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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743164/decisions-to-attend-and-drink-at-party-events-the-effects-of-incentives-and-disincentives-and-lifetime-alcohol-and-antisocial-problems
#1
Peter R Finn, Kyle Gerst, Allison Lake, Tim Bogg
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with patterns of impulsive/risky decision making on behavioral economic decision tasks, but little is known about the factors affecting drinking-related decisions. METHODS: The effects of incentives and disincentives to attend and drink at hypothetical alcohol-related party events as a function of lifetime (LT) alcohol and antisocial problems were examined in a sample of 434 young adults who varied widely in LT alcohol and antisocial problems...
July 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742979/adult-attachment-and-drinking-context-as-predictors-of-alcohol-problems-and-relationship-satisfaction-in-college-students
#2
Elise C Hocking, Raluca M Simons, Jeffrey S Simons, Harry Freeman
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that for young adults, intimate partners influence each other's drinking patterns. Therefore, exploration of variables related to intimate partner relationships (such as attachment style) could broaden the current understanding of risk factors for alcohol problems in this demographic. OBJECTIVES: The current study examined the role of drinking context in the relationships among insecure attachment, alcohol problems, and relationship satisfaction...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742813/taste-preference-changes-throughout-different-life-stages-in-male-rats
#3
Chizuko Inui-Yamamoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Katsura Ueda, Michiko Nakatsuka, Shunji Kumabe, Tadashi Inui, Yasutomo Iwai
Taste preference, a key component of food choice, changes with aging. However, it remains unclear how this occurs. To determine differences in taste preference between rats in different life stages, we examined the consumption of taste solutions and water using a two-bottle test. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages were used: juvenile (3-6 weeks), young adult (8-11 weeks), adult (17-20 weeks), middle-aged (34-37 weeks), and old-aged (69-72 weeks). The intakes of the high and low concentration solutions presented simultaneously were measured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742741/an-unusual-case-of-acute-parotitis-in-a-young-adult
#4
Azra Sehic, Caitlin Haenig, Francis Spear
Acute bacterial parotitis is uncommon in young adults. Infection with Serratia marcescens is even rarer and usually found in hospitalized patients. This case report focuses on a young woman with acute bacterial parotitis caused by S. marcescens that required a longer-than-normal course of antibiotics.
August 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742603/strengths-limitations-and-geographical-discrepancies-in-the-eligibility-criteria-for-sport-participation-in-young-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#5
Massimiliano Cantinotti, Raffaele Giordano, Nadia Assanta, Bruno Murzi, Manuel Melo, Eliana Franchi, Maura Crocetti, Giorgio Iervasi, Shelby Kutty
OBJECTIVE: Benefits of physical activity has been shown in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). In several forms of CHD, the risk of sudden death remains a major concern both for parents and clinicians, who in turn will have to consider the risk-benefit ratio of sport participation versus restriction. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed within the National Library of Medicine using the keywords: Sport, CHD, and Eligibility. The search was further refined by adding the keywords: Children, Adult, and Criteria...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742520/growth-and-pubertal-patterns-in-young-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#6
Sarah Elitzur, Revital Houri-Shtrecher, Michal Yackobovitz-Gavan, Galia Avrahami, Shlomit Barzilai, Gil Gilad, Yael Lebenthal, Moshe Phillip, Batia Stark, Isaac Yaniv, Shlomit Shalitin
BACKGROUND: Survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may experience endocrine dysfunction. This study evaluated growth and pubertal patterns in survivors of childhood ALL. METHODS: Longitudinal assessment of anthropometric measurements and pubertal status was performed in a retrospective cohort of survivors (n=183). Median age at last endocrine visit was 16.1 years (range 8.2-27.6); median follow-up time was 8.7 years (range 3-21.4). RESULTS: Treatment with chemotherapy+prophylactic cranial radiation (pCRT, n=29) was associated with lower mean height standard deviation score (SDS) than chemotherapy alone (n=154) (p=0...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742505/effects-of-a-hops-humulus-lupulus-l-dry-extract-supplement-on-self-reported-depression-anxiety-and-stress-levels-in-apparently-healthy-young-adults-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-pilot-study
#7
Ioannis Kyrou, Aimilia Christou, Demosthenes Panagiotakos, Charikleia Stefanaki, Katerina Skenderi, Konstantina Katsana, Constantine Tsigos
OBJECTIVE: The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. DESIGN: Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742426/educating-students-for-a-lifetime-of-physical-activity-enhancing-mindfulness-motivation-and-meaning
#8
Catherine D Ennis
For many years, pedagogical scholars and physical education (PE) teachers have worked to enhance effective teaching and learning environments. Yet for some children, youth, and young adults, many of the benefits associated with a physically active lifestyle remain elusive. Enhancing programming and performance to meet physical activity goals may require moving programs beyond "effective." It will require teachers and program leaders to focus programmatic attention on strategies to actually increase students' out-of-class physical activity behavior...
