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Split personality

Anders Hviid, Henrik Svanström, Ditte Mølgaard-Nielsen, Philipp Lambach
Importance: Several studies investigating potential adverse effects of the pandemic A(H1N1) vaccine have supported that influenza A(H1N1) vaccination does not increase the risk for major pregnancy and birth adverse outcomes, but little is known about possible adverse effects in offspring of A(H1N1)-vaccinated mothers beyond the perinatal period and into early childhood. Objective: To evaluate whether pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination in pregnancy increases the risk for early childhood morbidity in offspring...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
P Cole
GTCBio's Precision Medicine Conference met this year to outline the many steps forward that precision medicine and individualized genomics has made and the challenges it still faces in technological, modeling, and standards development, interoperability and compatibility advancements, and methods of economic and societal adoption. The conference was split into four sections, 'Overcoming Challenges in the Commercialization of Precision Medicine', 'Implementation of Precision Medicine: Strategies & Technologies', 'Integrating & Interpreting Personal Genomics, Big Data, & Bioinformatics' and 'Incentivizing Precision Medicine: Regulation & Reimbursement', with this report focusing on the final two subjects...
September 2016: Drugs of Today
Murat Sarıkabak, Çetin Yaman, Serdar Tok, Erdal Binboga
We investigated the effect of positive and negative feedback on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the biceps brachii muscle and explored the mediating effects of gender and conscientiousness. During elbow flexion, MVCs were measured in positive, negative, and no-feedback conditions. Participants were divided into high- and low-conscientiousness groups based on the median split of their scores on Tatar's five-factor personality inventory. Considering all participants 46 college student athletes (21 female, 28 male), positive feedback led to a greater MVC percentage change (-5...
November 2, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Philipp Riedel, Mark J Jacob, Dirk K Müller, Nora C Vetter, Michael N Smolka, Michael Marxen
Reaction times (RTs) are a valuable measure for assessing cognitive processes. However, RTs are susceptible to confounds and therefore variable. Exposure to threat, for example, speeds up or slows down responses. Distinct task types to some extent account for differential effects of threat on RTs. But also do inter-individual differences like trait anxiety. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated whether activation within the amygdala, a brain region closely linked to the processing of threat, may also function as a predictor of RTs, similar to trait anxiety scores...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
A R Docherty, A Moscati, R Peterson, A C Edwards, D E Adkins, S A Bacanu, T B Bigdeli, B T Webb, J Flint, K S Kendler
Biometrical genetic studies suggest that the personality dimensions, including neuroticism, are moderately heritable (~0.4 to 0.6). Quantitative analyses that aggregate the effects of many common variants have recently further informed genetic research on European samples. However, there has been limited research to date on non-European populations. This study examined the personality dimensions in a large sample of Han Chinese descent (N=10 064) from the China, Oxford, and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology study, aimed at identifying genetic risk factors for recurrent major depression among a rigorously ascertained cohort...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Argyris Tzouvelekis, Jose D Herazo-Maya, Martin Slade, Jen-Hwa Chu, Giuseppe Deiuliis, Changwan Ryu, Qin Li, Koji Sakamoto, Gabriel Ibarra, Hongyi Pan, Mridu Gulati, Danielle Antin-Ozerkis, Erica L Herzog, Naftali Kaminski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with poor prognosis and variable clinical course. Although matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is emerging as an important IPF biomarker, reproducibility across studies is unclear. We aimed to determine whether a previously reported prognostic threshold for MMP-7 was predictive of mortality in an independent cohort of IPF patients. METHODS: MMP-7 concentrations obtained from heparinized plasma samples were determined by ELISA in 97 patients with IPF and 41 healthy controls...
October 19, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Veerasamy Yengopal, Soraya Yasin Harnekar, Naren Patel, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Childhood caries (tooth decay) consists of a form of tooth decay that affects the milk teeth (also known as baby or primary teeth) of children. This may range from tooth decay in a single tooth to rampant caries affecting all the teeth in the mouth. Primary teeth in young children are vital to their development and every effort should be made to retain these teeth for as long as is possible. Dental fillings or restorations have been used as an intervention to repair these damaged teeth...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Vani Nath Simmons, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Paul T Harrell, Lauren R Meltzer, John B Correa, Marina Unrod, Thomas H Brandon
BACKGROUND: There has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of e-cigarette use, particularly among youth. However, adult use is also rising, and there have been relatively few qualitative studies with adult users to understand their reasons for use and future use intentions. Such information is needed to inform both prevention and cessation approaches. METHOD: Thirty-one e-cigarette users participated in one of several focus groups assessing the appeal of e-cigarettes as well as comparisons to combustible cigarettes and approved smoking cessation aids...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
Ruoqing Zhu, Ying-Qi Zhao, Guanhua Chen, Shuangge Ma, Hongyu Zhao
We propose a subgroup identification approach for inferring optimal and interpretable personalized treatment rules with high-dimensional covariates. Our approach is based on a two-step greedy tree algorithm to pursue signals in a high-dimensional space. In the first step, we transform the treatment selection problem into a weighted classification problem that can utilize tree-based methods. In the second step, we adopt a newly proposed tree-based method, known as reinforcement learning trees, to detect features involved in the optimal treatment rules and to construct binary splitting rules...
