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young adults

Aimee Mooney, Naomi Beale, Melanie Fried-Oken
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious language deterioration. This young-onset disorder leaves adults with reduced communication skills for participation in social activities. There is limited evidence regarding group treatment for individuals with PPA, though the principles of chronic aphasia groups can be applied to this clinical population. We developed a PPA group treatment model incorporating compensatory strategies from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), communication partner training from aphasia rehabilitation, and systematic instruction from dementia management...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Sidney C Silva, Walace D Monteiro, Felipe A Cunha, Paulo Farinatti
Silva, SC, Monteiro, WD, Cunha, FA, and Farinatti, P. Influence of different treadmill inclinations on V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and ventilatory thresholds during maximal ramp protocols. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Ramp protocols for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) lack precise recommendations, including optimal treadmill inclination. This study investigated the impact of treadmill grades applied in ramp CPETs on maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), ventilatory thresholds (VT1/VT2), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2 vs...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
David R Howell, Peter Kriz, Rebekah C Mannix, Tyler Kirchberg, Christina L Master, William P Meehan
OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine how age influences initial symptom presentation following concussion; and (2) to determine whether specific symptom profiles are associated with duration of postconcussion symptoms, and whether they vary by age group. DESIGN: A total of 689 patients (20% children 7-12 years of age, 69% adolescents 13-18 years of age, and 11% young adults 19-30 years of age) were seen and diagnosed with a concussion within 21 days after injury. Patients completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) and were followed until they no longer required care...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
J Seong, D Bartlett, R G Newcombe, N C A Claydon, N Hellin, N X West
OBJECTIVES: Prevalence of gingival recession (GR) and associations with dentine hypersensitivity (DH), erosive toothwear (BEWE), gingival bleeding (BOP) and periodontal pocketing (PPD) in young European adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis using data collected from 350 UK participants enrolled in a European cross sectional study of 3187 young adults. GR, BOP, PPD, DH (participant and clinician assessment) and BEWE were recorded. A questionnaire assessed demographics, oral hygiene and lifestyle habits...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Georgios Vassilakos, Hanqin Lei, Yun Yang, Jason Puglise, Michael Matheny, Julia Durzynska, Matan Ozery, Katherine Bennett, Ray Spradlin, Heather Bonanno, Soohyun Park, Rexford S Ahima, Elisabeth R Barton
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are essential for local skeletal muscle growth and organismal physiology, but these actions are entwined with glucose homeostasis through convergence with insulin signaling. The objective of this work was to determine whether the effects of IGF-I on growth and metabolism could be separated. We generated muscle-specific IGF-I-deficient (MID) mice that afford inducible deletion of Igf1 at any age. After Igf1 deletion at birth or in young adult mice, evaluations of muscle physiology and glucose homeostasis were performed up to 16 wk of age...
June 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Katharina Block, Antonya Marie Gonzalez, Toni Schmader, Andrew Scott Baron
Communion and agency are often described as core human values. In adults, these values predict gendered role preferences. Yet little work has examined the extent to which young boys and girls explicitly endorse communal and agentic values and whether early gender differences in values predict boys' and girls' different role expectations. In a sample of 411 children between the ages of 6 and 14 years, we found consistent gender differences in endorsement of communal and agentic values. Across this age range, boys endorsed communal values less and agentic values more than did girls...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
George Vasquez-Rios, Hani Alkhankan, Boutros Peter Sawaya, Javier A Neyra
INTRODUCTION: Methanol intoxication is an infrequent cause of poisoning in the United Sates. It can present with prominent stroke-like features and acute kidney injury. Despite the life-threatening nature of this condition, it is poorly identified by clinicians. We aim to present a case of rapidly progressive mental decline and renal involvement, discuss a diagnostic work-up and provide a critical review on therapeutic strategies. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with acute encephalopathy and diffuse muscular rigidity...
June 22, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Paula Jacobs, Kenneth MacMahon, Ethel Quayle
BACKGROUND: The transition to adulthood has been described as a difficult time in the lives of young people with intellectual disability. There has been little emphasis on young people with severe or profound intellectual disability specifically, even though their pathways may differ, due to greater support needs across the life course. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted utilising Bronfenbrenner's ecological model to inform framework analysis to synthesise qualitative findings...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Katharine A Rimes, Sandhya Shivakumar, Greg Ussher, Dan Baker, Qazi Rahman, Elizabeth West
BACKGROUND: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth have elevated suicidality rates. AIMS: To investigate LGB-related and other factors associated with suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and future suicide risk in a large UK sample. METHOD: Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with suicidality in 3,275 LGB young adults from the Youth Chances project. RESULTS: Suicide attempts (lifetime) were reported by 13...
June 21, 2018: Crisis
Michael Ohene-Nyako, Amanda L Persons, T Celeste Napier
Methamphetamine abuse co-occurring with HIV infection presents neuropathology in brain regions that mediate reward and motivation. A neuronal signaling cascade altered acutely by meth and some HIV-1 proteins is the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. It remains unknown if chronic co-exposure to meth and HIV-1 proteins converge on MAPK in vivo. To make this determination, we studied young adult Fischer 344 HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) and non-Tg rats that self-administered meth (0.02-0.04 mg/kg/0.05 ml iv infusion, 2 h/day for 21 days) and their saline-yoked controls...
