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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905835/hemagglutination-inhibiting-antibody-persistence-1-year-after-of-influenza-vaccination-in-korean-children-and-adolescents
#1
Eun-Kyeong Kang, Byung-Wook Eun, Nam-Hee Kim, Yun-Kyung Kim, Jung-Sub Lim, Dong-Ho Kim
This study aimed to assess the one-year immunogenicity of influenza vaccines and the association between immunogenicity at one month and further influenza infections in children aged 6 months to 18 years. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers and GMTs were determined for the recommended influenza strains 0, 1, 6, and 12 months post-vaccination. The serological evidence of influenza infections were defined as the increase of HI titer (HI ≥1:40 and 4-fold rise). The seroprotection rates for strains A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and B were 91...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903558/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-routine-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-the-uk-a-comparison-of-the-phid-cv-vaccine-and-the-pcv-13-vaccine-using-a-markov-model
#2
Emmanuelle Delgleize, Oscar Leeuwenkamp, Eleni Theodorou, Nicolas Van de Velde
OBJECTIVES: In 2010, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (introduced in 2006) for vaccination against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) in the UK. Using recent evidence on the impact of PCVs and epidemiological changes in the UK, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to compare the pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) with PCV-13 in the ongoing national vaccination programme...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902910/recombinant-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-virus-h5-expressed-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-chickens
#3
Inkar Castellanos-Huerta, Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández, Guillermo Téllez, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Luis G Brieba, Elizabeth Esquivel-Ramos, Josué I Beltrán-López, Gilberto Velazquez, Isidro Fernandez-Siurob
Globally, avian influenza (AI) is a serious problem in poultry farming. Despite vaccination, the prevalence of AI in México highlights the need for new approaches to control AI and to reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. Recombinant proteins from avian influenza virus (AIV) have been expressed in different organisms, such as plants. The present study investigated the feasibility of designing and expressing the HA protein of AIV in the transplastomic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel approach for AIV control and taking advantage of culture conditions, its reproductive range, and safe use in consideration of the generally regarded as safe food ingredient regulatory classification...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902899/endemic-variation-of-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-china
#4
Yu-Fu Liu, Han-Zhang Lai, Lin Li, Yu-Peng Liu, Wen-Yan Zhang, Ren Gao, Wen-Ke Huang, Qin-Fang Luo, Yan Gao, Qiong Luo, Xiao-Yu Xie, Jia-Hua Xu, Rui-Ai Chen
Forty-two H9N2 subtype AIV strains were isolated from vaccinated commercial chickens in China from 2012 to 2015. Their HA genes had nucleotide sequence homology from 86.7% to 99.7%, and similarity to the classic vaccine strain was 88.6%-92.6%. A comparison was carried out with published HA genes (410 H9 strains) and whole genomes (306 strains) isolated in China during 2012-2015. Interestingly, 99.1% (448/452) of Chinese H9N2 AIV belonged to lineage h9.4.2, and 98.5% (445/452) of the viruses belonged to h9.4...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902762/presenting-influenza-a-m2e-antigen-on-recombinant-spores-of-bacillus-subtilis
#5
Tomasz Łęga, Paulina Weiher, Michał Obuchowski, Dawid Nidzworski
Effective vaccination against influenza virus infection is a serious problem mainly due to antigenic variability of the virus. Among many of investigated antigens, the extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e) features high homology in all strains of influenza A viruses and antibodies against M2e and is protective in animal models; this makes it a potential candidate for generation of a universal influenza vaccine. However, due to the low immunogenicity of the M2e, formulation of a vaccine based on this antigen requires some modification to induce effective immune responses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902651/influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-preventing-influenza-illness-among-children-during-school-based-outbreaks-in-the-2014-2015-season-in-beijing-china
#6
Li Zhang, Peng Yang, Mark G Thompson, Yang Pan, Chunna Ma, Shuangsheng Wu, Ying Sun, Man Zhang, Wei Duan, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Little is known about VE against non-medically attended A(H3N2) influenza illness during 2014-2015 when the vaccine component appeared to be a poor match with circulating strains. METHODS: Forty-three eligible school influenza outbreaks in Beijing, China from November 1 to December 31, 2014 were included in this study. The VE of 2014-2015 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) was assessed in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza among school-age children through a case-control design, using asymptomatic controls...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902386/establishment-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-with-live-attenuated-influenza-virus-laiv-across-different-vaccination-doses
#7
Zhongfang Wang, Lukasz Kedzierska, Simone Nuessing, Brendon Chua, Sergio M Quiñones-Parra, Victor C Huber, David Jackson, Paul G Thomas, Katherine Kedzierska
FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than ten years. As pre-existing CD8+ T-cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by different LAIV regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally (i.n.) with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination...
