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Math fluency

M José Justicia-Galiano, M Eva Martín-Puga, Rocío Linares, Santiago Pelegrina
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible mediational mechanisms between math anxiety and math performance. Specifically, we sought to test the simultaneous mediating role of working memory and math self-concept...
May 31, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Riikka Sorvo, Tuire Koponen, Helena Viholainen, Tuija Aro, Eija Räikkönen, Pilvi Peura, Ann Dowker, Mikko Aro
BACKGROUND: Children have been found to report and demonstrate math anxiety as early as the first grade. However, previous results concerning the relationship between math anxiety and performance are contradictory, with some studies establishing a correlation between them while others do not. These contradictory results might be related to varying operationalizations of math anxiety. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence of math anxiety and its relationship with basic arithmetic skills in primary school children, with explicit focus on two aspects of math anxiety: anxiety about failure in mathematics and anxiety in math-related situations...
March 3, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Han L J van der Maas, Enkhbold Nyamsuren
We analyze the cognitive strategies underlying performance in the Number task, a Math game that requires both arithmetic fluency and mathematical creativity. In this game all elements in a set of numbers (for instance, 2, 5, 9) have to be used precisely once to create a target number (for instance, 27) with basic arithmetic operations (solution: [5-2] × 9). We argue that some instances of this game are NP complete, by showing its relation to the well-known Partition problem. We propose heuristics based on the distinction in forward and backward reasoning...
November 20, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
Sara Caviola, Giulia Gerotto, Irene C Mammarella
The literature on intervention programs to improve arithmetical abilities is fragmentary and few studies have examined training on the symbolic representation of numbers (i.e. Arabic digits). In the present research, three groups of 3rd- and 5th-grade schoolchildren were given training on mental additions: 76 were assigned to a computer-based strategic training (ST) group, 73 to a process-based training (PBT) group, and 71 to a passive control (PC) group. Before and after the training, the children were given a criterion task involving complex addition problems, a nearest transfer task on complex subtraction problems, two near transfer tasks on math fluency, and a far transfer task on numerical reasoning...
November 2016: Acta Psychologica
Lynn S Fuchs, Jennifer K Gilbert, Sarah R Powell, Paul T Cirino, Douglas Fuchs, Carol L Hamlett, Pamela M Seethaler, Tammy D Tolar
The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of prealgebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of Grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of Grade 2; and prealgebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of Grade 4...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
Kiersten Hensley, Angelica Rankin, John Hosp
As the number of computerized curriculum-based measurement (CBM) tools increases, it is necessary to examine whether or not student performance can generalize across a variety of test administration modes (i.e., paper or computer). The purpose of this study is to compare math fact fluency on paper versus computer for 197 upper elementary students. Students completed identical sets of probes on paper and on the computer, which were then scored for digits correct, problems correct, and accuracy. Results showed a significant difference in performance between the two sets of probes, with higher fluency rates on the paper probes...
July 22, 2016: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Aïna Chalabaev, Rémi Radel, E J Masicampo, Vincent Dru
In four experiments, we tested whether embodied triggers may reduce stereotype threat. We predicted that left-side sensorimotor inductions would increase cognitive performance under stereotype threat, because such inductions are linked to avoidance motivation among right-handers. This sensorimotor-mental congruence hypothesis rests on regulatory fit research showing that stereotype threat may be reduced by avoidance-oriented interventions, and motor congruence research showing positive effects when two parameters of a motor action activate the same motivational system (avoidance or approach)...
August 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Tashauna L Blankenship, Meagan O'Neill, Alleyne Ross, Martha Ann Bell
The contributions of working memory and recollection to academic achievement are typically examined separately and most often with children who have learning difficulties. This study is the first to observe both types of memory in the same study and in typically developing children. Academic achievement focused on standardized assessments of math fluency, calculation, reading fluency, and passage comprehension. As noted in previous studies, working memory was associated with each assessed measure of academic achievement...
October 1, 2015: Learning and Individual Differences
Caitlin Tenison, John R Anderson
A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from calculation to retrieval). In the current study, we use hidden Markov modeling to identify transitions in the learning process. This method accounts for the gradual speedup in problem solving and also uncovers abrupt changes in reaction time, which reflect changes in the cognitive processes that participants are using to solve math problems...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Johannes E H Van Luit, Sylke W M Toll
BACKGROUND: Growing attention has been paid to the possibility of supporting early numeracy in at-risk kindergartners. Furthermore, it is assumed that language proficiency is an important prerequisite in early maths skills. AIMS: To examine whether remedial early numeracy education in kindergarten, which has been proven to be effective in general, is also beneficial for children with a language deficiency. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Based on intensive selection, four different conditions were included: two groups received remedial education, one consisting of children being language proficient (N = 86) and one of children with a language deficiency (N = 26), and two groups followed the regular curriculum, one consisting of children being language proficient (N = 51) and one of children with a language deficiency (N = 24)...