July 25, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742231/different-resuscitation-strategies-and-novel-pharmacologic-treatment-with-valproic-acid-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
REVIEW
Simone E Dekker, Vahagn C Nikolian, Martin Sillesen, Ted Bambakidis, Patrick Schober, Hasan B Alam
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in young adults, and effective treatment strategies have the potential to save many lives. TBI results in coagulopathy, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, cell death, and impaired epigenetic homeostasis, ultimately leading to morbidity and/or mortality. Commonly used resuscitation fluids such as crystalloids or colloids have several disadvantages and might even be harmful when administered in large quantities. There is a need for next-generation treatment strategies (especially in the prehospital setting) that minimize cellular damage, improve survival, and enhance neurological recovery...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742077/mediation-by-anxiety-of-the-relationship-between-amygdala-activity-during-emotion-processing-and-poor-quality-of-life-in-young-adults
#10
T Greenberg, M A Bertocci, H W Chase, R Stiffler, H A Aslam, S Graur, G Bebko, J C Lockovich, M L Phillips
Young adults often experience psychological distress and poor quality of life (QoL). Yet, there are no objective neural markers to accurately guide interventions to help improve these measures. We thus aimed to identify directional relationships between frontoamygdala emotional regulation circuitry activity during emotion processing, personality traits, and symptoms associated with psychological distress, and QoL. One hundred twenty 18-25-year olds, n=51 psychologically distressed and n=69 healthy individuals, completed a face emotion-processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging, clinical and behavioral measures, and QoL assessment...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741874/alcohol-consumption-trends-in-australia-comparing-surveys-and-sales-based-measures
#11
Michael Livingston, Sarah Callinan, Jonas Raninen, Amy Pennay, Paul M Dietze
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Survey data remain a crucial means for monitoring alcohol consumption, but there has been limited work done to ensure that surveys adequately capture changes in per-capita consumption in Australia. In this study, we explore how trends in consumption from two major Australian surveys compare with an official measure of per-capita consumption between 2001 and 2014 and examine age-specific trends in drinking. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were from five waves of the cross-sectional National Health Survey (total n = 113 279) and 12 waves of the longitudinal Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Study (average n = 12 347)...
July 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741713/two-color-chewing-gum-mixing-ability-test-for-evaluating-masticatory-performance-in-children-with-mixed-dentition-validity-and-reliability-study
#12
Mustafa Sarp Kaya, Burak Güçlü, Martin Schimmel, Serap Akyuz
The unappealing taste of the chewing material and the time-consuming repetitive task in masticatory performance tests using artificial foodstuff may discourage children from performing natural chewing movements. Therefore, the aim was to determine the validity and reliability of a two-color chewing-gum mixing ability test for masticatory performance (MP) assessment in mixed dentition children. Masticatory performance was tested in two groups: systemically healthy fully dentate young adults and children with mixed dentition...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741423/cognitive-control-in-young-adults-with-cannabis-use-disorder-an-event-related-brain-potential-study
#13
David Lr Maij, Ben Jm van de Wetering, Ingmar Ha Franken
Contemporary models of substance use disorders emphasize the role of cognitive control, which has been linked to difficulties in resisting the use of substances. In the present study, we measured two aspects of cognitive control, response inhibition (operationalized by a Go/NoGo Task) and performance monitoring (operationalized by an Eriksen Flanker Task), in a group of young cannabis-use disorder (CUD) patients and compared these functions with two control groups (i.e. a group of cigarette smokers and a group of non-smokers)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741422/longitudinal-study-of-hippocampal-volumes-in-heavy-cannabis-users
#14
L Koenders, V Lorenzetti, L de Haan, C Suo, Wam Vingerhoets, W van den Brink, R W Wiers, C J Meijer, Mwj Machielsen, A E Goudriaan, D J Veltman, M Yücel, J Cousijn
BACKGROUND: Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes. METHODS: Twenty heavy cannabis users (mean age 21 years, range 18-24 years) and 23 matched non-cannabis using healthy controls were submitted to a comprehensive psychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and at follow-up (average of 39 months post-baseline; standard deviation=2...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741189/-sexting-as-a%C3%A2-risk-on-consensual-and-non-consensual-distribution-of-personal-erotic-pictures-using-digital-media
#15
REVIEW
Arne Dekker, Thula Koops
BACKGROUND: Digital media are used for the purpose of various sexual experiences. In recent years the exchange of erotic text messages or images ("sexting") has gained the attention of academic research and has increasingly been the center of public discussion on sexual boundary violations and violence via digital media. The unwanted forwarding of images to a third party is especially relevant in this respect. In contrast to media reports about sexting as a risk behavior with serious consequences, there is little empirical analysis about the actual sexting practice of adolescents and adults in Germany...
