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BCAA & insulin resistance

Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
Nicholette D Palmer, Hayrettin Okut, Fang-Chi Hsu, Maggie C Y Ng, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Jerome I Rotter, Richard N Bergman, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Donald W Bowden
Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint which, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes and disease. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 serum metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 1111 Mexican Americans...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Justyna Wolak-Dinsmore, Eke G Gruppen, Irina Shalaurova, Steven P Matyus, Russell P Grant, Ray Gegen, Stephan J L Bakker, James D Otvos, Margery A Connelly, Robin P F Dullaart
OBJECTIVES: Plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, measured on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics research platforms or by mass spectrometry, have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We developed a new test for quantification of BCAA on a clinical NMR analyzer and used this test to determine the clinical correlates of BCAA in 2 independent cohorts. DESIGN AND METHODS: The performance of the NMR-based BCAA assay was evaluated...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Alicia Ocaña-Mondragón, José Antonio Mata-Marín, Mario Uriarte-López, Carolina Bekker-Méndez, Enrique Alcalá-Martínez, Rosa María Ribas-Aparicio, Luis Antonio Uribe-Noguéz, Dulce María Rodríguez-Galindo, María de La Luz Martínez-Rodríguez
The incidence rate of insulin resistance (IR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is high. Recently, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been shown to attenuate IR in CHC patients; however, their effect on patient quality of life remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the current prospective study was to determine the effects of BCAA supplement on IR and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in patients with CHC. In the study, 20 non-diabetic patients with CHC, who were non-responders to peginterferon-α and ribavirin, were recruited...
January 2018: Biomedical Reports
Nicholas P Gannon, Jamie K Schnuck, Roger A Vaughan
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) appear to influence several synthetic and catabolic cellular signaling cascades leading to altered phenotypes in mammals. BCAAs are most notably known to increase protein synthesis through modulating protein translation, explaining their appeal to resistance and endurance athletes for muscle hypertrophy, expedited recovery, and preservation of lean body mass. In addition to anabolic effects, BCAAs may increase mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle and adipocytes, possibly enhancing oxidative capacity...
January 29, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ryoko Katagiri, Atsushi Goto, Sanjeev Budhathoki, Taiki Yamaji, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Yumiko Kato, Motoki Iwasaki, Shoichiro Tsugane
Previous studies have consistently reported an association between circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) or adipokines and insulin resistance; however, the association between BCAA and adipokine levels remains to be clarified. In this cross-sectional study involving 678 participants (435 men) without diabetes, plasma BCAA (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), adipokine (total and high molecular weight [HMW] adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) concentrations, and an updated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) were measured...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Golaleh Asghari, Hossein Farhadnejad, Farshad Teymoori, Parvin Mirmiran, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) intake and markers of insulin metabolism in adults. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study on 1205 subjects, aged ≥20 years, who were followed-up for a mean of 2.3 years. Dietary intake of BCAAs, including valine, leucine, and isoleucine, was determined using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
Adil Mardinoglu, Silvia Gogg, Luca A Lotta, Alena Stančáková, Annika Nerstedt, Jan Boren, Matthias Blüher, Ele Ferrannini, Claudia Langenberg, Nicholas J Wareham, Markku Laakso, Ulf Smith
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) metabolite, 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (3-HIB) has been identified as a secreted mediator of endothelial cell fatty acid transport and insulin resistance (IR) using animal models. To identify if 3-HIB is a marker of human IR and future risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D), we measured plasma levels of 3-HIB and associated metabolites in around 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals. The levels of 3-HIB were increased in obesity but not robustly associated with degree of IR after adjusting for BMI...
December 7, 2017: EBioMedicine
JohnEric W Smith, Ben M Krings, Brandon D Shepherd, Hunter S Waldman, Steven A Basham, Matthew J McAllister
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the individual and combined effects of ingesting carbohydrates (CHO) and branched chain amino acids (BCAA) during high volume upper-body resistance exercise (RE) on markers of catabolism and performance. Thirteen resistance trained males completed four experimental trials with supplementation ingesting beverages containing CHO, BCAA, CHO+BCAA, or placebo (PLA) in a randomized, double-blind design. The beverages were ingested in 118 mL servings six times during a ~60 min RE session consisting of bench press, bent-over row, incline press, and close-grip row...
December 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Marta Siomkajło, Jacek Rybka, Magdalena Mierzchała-Pasierb, Andrzej Gamian, Joanna Stankiewicz-Olczyk, Marek Bolanowski, Jacek Daroszewski
PURPOSE: The primary objective of the present study was to examine the association between branched chain and aromatic amino acid profiles (BCAA and AAA respectively) and the metabolic syndrome (MS), and to evaluate the clinical utility of these associations in the diagnostic process. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty three healthy men with MS [MS(+): n = 165] and without MS [MS(-): n = 98] were enrolled in the observational study. Anthropometrical, biochemical, and amino acid measurements were performed...
December 2017: Endocrine
Geoffrey G Hesketh, James W Dennis
Pedersen et al. (Pedersen HK, Gudmundsdottir V, Nielsen HB, Hyotylainen T, Nielsen T, Jensen BA, Forslund K, Hildebrand F, Prifti E, Falony G, et al. 2016. Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity. Nature. 535: 376-381.) report that human serum levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) increase in proportion to insulin resistance. They focus on the microbiome and the contributing subset of microbe species, thereby demonstrating disease causality in mice...
