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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220669/modulation-of-dietary-folate-with-age-confers-selective-hepatocellular-epigenetic-imprints-through-dna-methylation
#1
Rauf Ahmad Najar, Nissar Ahmad Wani, Javeed Ahmad Bhat, Nawab John Dar, Beenish Rahat, Ajai Prakash Gupta, Jaspreet Kaur, Jyotdeep Kaur, Abid Hamid
The present study has been designed to determine the effect of folate modulation (deficiency/supplementation) with aging on the promoter methylation of tumor suppressor and proto-oncogenes to understand the underlying mechanism of epigenetic alterations. Folate deficiency was induced for 3 and 5 months in weanling, young and adult groups, and after 3 months of folate deficiency, they were repleted with physiological folate (2 mg/kg diet) and folate oversupplementation (8 mg/kg diet) for another 2 months. The methylation facet in the present study revealed that the combined effect of folate deficiency and aging decreased the methylation index...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220582/accounting-for-men-s-refusal-of-heterosex-a-story-completion-study-with-young-adults
#2
Melanie Ann Beres, Gareth Terry, Charlene Y Senn, Lily Kay Ross
In the present study we bring together theory regarding the construction of heterosexuality and masculinities to understand the shifting and changing terrain of heterosexual sex (heterosex). We use inductive qualitative content analysis of story completion data to discover the different ways that heterosex is constructed by the male and female respondents in scenarios where women initiate sex and men, at first, refuse. The stories represented a spectrum of responses that reify and subvert dominant understandings of heterosex...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220416/the-effectiveness-and-limitation-of-the-national-childhood-hepatitis-a-vaccination-program-in-the-republic-of-korea-findings-from-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-knhanes-2015
#3
Juwon Lim, Kyuwoong Kim, Seulggie Choi, Sang Min Park
BACKGROUND: Vaccination for hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been implemented as one of the national vaccination programs despite the epidemiological transition of HAV in the Republic of Korea. While the national HAV vaccination program is largely associated with the shift of socioeconomic trend in the country, concerns have been raised on the effectiveness of the HAV immunization. The objective of this study was to examine the epidemiological trend of HAV and assess the effectiveness of the nationwide HAV vaccination policy based on a nationally representative sample of the Korean population collected in 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220355/adults-with-patellofemoral-pain-do-not-exhibit-manifestations-of-peripheral-and-central-sensitization-when-compared-to-healthy-pain-free-age-and-sex-matched-controls-an-assessor-blinded-cross-sectional-study
#4
Michael Skovdal Rathleff, Camilla Rams Rathleff, Aoife Stephenson, Rebecca Mellor, Mark Matthews, Kay Crossley, Bill Vicenzino
Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is highly prevalent among adults and adolescents. Localized mechanical hyperalgesia around the knee and tibialis anterior have been observed in people with PFP, but limited knowledge of potential manifestations of central sensitisation exists. The aims of this study were to study conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and wide-spread hyperalgesia in adults with PFP. This assessor-blinded cross-sectional study design compared CPM and mechanical pressure pain thresholds (PPT) between 33 adults (23 females) diagnosed with PFP and 32 age and sex matched pain-free controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220349/neural-correlates-of-motor-cognitive-dual-tasking-in-young-and-old-adults
#5
Selma Papegaaij, Tibor Hortobágyi, Ben Godde, Wim A Kaan, Peter Erhard, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
When two tasks are performed simultaneously, performance often declines in one or both tasks. These so-called dual-task costs are more pronounced in old than in young adults. One proposed neurological mechanism of the dual-task costs is that old compared with young adults tend to execute single-tasks with higher brain activation. In the brain regions that are needed for both tasks, the reduced residual capacity may interfere with performance of the dual-task. This competition for shared brain regions has been called structural interference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220290/synovial-sarcoma-current-concepts-and-future-perspectives
#6
Silvia Stacchiotti, Brian Andrew Van Tine
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare sarcoma driven by a translocation between SS18 and SSX 1, 2, or 4. With approximately 800 to 1,000 cases a year in the United States, it most commonly affects young adults between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The resultant tumors are either monophasic (pure sarcomas), biphasic (a combination or epithelioid and sarcomatous components), or poorly differentiated. The hybrid transcription factor SS18:SSX alters SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling and global methylation patterns that may allow for future therapeutic opportunities...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220207/mr-imaging-of-muscle-trauma-anatomy-biomechanics-pathophysiology-and-imaging-appearance
#7
Dyan V Flores, Catalina Mejía Gómez, Mauricio Estrada-Castrillón, Edward Smitaman, Mini N Pathria
Muscle is an important component of the muscle-tendon-bone unit, driving skeletal motion through contractions that alter the length of the muscle. The muscle and myotendinous junction (MTJ) are most commonly injured in the young adult, as a result of indirect mechanisms such as overuse or stretching, direct impact (penetrating or nonpenetrating), or dysfunction of the supporting connective tissues. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is widely used for assessment of muscle injuries. This review illustrates the MR imaging appearance of a broad spectrum of acute, subacute, and chronic traumatic lesions of muscle, highlighting the pathophysiology, biomechanics, and anatomic considerations underlying these lesions...