November 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902339/progressive-glycosylation-of-the-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-modulates-virus-replication-virulence-and-chicken-to-chicken-transmission-without-significant-impact-on-antigenic-drift
#8
El-Sayed M Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits, Kerstin Tauscher, Mario Ziller, Christian Grund, Mohamed K Hassan, Momtaz Shaheen, Timm C Harder, Jens P Teifke, Jürgen Stech, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) devastated the poultry industry and continues to pose a pandemic threat. Studying the progressive genetic changes in A/H5N1 after long term circulation in poultry may help to better understand A/H5N1 biology in birds. A/H5N1 clade 2.2.1.1 antigenic drift viruses have been isolated from vaccinated commercial poultry in Egypt. They exhibit a peculiar stepwise accumulation of glycosylation sites (GS) in the hemagglutinin (HA) with viruses carrying, beyond the conserved 5 GS, additional GS at amino acid residues 72, 154, 236 and 273 resulting in 6, 7, 8 or 9 GS in the HA...
October 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899226/virospot-microneutralization-assay-for-antigenic-characterization-of-human-influenza-viruses
#9
Carel A van Baalen, Rienk E Jeeninga, Germaine H W M Penders, Brenda van Gent, Ruud van Beek, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay has been used for the antigenic characterization of influenza viruses for decades. However, the majority of recent seasonal influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype has lost the capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes of various species. The hemagglutination (HA) activity of other A(H3N2) strains is generally sensitive to the action of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, which indicates that the neuraminidase and not the hemagglutinin is responsible for the HA activity...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898629/influenza-like-illness-diagnosis-and-management-in-the-acute-care-setting
#10
Sharon G Humiston, Thuylinh N Pham
During influenza season, acute respiratory illness due to influenza is difficult to distinguish from other influenza-like illnesses, but testing should be reserved for situations when timely results will influence management or infection control measures. Immunization status and timing of disease onset notwithstanding, a neuraminidase inhibitor should be offered immediately for certain high-risk children; neuraminidase inhibitor treatment should be considered if shorter illness is warranted or an at-risk sibling may be protected...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897990/how-to-meet-the-last-oie-expert-surveillance-panel-recommendations-on-equine-influenza-ei-vaccine-composition-a-review-of-the-process-required-for-the-recombinant-canarypox-based-ei-vaccine
#11
REVIEW
Romain Paillot, Nicola L Rash, Dion Garrett, Leah Prowse-Davis, Fernando Montesso, Ann Cullinane, Laurent Lemaitre, Jean-Christophe Thibault, Sonia Wittreck, Agnes Dancer
Vaccination is highly effective to prevent, control, and limit the impact of equine influenza (EI), a major respiratory disease of horses. However, EI vaccines should contain relevant equine influenza virus (EIV) strains for optimal protection. The OIE expert surveillance panel annually reviews EIV evolution and, since 2010, the use of Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages representative vaccine strains is recommended. This report summarises the development process of a fully- updated recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine in order to meet the last OIE recommendations, including the vaccine mode of action, production steps and schedule...
November 25, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895132/protection-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-pathogenesis-by-a-protein-based-vaccine-is-achieved-by-suppression-of-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-density-during-influenza-a-virus-co-infection
#12
M Nadeem Khan, Qingfu Xu, Michael E Pichichero
An increase in Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization density during a viral co-infection initiates pathogenesis. To mimic natural Spn pathogenesis, we commensally colonized the NP of adult C57BL/6 mice with Spn serotypes (STs) 6A or 8, and then co-infected with mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza A virus (PR/8/34). Spn established effective commensal colonization and Influenza co-infection caused Spn NP density to increase, resulting in bacteremia and mortality. We then studied histidine triad protein D (PhtD), a Spn adhesin vaccine candidate, for its ability to prevent invasive Spn disease in adult and infant mice...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894719/structural-based-designed-modular-capsomere-comprising-ha1-for-low-cost-poultry-influenza-vaccination
#13
Jarurin Waneesorn, Nani Wibowo, John Bingham, Anton P J Middelberg, Linda H L Lua
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses cause a severe and lethal infection in domestic birds. The increasing number of HPAI outbreaks has demonstrated the lack of capabilities to control the rapid spread of avian influenza. Poultry vaccination has been shown to not only reduce the virus spread in animals but also reduce the virus transmission to humans, preventing potential pandemic development. However, existing vaccine technologies cannot respond to a new virus outbreak rapidly and at a cost and scale that is commercially viable for poultry vaccination...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894716/characterization-of-guinea-pig-t-cell-responses-elicited-after-ep-assisted-delivery-of-dna-vaccines-to-the-skin
#14
Katherine Schultheis, Hubert Schaefer, Bryan S Yung, Janet Oh, Karuppiah Muthumani, Laurent Humeau, Kate E Broderick, Trevor R F Smith
