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BCAA & mTOR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046316/evidence-for-the-presence-in-rainbow-trout-brain-of-amino-acid-sensing-systems-involved-in-the-control-of-food-intake
#1
Sara Comesana, Cristina Velasco, Rosa M Ceinos, Marcos A Lopez-Patiño, Jesus M Miguez, Sofia Morais, Jose L Soengas
To assess the existence of central amino acid sensing systems in fish we carried out two experiments in rainbow trout. In the first one, we injected ICV two different branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine and valine, and assessed food intake up to 48 h later. Leucine decreased and valine increased food intake. In a second experiment, 6h after similar ICV treatment we determined changes in parameters related to putative amino acid sensing systems. Amino acid sensing systems respond to leucine in hypothalamus and telencephalon, and to valine in telencephalon...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918148/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-and-ubiquitin-proteasome-related-gene-expression-in-3-different-skeletal-muscles-of-colostrum-versus-formula-fed-calves
#2
H Sadri, J Steinhoff-Wagner, Harald M Hammon, R M Bruckmaier, S Görs, H Sauerwein
The rates of protein turnover are higher during the neonatal period than at any other time in postnatal life. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are key pathways regulating cellular protein turnover. The objectives of this study were (1) to elucidate the effect of feeding colostrum versus milk-based formula on the mRNA abundance of key components of the mTOR pathway and of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle of neonatal calves and (2) to compare different muscles...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878358/enoyl-coa-hydratase-1-regulates-mtor-signaling-and-apoptosis-by-sensing-nutrients
#3
Ya-Kun Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Qu, Yan Lin, Xiao-Hui Wu, Hou-Zao Chen, Xu Wang, Kai-Qiang Zhou, Yun Wei, Fushen Guo, Cui-Fang Yao, Xia-Di He, Li-Xia Liu, Chen Yang, Zong-Yuan Guan, Shi-Dong Wang, Jianyuan Zhao, De-Pei Liu, Shi-Min Zhao, Wei Xu
The oncogenic mechanisms of overnutrition, a confirmed independent cancer risk factor, remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that enoyl-CoA hydratase-1 (ECHS1), the enzyme involved in the oxidation of fatty acids (FAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), senses nutrients and promotes mTOR activation and apoptotic resistance. Nutrients-promoted acetylation of lys(101) of ECHS1 impedes ECHS1 activity by impairing enoyl-CoA binding, promoting ECHS1 degradation and blocking its mitochondrial translocation through inducing ubiquitination...
September 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701315/effect-of-endurance-training-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-the-signaling-for-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-ckd-model-rats-fed-a-low-protein-diet
#4
Takuya Yoshida, Sachika Kakizawa, Yuri Totsuka, Miho Sugimoto, Shinji Miura, Hiromichi Kumagai
A low-protein diet (LPD) protects against the progression of renal injury in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, LPD may accelerate muscle wasting in these patients. Both exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are known to increase muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether endurance exercise and BCAA play a role for increasing muscle protein synthesis in LPD-fed CKD (5/6 nephrectomized) rats...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413737/amino-acid-leucine-chromatography-a-study-of-branched-chain-aminoaciduria-in-type-2-diabetes
#5
Bhagavan Reddy Kolanu, Venugopal Boddula, Sabitha Vadakedath, Venkataramana Kandi
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a disease characterized by insulin deficiency resulting in glucose intolerance and in abnormalities of other metabolic fuels including protein. Recently, a number of studies have revealed that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) play an important role in the regulation of protein synthesis by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in pancreatic β cells. BCAAs have positive effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis...
March 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341273/branched-chain-amino-acids-enhance-cyst-development-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#6
Junya Yamamoto, Saori Nishio, Fumihiko Hattanda, Daigo Nakazawa, Toru Kimura, Michio Sata, Minoru Makita, Yasunobu Ishikawa, Tatsuya Atsumi
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the progressive development of kidney and liver cysts. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade is one of the important pathways regulating cyst growth in ADPKD. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine, play a crucial role to activate mTOR pathway. Therefore, we administered BCAA dissolved in the drinking water to Pkd1(flox/flox):Mx1-Cre (cystic) mice from four to 22 weeks of age after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced conditional Pkd1 knockout at two weeks of age...