December 8, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218613/can-we-perform-ct-of-the-appendix-with-less-than-1-msv-a-de-escalating-dose-simulation-study
#8
Ji Hoon Park, Jong-June Jeon, Sung Soo Lee, Amar C Dhanantwari, Ji Ye Sim, Hae Young Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee
OBJECTIVES: To systematically explore the lowest reasonably achievable radiation dose for appendiceal CT using an iterative reconstruction (IR) in young adults. METHODS: We prospectively included 30 patients who underwent 2.0-mSv CT for suspected appendicitis. From the helical projection data, 1.5-, 1.0- and 0.5-mSv CTs were generated using a low-dose simulation tool and the knowledge-based IR. We performed step-wise non-inferiority tests sequentially comparing 2...
December 7, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218577/street-foods-exacerbate-effects-of-the-environmental-burden-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-nigeria
#9
Osazuwa Clinton Ekhator, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle, Sorbari Igbiri, Rose Ngozi Asomugha, Chiara Frazzoli, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of well-known toxicants with carcinogenic potential and other health effects including on the immune system. The high health risks of non-communicable diseases and relevant comorbidities in Africa, particularly in contaminated areas like e-waste and crude oil and gas exploration areas and for high consumers of food commodity groupings which are most critical for PAH exposure, are exacerbated by dietary exposure due to unsafe practices in commonly consumed foods, like those street vended...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218458/evaluation-of-amyloid-status-in-a-cohort-of-elderly-individuals-with-memory-complaints-validation-of-the-method-of-quantification-and-determination-of-positivity-thresholds
#10
Marie-Odile Habert, Hugo Bertin, Mickael Labit, Mamadou Diallo, Sullivan Marie, Kelly Martineau, Aurélie Kas, Valérie Causse-Lemercier, Hovagim Bakardjian, Stéphane Epelbaum, Gael Chételat, Marion Houot, Harald Hampel, Bruno Dubois, Jean-François Mangin
OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to validate the process steps implemented by the French CATI platform to assess amyloid status, obtained from 18F-Florbetapir PET scans, in a cohort of 318 cognitively normal subjects participating in the INSIGHT-preAD study. Our objective was to develop a method with partial volume effect correction (PVEC) on untransformed PET images, using an automated pipeline ("RACHEL") adapted to large series of patients and including quality checks of results. METHODS: We compared RACHEL using different options (with and without PVEC, different sets of regions of interest), to two other methods validated in the literature, referred as the "AVID" and "CAEN" methods...
December 7, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218309/kinematic-changes-during-prolonged-fast-walking-in-old-and-young-adults
#11
Camila Fonseca Oliveira, Edgar Ramos Vieira, Filipa Manuel Machado Sousa, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
Walking biomechanics is known to be influenced by speed. However, most of the research examining the effects of walking speed and gait characteristics has been conducted after a fast-walking task, neglecting the changes that may occur during the task. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of fast-walking over time on kinematics in young and old adults. Twenty-seven young adults (26.6 ± 6.0 years) and 23 old adults (71.0 ± 5.6 years) walked at 70% of their maximum heart rate for 20 min or until exhaustion, and the effects of fast-walking on temporospatial parameters and on angular kinematics were analyzed during the activity...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218302/canine-soft-tissue-sarcomas-can-being-a-dog-s-best-friend-help-a-child
#12
Bernard Séguin
Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) remain a therapeutic challenge for pediatric and adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients. Still today, surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy remain the mainstay of treatment. Obstacles in developing new treatment approaches to improve the outcome are: few patients to enroll in clinical trials, and the diversity of tumor biology between histologic subtypes. Pet dogs may offer an additional strategy to discover and test new therapeutic avenues. The number of dogs diagnosed with a STS each year in the United States is estimated to be around 27,000 to 95,000...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217660/chimeric-pneumoviridae-fusion-proteins-as-immunogens-to-induce-cross-neutralizing-antibody-responses
#13
Eduardo Olmedillas, Olga Cano, Isidoro Martínez, Daniel Luque, María C Terrón, Jason S McLellan, José A Melero, Vicente Más
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV), two members of the Pneumoviridae family, account for the majority of severe lower respiratory tract infections worldwide in very young children. They are also a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and immunocompromised adults. High levels of neutralizing antibodies, mostly directed against the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein, correlate with protection against either hRSV or hMPV However, no cross-neutralization is observed in polyclonal antibody responses raised after virus infection or immunization with purified F proteins...
December 7, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217466/influence-of-corticosterone-treatment-on-nestling-begging-in-florida-scrub-jays-aphelocoma-coerulescens
#14
Emily K Elderbrock, Thomas W Small, Stephan J Schoech
Altricial young are dependent on adults for protection and food, and they display nutritional need by begging to elicit feeding from parents. Begging at high levels can be energetically expensive and attract predators; thus, an individual must balance its nutritional needs with these potential costs. Further, because a parent is limited in the amount of food it can provide, begging can contribute to both parent-offspring conflict and sibling-sibling competition. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to begging behavior...