September 2015: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Sarah A Gray, Maria Rogers, Rhonda Martinussen, Rosemary Tannock
Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1-4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks...
2015: PeerJ
Kimberly P Raghubar, Marcia A Barnes, Maureen Dennis, Paul T Cirino, Heather Taylor, Susan Landry
OBJECTIVE: Math and attention are related in neurobiological and behavioral models of mathematical cognition. This study employed model-driven assessments of attention and math in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM), who have known math difficulties and specific attentional deficits, to more directly examine putative relations between attention and mathematical processing. The relation of other domain general abilities and math was also investigated. METHOD: Participants were 9...
November 2015: Neuropsychology
Erin K Howie, Jeffrey Schatz, Russell R Pate
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute dose-response relationship of classroom exercise breaks with executive function and math performance in 9- to 12-year-old children by comparing 5-min, 10-min, or 20-min classroom exercise breaks to 10 min of sedentary classroom activity. METHOD: This study used a within-subjects experimental design conducted in the spring of 2012. Ninety-six 4th- and 5th-grade students in 5 classrooms in South Carolina were randomized to receive each of 4 treatments: 5-min, 10-min, or 20-min exercise breaks or 10 min of a sedentary lesson led by research staff...
2015: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Greg M Schutte, Gary J Duhon, Benjamin G Solomon, Brian C Poncy, Kathryn Moore, Bailey Story
To best remediate academic deficiencies, educators need to not only identify empirically validated interventions but also be able to apply instructional modifications that result in more efficient student learning. The current study compared the effect of massed and distributed practice with an explicit timing intervention to evaluate the extent to which these modifications lead to increased math fact fluency on basic addition problems. Forty-eight third-grade students were placed into one of three groups with each of the groups completing four 1-min math explicit timing procedures each day across 19 days...
April 2015: Journal of School Psychology
Kristi L Hofstadter-Duke, Edward J Daly
This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems...
March 2015: Behavior Modification
Ivilin P Stoianov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Sarah L Lukowski, Brooke Soden, Sara A Hart, Lee A Thompson, Yulia Kovas, Stephen A Petrill
Working memory has been consistently associated with mathematics achievement, although the etiology of these relations remains poorly understood. The present study examined the genetic and environmental underpinnings of math story problem solving, timed calculation, and untimed calculation alongside working memory components in 12-year-old monozygotic (n = 105) and same-sex dizygotic (n = 143) twin pairs. Results indicated significant phenotypic correlation between each working memory component and all mathematics outcomes (r = 0...
2014: Intelligence
Matthew K Burns, Jim Ysseldyke, Peter M Nelson, Rebecca Kanive
Computational fluency is an important aspect of math proficiency. Despite widely held beliefs about the differential difficulty of single-digit multiplication math facts, little empirical work has examined this issue. The current study analyzed the number of repetitions needed to master multiplication math facts. Data from 15,402 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders were analyzed using a national database. Results suggested that (a) students with lower math skills required significantly (p < .001) more repetitions than more skilled students; (b) across all students, single-digit multiplication facts with 4s, 5s, 6s, and 7s required significantly (p < ...
September 2015: School Psychology Quarterly
J Pastuszak, B Hill, J Foster, M Musso, K Fields, K Russ
OBJECTIVE: Intelligence measures have a high-moderate correlation with academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine if anxiety on the day of testing moderates the relationship between intelligence and academic achievement. METHOD: Six hundred sixty-five participants (mean age = 22.77, SD = 5.99; 51% female; 87% white) at a large southeastern university were administered the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), Woodcock-Johnson-Third Edition (WJ-III), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
September 2014: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Gerd Schulte-Körne
The publication of the DSM-5 means changes in the classification and recommendations for diagnosis of specific learning disabilities. Dyslexia and dyscalculia have been reintroduced into the DSM. Three specific learning disorders - impairment in reading, impairment in the written expression, and impairment in mathematics, described by subskills - are now part of the DSM-5. Three subcomponents of the reading disorder are expressly differentiated: word reading accuracy, reading rate, and fluency and reading comprehension...
September 2014: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
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