math problems...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Johannes E H Van Luit, Sylke W M Toll
BACKGROUND: Growing attention has been paid to the possibility of supporting early numeracy in at-risk kindergartners. Furthermore, it is assumed that language proficiency is an important prerequisite in early maths skills. AIMS: To examine whether remedial early numeracy education in kindergarten, which has been proven to be effective in general, is also beneficial for children with a language deficiency. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Based on intensive selection, four different conditions were included: two groups received remedial education, one consisting of children being language proficient (N = 86) and one of children with a language deficiency (N = 26), and two groups followed the regular curriculum, one consisting of children being language proficient (N = 51) and one of children with a language deficiency (N = 24)...
September 2015: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Sarah A Gray, Maria Rogers, Rhonda Martinussen, Rosemary Tannock
Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1-4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks...
2015: PeerJ
Kimberly P Raghubar, Marcia A Barnes, Maureen Dennis, Paul T Cirino, Heather Taylor, Susan Landry
OBJECTIVE: Math and attention are related in neurobiological and behavioral models of mathematical cognition. This study employed model-driven assessments of attention and math in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM), who have known math difficulties and specific attentional deficits, to more directly examine putative relations between attention and mathematical processing. The relation of other domain general abilities and math was also investigated. METHOD: Participants were 9...
November 2015: Neuropsychology
Erin K Howie, Jeffrey Schatz, Russell R Pate
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute dose-response relationship of classroom exercise breaks with executive function and math performance in 9- to 12-year-old children by comparing 5-min, 10-min, or 20-min classroom exercise breaks to 10 min of sedentary classroom activity. METHOD: This study used a within-subjects experimental design conducted in the spring of 2012. Ninety-six 4th- and 5th-grade students in 5 classrooms in South Carolina were randomized to receive each of 4 treatments: 5-min, 10-min, or 20-min exercise breaks or 10 min of a sedentary lesson led by research staff...
2015: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Greg M Schutte, Gary J Duhon, Benjamin G Solomon, Brian C Poncy, Kathryn Moore, Bailey Story
To best remediate academic deficiencies, educators need to not only identify empirically validated interventions but also be able to apply instructional modifications that result in more efficient student learning. The current study compared the effect of massed and distributed practice with an explicit timing intervention to evaluate the extent to which these modifications lead to increased math fact fluency on basic addition problems. Forty-eight third-grade students were placed into one of three groups with each of the groups completing four 1-min math explicit timing procedures each day across 19 days...
April 2015: Journal of School Psychology
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