August 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336113/effect-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-ratio-on-the-proliferation-differentiation-and-expression-levels-of-key-regulators-involved-in-protein-metabolism-of-myocytes
#7
Yehui Duan, Liming Zeng, Fengna Li, Wenlong Wang, Yinghui Li, Qiuping Guo, Yujiao Ji, Bi'e Tan, Yulong Yin
OBJECTIVES: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val), are key regulators of protein synthesis in muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different BCAA ratios (Leu:Ile:Val) on the proliferation, differentiation, and expression levels of the regulators related to protein metabolism of C2 C12 myocytes. METHODS: Studies were conducted in C2C12 myocytes exposed to different BCAA ratios (Leu: Ile: Val = 0, 1:0...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326005/bioactivity-of-food-peptides-biological-response-of-rats-to-bovine-milk-whey-peptides-following-acute-exercise
#8
Carolina Soares Moura, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Priscila Neder Morato, Eder Muller Risso, Jaime Amaya-Farfan
Background: Several physiologically beneficial effects of consuming a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have been attributed to the greater availability of bioactive peptides. Aims: The aim was to investigate the effect of four branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA-)containing dipeptides, present in WPH, on immune modulation, stimulation of HSP expression, muscle protein synthesis, glycogen content, satiety signals and the impact of these peptides on the plasma free amino acid profiles. Methods: The animals were divided in groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), L-isoleucyl-L-leucine (lle-Leu), L-leucyl-L-isoleucine (Leu-lle), L-valyl-Lleucine (Val-Leu), L-leucyl-L-valine (Leu-Val) and WPH...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235484/branched-chain-amino-acid-transaminase-1-bcat1-promotes-the-growth-of-breast-cancer-cells-through-improving-mtor-mediated-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function
#9
Ling Zhang, Junqing Han
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are important nutrient signals that have direct and indirect effects. BCAA catabolism is a conserved regulator of physiological aging and participates in diverse physiological and pathological processes, including carcinoma development. The roles of BCAA catabolism in human breast cancer remains unknown. Here we provide evidence that BCAA catabolism is involved in human breast cancer. The plasma and tissue levels of BCAAs are increased in breast cancer, which is accompanied by the elevated expression of the catabolic enzymes, including branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1)...
April 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127425/novel-metabolic-and-physiological-functions-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Shihai Zhang, Xiangfang Zeng, Man Ren, Xiangbing Mao, Shiyan Qiao
It is widely known that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are not only elementary components for building muscle tissue but also participate in increasing protein synthesis in animals and humans. BCAA (isoleucine, leucine and valine) regulate many key signaling pathways, the most classic of which is the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. This signaling pathway connects many diverse physiological and metabolic roles. Recent years have witnessed many striking developments in determining the novel functions of BCAA including: (1) Insufficient or excessive levels of BCAA in the diet enhances lipolysis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089725/high-concentration-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-promotes-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-migration-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-via-mtorc1-activation
#11
Olha Zhenyukh, Esther Civantos, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Maria Soledad Sánchez, Clotilde Vázquez, Concepción Peiró, Jesús Egido, Sebastián Mas
Leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential aminoacids termed branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) due to its aliphatic side-chain. In several pathological and physiological conditions increased BCAA plasma concentrations have been described. Elevated BCAA levels predict insulin resistance development. Moreover, BCAA levels higher than 2mmol/L are neurotoxic by inducing microglial activation in maple syrup urine disease. However, there are no studies about the direct effects of BCAA in circulating cells. We have explored whether BCAA could promote oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors...
March 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886623/liver-bcatm-transgenic-mouse-model-reveals-the-important-role-of-the-liver-in-maintaining-bcaa-homeostasis
#12
Elitsa A Ananieva, Cynthia G Van Horn, Meghan R Jones, Susan M Hutson
Unlike other amino acids, the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) largely bypass first-pass liver degradation due to a lack of hepatocyte expression of the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm). This sets up interorgan shuttling of BCAAs and liver-skeletal muscle cooperation in BCAA catabolism. To explore whether complete liver catabolism of BCAAs may impact BCAA shuttling in peripheral tissues, the BCATm gene was stably introduced into mouse liver. Two transgenic mouse lines with low and high hepatocyte expression of the BCATm transgene (LivTg-LE and LivTg-HE) were created and used to measure liver and plasma amino acid concentrations and determine whether the first two BCAA enzymatic steps in liver, skeletal muscle, heart and kidney were impacted...
February 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843095/branched-chain-amino-acids-cause-liver-injury-in-obese-diabetic-mice-by-promoting-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-inhibiting-hepatic-autophagy
#13
Fuyang Zhang, Shihao Zhao, Wenjun Yan, Yunlong Xia, Xiyao Chen, Wei Wang, Jinglong Zhang, Chao Gao, Cheng Peng, Feng Yan, Huishou Zhao, Kun Lian, Yan Lee, Ling Zhang, Wayne Bond Lau, Xinliang Ma, Ling Tao
The Western meat-rich diet is both high in protein and fat. Although the hazardous effect of a high fat diet (HFD) upon liver structure and function is well recognized, whether the co-presence of high protein intake contributes to, or protects against, HF-induced hepatic injury remains unclear. Increased intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, essential amino acids compromising 20% of total protein intake) reduces body weight. However, elevated circulating BCAA is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and injury...