July 24, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740935/effects-of-vertebral-body-sparing-proton-craniospinal-irradiation-on-the-spine-of-young-pediatric-patients-with-medulloblastoma
#16
Iain MacEwan, Brian Chou, Jeremy Moretz, Lilia Loredo, David Bush, Jerry D Slater
PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term effects of vertebral-body-sparing proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) on the spine of young patients with medulloblastoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Six children between the ages of 3 and 5 years with medulloblastoma were treated with vertebral-body-sparing proton CSI after maximal safe resection. Radiation therapy was delivered in the supine position with posterior beams targeting the craniospinal axis, and the proton beam was stopped anterior to the thecal sac...
April 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740815/positive-schizotypy-and-negative-schizotypy-are-associated-with-differential-patterns-of-episodic-memory-impairment
#17
Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R Kwapil
Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of schizophrenia; however, studies have not comprehensively examined such impairments in non-clinically ascertained schizotypic young adults. The present study employed a series of measures to assess episodic memory in high positive schizotypy, high negative schizotypy, and comparison groups (each group n = 25). Consistent with diminished cognitive functioning seen in negative symptom schizophrenia, the negative schizotypy group exhibited deficits on free recall, recognition, and source memory tasks...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740756/sonographic-evaluation-of-the-immediate-effects-of-eccentric-heel-drop-exercise-on-achilles-tendon-and-gastrocnemius-muscle-stiffness-using-shear-wave-elastography
#18
Wilson K C Leung, K L Chu, Christopher Lai
BACKGROUND: Mechanical loading is crucial for muscle and tendon tissue remodeling. Eccentric heel drop exercise has been proven to be effective in the management of Achilles tendinopathy, yet its induced change in the mechanical property (i.e., stiffness) of the Achilles tendon (AT), medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles (MG and LG) was unknown. Given that shear wave elastography has emerged as a powerful tool in assessing soft tissue stiffness with promising intra- and inter-operator reliability, the objective of this study was hence to characterize the stiffness of the AT, MG and LG in response to an acute bout of eccentric heel drop exercise...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740668/socioeconomic-impact-of-asthma-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome
#19
Jinhee Kim, Young Sam Kim, Kyungjoo Kim, Yeon-Mok Oh, Kwang Ha Yoo, Chin Kook Rhee, Jin Hwa Lee
BACKGROUND: Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) is defined as having both features of asthma and COPD, which are airway hyper-responsiveness and incompletely reversible airway obstruction. However, socioeconomic impact of ACOS have not been well appreciated. METHODS: Adults with available wheezing history and acceptable spirometry were selected from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) in 2007-2009...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740347/chronic-hepatitis-b-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-physical-fitness-of-military-males-chief-study
#20
Yu-Jung Chen, Kai-Wen Chen, Yu-Leung Shih, Fang-Ying Su, Yen-Po Lin, Fan-Chun Meng, Felicia Lin, Yun-Shun Yu, Chih-Lu Han, Chih-Hung Wang, Jia-Wei Lin, Tsai-Yuan Hsieh, Yi-Hwei Li, Gen-Min Lin
AIM: To investigate the association of chronic hepatitis B and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with physical fitness in a Taiwanese military male cohort. METHODS: We made a cross-sectional examination of this association using 3669 young adult military males according to cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events recorded in the Taiwan Armed Forces study. Cases of chronic hepatitis B (n = 121) were defined by personal history and positive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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