October 4, 2016: Biometrics
Cristel Bourge
OBJECTIVE: Define and develop the acquired SCI patient's BI care within the internal unit of physical and neurological rehabilitation center of the University Hospital of Liège: - explore the patients' and professionals' representations and needs of BI care; - estimate the concordances and the dissonances of the visions; - identify if a patient's BI care exists within the unit and what form it takes. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Qualitative, retrospective, exploratory and inductive study...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Denis Delfitto, Gaetano Fiorin, Anne Reboul
In this contribution we will address the main puzzling empirical issues that have been formulated around Free Indirect Discourse (FID): the constraints on the use of first person pronouns and of proper names (as well as of definite descriptions), the reasons why different grammatical features (person, gender, number) give rise to presuppositions that must be resolved at different levels of interpretation in FID, the factors that account for the observation that person and tense behave similarly in FID. At the same time, we will also discuss the main controversies to which the ongoing debate on FID has given rise in the literature, showing that Schlenker (Mind Lang 19(3):279-304, 2004)'s distinction between a Context of Thought (CT) and a Context of Utterance (CU) still provides a fundamentally valid insight into the nature of FID, in spite of many qualifications that are necessary and some well-motivated criticism...
2016: SpringerPlus
Andre F Marquand, Thomas Wolfers, Maarten Mennes, Jan Buitelaar, Christian F Beckmann
Heterogeneity is a key feature of all psychiatric disorders that manifests on many levels, including symptoms, disease course, and biological underpinnings. These form a substantial barrier to understanding disease mechanisms and developing effective, personalized treatments. In response, many studies have aimed to stratify psychiatric disorders, aiming to find more consistent subgroups on the basis of many types of data. Such approaches have received renewed interest after recent research initiatives, such as the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria and the European Roadmap for Mental Health Research, both of which emphasize finding stratifications that are based on biological systems and that cut across current classifications...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
A Ribadier, I Varescon
INTRODUCTION: Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Adelina Anthony, Aimee Carrillo Rowe
This interview explores how performing artist, activist, writer, director, performer Adelina Anthony stages queer women of color affects as a complex terrain to mobilize a decolonial imaginary. Anthony's characters are complex, contradictory, surly, and resilient with whom audience members connect and feel deeply. Especially for queer women of color, who rarely get to see their own experiences on film or on stage, Anthony's work provides a critical forum for discussing, imagining, naming, and envisioning the connections between our personal struggles and broader forces of imperialism, heterosexual capitalism, and settler colonialism...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Laura M Gottlieb, Danielle Hessler, Dayna Long, Ellen Laves, Abigail R Burns, Anais Amaya, Patricia Sweeney, Christine Schudel, Nancy E Adler
Importance: Social determinants of health shape both children's immediate health and their lifetime risk for disease. Increasingly, pediatric health care organizations are intervening to address family social adversity. However, little evidence is available on the effectiveness of related interventions. Objective: To evaluate the effects of social needs screening and in-person resource navigation services on social needs and child health. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients were randomized to intervention or active control conditions by the day of the week...
September 6, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Monica Pedrazza, Sabrina Berlanda, Elena Trifiletti, Franco Bressan
Research, all over the world, is starting to recognize the potential impact of physicians' dissatisfaction and burnout on their productivity, that is, on their intent to leave the job, on their work ability, on the amount of sick leave days, on their intent to continue practicing, and last but not least, on the quality of the services provided, which is an essential part of the general medical care system. It was interest of the provincial medical board's ethical committee to acquire information about physician's work-related stress and dissatisfaction...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Nan-Ping Yang, Dinh-Van Phan, Yi-Hui Lee, Jin-Chyr Hsu, Ren-Hao Pan, Chien-Lung Chan, Nien-Tzu Chang, Dachen Chu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological study was needed to evaluate trends in emergency department (ED) utilization that could be taken into account when making policy decisions regarding the delivery and distribution of medical resources. METHODS: A retrospective fixed-cohort study of emergency medical utilization from 2001 to 2010 was performed based on one-million people sampled in 2010 in Taiwan. Focusing on traumatic cases, the annual incidences in various groups split according to sex and age were calculated, and further information regarding location of trauma and type of trauma was obtained...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Lena Bäck, Ingegerd Hildingsson, Carina Sjöqvist, Annika Karlström
BACKGROUND: Midwives have a significant impact on the clinical outcome and the birthing experience of women. However, there has been a lack of research focusing specifically on clinical midwives' learning and development of professional competence. AIM: The objective of the study was to describe how midwives reflect on learning and the development of professional competence and confidence. METHODS: A qualitative study based on focus groups with midwives employed in maternity services...
August 22, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Brian B Koo, Terri Blackwell, Hochang B Lee, Katie L Stone, Elan D Louis, Susan Redline
OBJECTIVE: To investigate an association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and depression and to what extent sleep disturbance, periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS), and antidepressant medication mediate this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Older Men Study data in 982 men assessed for RLS (International RLS Study Group scale [IRLSS]) and depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]), who underwent actigraphy (for sleep latency/efficiency) and polysomnography (for PLMS)...
November 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Sergio Santiago, Deborah M Roll, Chittaranjan Ray, Clinton Williams, Philip Moravcik, Allan Knopf
Agricultural crops have a long history of being irrigated with recycled wastewater (RW). However, its use on vegetable crops has been of concern due to the potential prevalence of microcontaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the latter, which represents a possible health hazard to consumers. We investigated the uptake of three PPCPs (atenolol, diclofenac, and ofloxacin), at three different concentrations in irrigation water (0.5, 5, and 25 μg L(-1)) in relation to three varying volumetric soil moisture depletion levels of 14 % (-4...
July 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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