July 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Qin Wang, Michael V Holmes, George Davey Smith, Mika Ala-Korpela
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance has deleterious effects on cardiometabolic disease. We used Mendelian randomization analyses to clarify the causal relationships of insulin resistance (IR) on circulating blood-based metabolites to shed light on potential mediators of the IR to cardiometabolic disease relationship. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with IR from a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore their effects on circulating lipids and metabolites...
December 2017: Diabetes Care
S Haufe, S Engeli, J Kaminski, H Witt, D Rein, B Kamlage, W Utz, J C Fuhrmann, V Haas, A Mähler, J Schulz-Menger, F C Luft, M Boschmann, J Jordan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate (3-HIB), a catabolic intermediate of the BCAA valine, which stimulates muscle fatty acid uptake, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that circulating 3-HIB herald insulin resistance and that metabolic improvement with weight loss are related to changes in BCAAs and 3-HIB. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed plasma and urine in 109 overweight to obese individuals before and after six months on hypocaloric diets reduced in either carbohydrates or fat...
October 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Melania Gaggini, Fabrizia Carli, Chiara Rosso, Emma Buzzigoli, Milena Marietti, Veronica Della Latta, Demetrio Ciociaro, Maria Lorena Abate, Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Cassader, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Amalia Gastaldelli
Plasma concentrations of amino acids (AA), in particular branched chain (BCAA), are often found increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, if this is due to increased muscular protein catabolism, obesity and/or increased insulin resistance (IR) or impaired tissue metabolism is not known. Thus, we evaluated a) if subjects with NAFLD non-obese (NAFLD-NO), compared to obese (NAFLD-Ob) display altered plasma AA compared to controls (CT); b) if AA concentrations are associated to IR and liver histology...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Leticia Goni, Lu Qi, Marta Cuervo, Fermín I Milagro, Wim H Saris, Ian A MacDonald, Dominique Langin, Arne Astrup, Peter Arner, Jean-Michel Oppert, Mathilde Svendstrup, Ellen E Blaak, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Torben Hansen, J Alfredo Martínez
Background: Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes risk. The common rs1440581 T allele in the protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K ( PPM1K ) gene has been related to elevated BCAA concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: In the present study, we tested whether dietary fat and carbohydrate intakes influenced the association between the rs1440581 PPM1K genetic variant and glucose-metabolism traits during weight loss...
September 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Adriano Maida, Jessica S K Chan, Kim A Sjøberg, Annika Zota, Dieter Schmoll, Bente Kiens, Stephan Herzig, Adam J Rose
OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein dilution (PD) has been associated with metabolic advantages such as improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. This phenotype involves liver-induced release of FGF21 in response to amino acid insufficiency; however, it has remained unclear whether dietary dilution of specific amino acids (AAs) is also required. Circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are sensitive to protein intake, elevated in the serum of obese humans and mice and thought to promote insulin resistance...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
Il-Young Kim, Scott E Schutzler, Gohar Azhar, Robert R Wolfe, Arny A Ferrando, Robert H Coker
BACKGROUND: There is a great deal of controversy as to whether higher protein intake improves or worsens insulin sensitivity in humans. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of a short-term elevation in dietary protein on hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in twelve older subjects (51-70 yrs) with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Individuals were randomly assigned to one of the dietary groups: recommended protein intake (RPI, 10% of daily calorie intake) or elevated protein intake (EPI, 20% of daily calorie intake) for 4 weeks...
2017: BMC Nutrition
Antonia Barceló, Josep Miquel Bauça, José Antonio Peña-Zarza, Daniel Morell-Garcia, Aina Yáñez, Gerardo Pérez, Javier Piérola, Nuria Toledo, Mónica de la Peña
INTRODUCTION: The effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on the metabolic system are not well understood, especially in children. Recent studies have provided evidence of the modulation of insulin action by branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and suggested novel mechanistic relationships between glucose and amino acid metabolic pathways. We hypothesized that plasma BCAA levels may serve as biomarkers of insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction in children with OSA. METHODS: A polysomnography was conducted for the diagnosis of OSA in 90 snoring children, in a tertiary hospital...
August 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
Elin Chorell, Ulrika Andersson Hall, Carolina Gustavsson, Kerstin Berntorp, Jatta Puhkala, Riitta Luoto, Tommy Olsson, Agneta Holmäng
CONTEXT: Gestational diabetes is commonly linked to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a need to characterize metabolic changes associated with gestational diabetes in order to find novel biomarkers for T2DM. OBJECTIVE: To find potential pathophysiological mechanisms and markers for progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM by studying the metabolic transition from pregnancy to postpartum. DESIGN: The metabolic transition profile from pregnancy to postpartum was characterized in 56 women by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics; 11 women had gestational diabetes mellitus, 24 had normal glucose tolerance, and 21 were normoglycaemic but at increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Martina Goffredo, Nicola Santoro, Domenico Tricò, Cosimo Giannini, Ebe D'Adamo, Hongyu Zhao, Gang Peng, Xiaoqing Yu, Tukiet T Lam, Bridget Pierpont, Sonia Caprio, Raimund I Herzog
Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD display a metabolomic signature consistent with disturbances in amino acid and lipid metabolism. A total of 180 plasma metabolites were measured by a targeted metabolomic approach in 78 obese adolescents with (n = 30) or without (n = 48) NAFLD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 22, 2017: Nutrients
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