December 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217318/ghrh-plus-arginine-and-arginine-administration-evokes-the-same-ratio-of-gh-isoforms-levels-in-young-patients-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#15
Antonello E Rigamonti, Antonino Crinò, Sarah Bocchini, Alessio Convertino, Martin Bidlingmaier, Michael Haenelt, Sofia Tamini, Silvano G Cella, Graziano Grugni, Alessandro Sartorio
Human GH is present in pituitary and circulation as several isoforms, the prevalent being 22kDa- and 20kDa-GH. Recently, we have demonstrated the preservation of a normal balance in GH isoforms after GH releasing hormone (GHRH) plus arginine (ARG) administration in adult patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), one of the most common causes of syndromic obesity, often associated with GH deficiency (GHD). Aim of the present study was to measure circulating levels of 22kDa- and 20kDa-GH in young PWS patients (n=24; F/M: 10/14; genotype UPD/DEL/met+: 11/11/2; age: 10...
November 27, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217286/pediatric-protocol-of-multimodal-therapy-is-associated-with-improved-survival-in-ayas-and-adults-with-rhabdomyosarcoma
#16
Trevan D Fischer, Shrawan G Gaitonde, Bradley C Bandera, Mehul V Raval, Sanjeev A Vasudevan, Kenneth W Gow, Elizabeth A Beierle, John J Doski, Adam B Goldin, Monica Langer, Jed G Nuchtern, Stacey Stern, Leland J Foshag, Melanie Goldfarb
BACKGROUND: Multimodal therapy is the standard treatment for pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma, but for adolescents and young adults (AYAs: ages 15-39) and older adults with rhabdomyosarcoma, the use of adjuvant therapy is variable, and survival is greatly decreased compared with younger patients. METHODS: All patients with rhabdomyosarcoma who had a curative operative were identified from the 1998-2012 National Cancer Database. Regression analyses identified independent factors relating to receipt of multimodal therapy (resection + chemotherapy + radiation) and the influence of multimodal therapy on 5-year overall survival...
December 4, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217260/ontogenesis-of-the-pinealo-retinal-neuronal-connection-in-albino-rats
#17
Ágnes Csáki, Viktória Vereczki, Ákos Lukáts, Zsolt Boldogkői, Anna Sebestyén, Zita Puskár, Katalin Köves
It was accepted for a long time that in mammals there is only retinofugal neuronal connection between the eye and the pineal body (PB). In our previous paper we described that nerve cells were present in hamster PB and these neurons could establish a reverse connection with the retina through a transsynaptic pathway. In adult albino rats neuronal perikarya were not found. In this present experiment it was examined whether the lack of these nerve cells in the PB of adult rats is the result of an apoptotic phenomenon or the lack of migration during the fetal period...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217132/mobile-phone-sensors-and-supervised-machine-learning-to-identify-alcohol-use-events-in-young-adults-implications-for-just-in-time-adaptive-interventions
#18
Sangwon Bae, Tammy Chung, Denzil Ferreira, Anind K Dey, Brian Suffoletto
BACKGROUND: Real-time detection of drinking could improve timely delivery of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related injury, but existing detection methods are burdensome or impractical. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether phone sensor data and machine learning models are useful to detect alcohol use events, and to discuss implications of these results for just-in-time mobile interventions. METHODS: 38 non-treatment seeking young adult heavy drinkers downloaded AWARE app (which continuously collected mobile phone sensor data), and reported alcohol consumption (number of drinks, start/end time of prior day's drinking) for 28days...
November 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217100/childhood-corporal-punishment-and-future-perpetration-of-physical-dating-violence
#19
Jeff R Temple, Hye Jeong Choi, Tyson Reuter, David Wolfe, Catherine A Taylor, Sheri Madigan, Lauren E Scott
OBJECTIVE: To test whether experiencing childhood corporal punishment is linked to later perpetration of dating violence. STUDY DESIGN: Young adults (n = 758; 61% female; mean age of 20 years), originally recruited for a longitudinal study as 9th- and 10th-grade Texas high school students, were asked about their childhood experiences with corporal punishment and physical abuse, as well as current experiences with dating violence. A path model was used to determine whether childhood corporal punishment was related to recent perpetration of physical dating violence, while controlling for childhood physical abuse, age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216874/factors-influencing-the-experience-of-sexual-and-reproductive-healthcare-for-female-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-a-qualitative-case-study
#20
Gertrude Mwalabu, Catrin Evans, Sarah Redsell
BACKGROUND: Young people living with perinatally-acquired HIV require age-appropriate support regarding sex and relationships as they progress towards adulthood. HIV affects both genders but evidence suggests that young women are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse and more prone to engaging in sexual behaviours to meet their daily survival needs. This can result in poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. HIV services in Malawi provide support for young women's HIV-related clinical needs, but it is unclear whether there is sufficient provision for their SRH needs as they become adults...
December 8, 2017: BMC Women's Health
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