June 21, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Nuno Ribeiro, Luís Moreira, Ana Margarida Pisco Almeida, Filipe Santos-Silva
Cancer prevention should start as early as possible. Young adults would benefit largely from the use of a smartphone app aiming at promoting cancer prevention behaviours. The aims of the study described in this paper are to (1) examine the user participation and engagement with a cancer prevention app in real-life settings and (2) assess changes in the users' cancer prevention behaviours. A cancer prevention smartphone app called Happy was developed and released to the general population. Data from registered app users' (N = 3326) demographics and baseline cancer prevention behaviours was analysed...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Jennifer N Todd, Shylaja Srinivasan, Toni I Pollin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on knowledge the role of genetics in youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence in youth of T2D, once thought to be exclusively a disease of adults, has increased by over 35% since 2001. Youth with T2D tend to have higher rates of complications, more aggressive disease, with more rapid loss of beta-cell function and a less favorable response to treatment than adults. Obesity is the most important risk factor for T2D, and the rise in childhood overweight and obesity appears responsible for the dramatic increase in T2D in youth...
June 22, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Isatou K Jallow, John Britton, Tessa Langley
Introduction: Smoking is the biggest preventable cause of death, and kills about 7 million people annually. As smoking prevalence is falling in developed countries, tobacco businesses are turning to low and middle-income countries (LMICs) to generate new tobacco markets. To prevent young people from initiating smoking and becoming regular smokers it is important to understand the causes of susceptibility to smoking. In this study we report a nationwide survey of the prevalence and risk factors of smoking susceptibility among students aged 12-20 in The Gambia...
June 20, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Liang Chen, Austin F Lee, Gabriel D Shapiro, Jeremy Goverman, Nicholas Faoro, Jeffrey C Schneider, Lewis E Kazis, Colleen M Ryan
Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) are useful for understanding the health needs and outcomes of the general public. We aim to develop a burn-specific metric-Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire (ABOQ)-that is brief and can be administered electronically to all burn survivors over the age of 18. The 14-item ABOQ was developed from the already validated Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire (YABOQ) long form. The ABOQ questionnaire, along with Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System-10 (PROMIS-10), was administered to 120 outpatient burn survivors at three hospitals...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Julie Rotival, Youri Yordanov, Pierre-Clément Thiebaud, Nathalie Pelletier-Fleury, Elsa Jacquet, Erwan Debuc, Dominique Pateron, Diane Naouri
Background: Some studies have demonstrated an association between poor continuity of care, high likelihood of 'inappropriate' use of emergency departments (EDs) and avoidable hospitalization. However, we lack data concerning primary care use after an ED visit. Objective: Identify the determinants of a visit to the general practitioner (GP) after an ED visit. Design: Observational study (single-centre cohort). Setting: One emergency department in Paris, France...
June 21, 2018: Family Practice
Lauren T Ptomey, Amanda N Szabo, Erik A Willis, J Leon Greene, Jessica C Danon, Richard A Washburn, Daniel E Forsha, Joseph E Donnelly
Purpose: Adults with Down syndrome are less physically active than their typically developed peers. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of delivering moderate-to- vigorous exercise sessions, led by a trained health educator using real-time video conferencing, to groups of young adults with Down syndrome in their homes. Methods: Participants were randomized to 30-minute group exercise sessions either 1 or 2 times a week delivered on an iPad mini tablet computer using the Zoom video conferencing application, and were asked to attend individual support/education sessions once a week using FaceTime® on the iPad, for 12 weeks...
April 15, 2018: Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine
Lidia Z Meshesha, Bettina Utzelmann, Ashley A Dennhardt, James G Murphy
Objective: Behavioral economic models predict that deficits in substance-free reward and future time orientation are associated with greater drug involvement, but this hypothesis has not been systematically investigated among young adult heavy drinkers. This study evaluated the association between drug use levels (heavy drinking (HD) only, HD + marijuana use, and HD + polysubstance use) and substance-free activity engagement, future orientation, and reward deprivation (comprised of reward experience and environmental suppressors of reward) among heavy drinkers...
March 2018: Translational Issues in Psychological Science
Gianfranco Pintus, Roberta Giordo, Yushi Wang, Wanqu Zhu, Soo Hyuk Kim, Li Zhang, Leng Ni, Jing Zhang, Richard Telljohann, Kimberly R McGraw, Robert E Monticone, Chloe Ferris, Lijuan Liu, Mingyi Wang, Edward G Lakatta
The glycosylated protein vasorin physically interacts with the transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) and functionally attenuates its fibrogenic signaling in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of the arterial wall. Angiotensin II (Ang II) amplifies TGF-β1 activation in the VSMCs of the arterial wall with aging. In this study, we hypothesized that a reduced expression of the protein vasorin plays a contributory role in magnifying Ang II-associated fibrogenic signaling in the VSMCs of the arterial wall with aging...
June 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Victoria Hayman, Thomas V Fernandez
ADHD is a neurobiological disorder with a large worldwide prevalence causing significant impairment in children, adolescents, and adults. While there is general agreement about genetic contributions toward the disorder, progress in leveraging genetics to learn more about the biology and risk factors for ADHD has been limited. In this perspective, we identified 105 genes from the literature showing at least nominal statistical significance in association with ADHD. We analyzed these genes for enrichment in biological pathways and in known interacting biological networks...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yun-Yun Sun, Shi-Fei Wei, Shi-Ming Li, Jian-Ping Hu, Xiao-Hui Yang, Kai Cao, Cai-Xia Lin, Jia-Ling Du, Ji-Yuan Guo, He Li, Luo-Ru Liu, Ian G Morgan, Ning-Li Wang
AIMS: To document the difference between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refraction and explore its associated factors in Chinese young adults. METHODS: A school-based study including 7971 undergraduates was conducted in Anyang, Henan Province, China. Cycloplegia was achieved with two drops of 1% cyclopentolate and 1 drop of Mydrin P (Tropicamide 0.5%, phenylephrine HCl 0.5%) with a 5 min interval. Non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refractions were measured by an autorefractor...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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