The skin is an ideal target tissue for vaccine delivery for a number of reasons. It is highly accessible, and most importantly, enriched in professional antigen presenting cells. Possessing strong similarities to human skin physiology and displaying a defined epidermis, the guinea pig is an appropriate model to study epidermal delivery of vaccine. However, whilst we have characterized the humoral responses in the guinea pig associated with skin vaccine protocols we have yet to investigate the T cell responses...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893898/association-between-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-vaccination-in-pregnancy-and-early-childhood-morbidity-in-offspring
#15
Anders Hviid, Henrik Svanström, Ditte Mølgaard-Nielsen, Philipp Lambach
Importance: Several studies investigating potential adverse effects of the pandemic A(H1N1) vaccine have supported that influenza A(H1N1) vaccination does not increase the risk for major pregnancy and birth adverse outcomes, but little is known about possible adverse effects in offspring of A(H1N1)-vaccinated mothers beyond the perinatal period and into early childhood. Objective: To evaluate whether pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination in pregnancy increases the risk for early childhood morbidity in offspring...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893896/association-between-influenza-infection-and-vaccination-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Ousseny Zerbo, Yinge Qian, Cathleen Yoshida, Bruce H Fireman, Nicola P Klein, Lisa A Croen
Importance: Maternal infections and fever during pregnancy are associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To our knowledge, no study has investigated the association between influenza vaccination during pregnancy and ASD. Objective: To investigate the association between influenza infection and vaccination during pregnancy and ASD risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 196 929 children born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010, at a gestational age of at least 24 weeks...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892877/detection-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-and-influenza-a-virus-iav-in-oral-fluid-of-pigs
#17
Kinga Biernacka, Paweł Karbowiak, Paweł Wróbel, Tomasz Charęza, Michał Czopowicz, Gyula Balka, Christa Goodell, Rolf Rauh, Tomasz Stadejek
Recently oral fluid has become a novel sample type for pathogen nucleic acid and antibody detection, as it is easy to obtain with non-invasive procedures. The objective of the study was to analyze porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and influenza A virus (IAV) circulation in growing pigs from three Polish production farms, using Real Time PCR and ELISA testing of oral fluid and serum. Oral fluids were collected every 2weeks, in the same 3-4 pens of pigs aged between 5 and 17weeks. Additionally, blood samples were collected every 4weeks from 4 pigs corresponding to the same pens as oral fluid and tested for the presence of PRRSV nucleic acid (pooled by 4) and antibodies...
September 21, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892498/sensitization-with-vaccinia-virus-encoding-h5n1-hemagglutinin-restores-immune-potential-against-h5n1-influenza-virus
#18
Fumihiko Yasui, Yasushi Itoh, Ai Ikejiri, Masahiro Kitabatake, Nobuo Sakaguchi, Keisuke Munekata, Shintaro Shichinohe, Yukiko Hayashi, Hirohito Ishigaki, Misako Nakayama, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Michinori Kohara
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) virus causes elevated mortality compared with seasonal influenza viruses like H1N1 pandemic influenza (H1N1 pdm) virus. We identified a mechanism associated with the severe symptoms seen with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. H5N1 HPAI virus infection induced a decrease of dendritic cell number in the splenic extrafollicular T-cell zone and impaired formation of the outer layers of B-cell follicles, resulting in insufficient levels of antibody production after infection...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892421/screening-for-atrial-fibrillation-during-influenza-vaccinations-by-primary-care-nurses-using-a-smartphone-electrocardiograph-iecg-a-feasibility-study
#19
Jessica Orchard, Nicole Lowres, S Ben Freedman, Laila Ladak, William Lee, Nicholas Zwar, David Peiris, Yasith Kamaladasa, Jialin Li, Lis Neubeck
BACKGROUND: People with unknown atrial fibrillation (AF), who are often asymptomatic, have a substantially increased risk of stroke. Although recommended in European guidelines, AF screening is not routinely performed. Screening at the time of influenza vaccination presents an ideal opportunity to detect AF in large numbers in a primary care medical setting, with an existing annual recall system for patients aged ≥65 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study of handheld smartphone electrocardiogram (iECG) screening to identify unknown AF...
October 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891512/a-de-o-acylated-lipooligosaccharide-based-adjuvant-system-promotes-antibody-and-th1-type-immune-responses-to-h1n1-pandemic-influenza-vaccine-in-mice
#20
Ji In Ryu, Shin Ae Park, Seo Ri Wui, Ara Ko, Ji Eun Han, Jung Ah Choi, Man Ki Song, Kwang Sung Kim, Yang Je Cho, Na Gyong Lee
Vaccine adjuvants are agents that are used to promote immune responses to vaccine antigens and thereby to enhance the protective efficacy of the vaccines. In this study, we investigated the adjuvant activity of CIA06, an adjuvant system that is composed of a toll-like receptor 4 agonist de-O-acylated lipooligosaccharide (dLOS) and aluminum hydroxide, on the H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine Greenflu-S® in mice. CIA06 significantly enhanced influenza-specific serum IgG, hemagglutination-inhibition, and virus-neutralizing antibody titers, which eliminated vaccine dose-dependency in the antibody response...
2016: BioMed Research International
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