November 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542406/defective-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-contributes-to-cardiac-dysfunction-and-remodeling-following-myocardial-infarction
#14
Wei Wang, Fuyang Zhang, Yunlong Xia, Shihao Zhao, Wenjun Yan, Helin Wang, Yan Lee, Congye Li, Ling Zhang, Kun Lian, Erhe Gao, Hexiang Cheng, Ling Tao
Cardiac metabolic remodeling is a central event during heart failure (HF) development following myocardial infarction (MI). It is well known that myocardial glucose and fatty acid dysmetabolism contribute to post-MI cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. However, the role of amino acid metabolism in post-MI HF remains elusive. Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are an important group of essential amino acids and function as crucial nutrient signaling in mammalian animals. The present study aimed to determine the role of cardiac BCAA metabolism in post-MI HF progression...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490818/branched-chain-amino-acids-as-new-biomarkers-of-major-depression-a-novel-neurobiology-of-mood-disorder
#15
Andreas Baranyi, Omid Amouzadeh-Ghadikolai, Dirk von Lewinski, Hans-Bernd Rothenhäusler, Simon Theokas, Christoph Robier, Harald Mangge, Gerhard Reicht, Peter Hlade, Andreas Meinitzer
BACKGROUND: The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine might play an unrecognised crucial role in the development of depression through their activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. The aim of this research project is to evaluate whether BCAAs are altered in patients with major depression and might thus be appropriate biomarkers for major depression. METHODS: The concentrations of valine, leucine and isoleucine were determined in 71 in-patients with major depression and 48 healthy controls by high-pressure liquid chromatography...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376324/the-emerging-role-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-in-insulin-resistance-and-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Mee-Sup Yoon
Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
July 1, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259235/germline-brca1-mutation-reprograms-breast-epithelial-cell-metabolism-towards-mitochondrial-dependent-biosynthesis-evidence-for-metformin-based-starvation-strategies-in-brca1-carriers
#17
Elisabet Cuyàs, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Tomás Alarcón, Ruth Lupu, Jorge Joven, Javier A Menendez
We hypothesized that women inheriting one germline mutation of the BRCA1 gene ("one-hit") undergo cell-type-specific metabolic reprogramming that supports the high biosynthetic requirements of breast epithelial cells to progress to a fully malignant phenotype. Targeted metabolomic analysis was performed in isogenic pairs of nontumorigenic human breast epithelial cells in which the knock-in of 185delAG mutation in a single BRCA1 allele leads to genomic instability. Mutant BRCA1 one-hit epithelial cells displayed constitutively enhanced activation of biosynthetic nodes within mitochondria...
August 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079773/supplementation-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-to-a-reduced-protein-diet-improves-growth-performance-in-piglets-involvement-of-increased-feed-intake-and-direct-muscle-growth-promoting-effect
#18
Liufeng Zheng, Hongkui Wei, Chuanshang Cheng, Quanhang Xiang, Jiaman Pang, Jian Peng
The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d...
June 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957625/impact-of-dietary-branched-chain-amino-acids-concentration-on-broiler-chicks-during-aflatoxicosis
#19
X Chen, Q Zhang, T J Applegate
A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gene expression of the mTOR pathway in broiler chicks when exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 BCAA concentrations (1.16, 1.94, and 2.73%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 (1.77 mg/kg analyzed). Each diet was fed to 8 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from 6 to 20 d of age. Exposure to AFB1 significantly reduced gain:feed ratio and breast muscle weight (P < 0...
June 1, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26620638/branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-is-a-conserved-regulator-of-physiological-ageing
#20
Johannes Mansfeld, Nadine Urban, Steffen Priebe, Marco Groth, Christiane Frahm, Nils Hartmann, Juliane Gebauer, Meenakshi Ravichandran, Anne Dommaschk, Sebastian Schmeisser, Doreen Kuhlow, Shamci Monajembashi, Sibylle Bremer-Streck, Peter Hemmerich, Michael Kiehntopf, Nicola Zamboni, Christoph Englert, Reinhard Guthke, Christoph Kaleta, Matthias Platzer, Jürgen Sühnel, Otto W Witte, Kim Zarse, Michael Ristow
Ageing has been defined as a global decline in physiological function depending on both environmental and genetic factors. Here we identify gene transcripts that are similarly regulated during physiological ageing in nematodes, zebrafish and mice. We observe the strongest extension of lifespan when impairing expression of the branched-chain amino acid transferase-1 (bcat-1) gene in C. elegans, which leads to excessive levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). We further show that BCAAs reduce a LET-363/mTOR-dependent neuro-endocrine signal, which we identify as DAF-7/TGFβ, and that impacts lifespan depending on its related receptors, DAF-1 and DAF-4, as well as ultimately on DAF-16/FoxO and HSF-1 in a cell-non-autonomous manner...
December 1, 2015: Nature Communications
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