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Bipolar affective

Yi-Feng Carol Lan, Diane C Zelman, Wen-Tao Chao
Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant proportion of Taiwanese individuals (Weissman et al., 1996; Yang, Yeh, & Hwu, 2012). Psychotropic medications are typically the mainstay of treatment for BD, and there is an abundance of international research on biological etiology and medication options. However, there is comparatively little research on psychosocial aspects of BD, including how it is understood and managed within families. As culture provides the context in which psychiatric disease is managed, there is a need to identify distinct Chinese psychosocial perspectives that might shed light on intervention options...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Emily Tubman, Yungui He, Thomas S Hays, David J Odde
Introduction: The microtubule motor protein kinesin-5 is well known to establish the bipolar spindle by outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar microtubules. In yeast, kinesin-5 also facilitates chromosome alignment "congression" at the spindle equator by preferentially depolymerizing long kinetochore microtubules (kMTs). The motor protein kinesin-8 has also been linked to chromosome congression. Therefore, we sought to determine whether kinesin-5 or kinesin-8 facilitates chromosome congression in insect spindles...
February 2018: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Morgwn Paris, Yatin Mahajan, Jeesun Kim, Tanya Meade
BACKGROUND: Deficits in emotional prosody processing have been observed in bipolar disorder (BD). While recent neural studies have explored impaired processing of facial expressions, little is known about deficits in emotional speech processing, or the specific stages of processing at which they occur. This study examined if pre-attentive detection and attention to emotional speech is impaired in BD, relative to healthy individuals. METHODS: The EEG data was collected from 14 individuals with BD and 14 healthy control (HC) participants while the auditory stimuli was presented via a passive three-stimulus oddball sequence which included emotionally (neutral, happy, sad) spoken syllables and acoustically matched nonvocal tones...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Misbah Salim, Verinder Sharma, Kelly K Anderson
We conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine the prevalence of mood episode recurrences during pregnancy among women with bipolar disorder. Included studies (n = 11) had wide variation in the reported proportions of pregnant women with bipolar disorder who experienced a recurrence (median = 24%, range = 4-73%). There is some evidence that pregnant women are more likely to have a depressive or mixed episode, rather than hypomanic or manic. The extant literature cannot answer the question of how pregnancy affects the course of bipolar disorder; it merely informs us of the effect of medication discontinuation during pregnancy...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Antonella Sferra, Fabiana Fattori, Teresa Rizza, Elsabetta Flex, Emanuele Bellacchio, Alessandro Bruselles, Stefania Petrini, Serena Cecchetti, Massimo Teson, Fabrizia Restaldi, Andrea Ciolfi, Filippo M Santorelli, Ginevra Zanni, Sabina Barresi, Claudia Castiglioni, Marco Tartaglia, Enrico Bertini
Microtubules participate in fundamental cellular processes, including chromosomal segregation and cell division, migration, and intracellular trafficking. Their proper function is required for correct central nervous system development and operative preservation, and mutations in genes coding tubulins, the constituting units of microtubules, underlie a family of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as "tubulinopathies", characterized by a wide range of neuronal defects resulting from defective proliferation, migration, and function...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Yijun Pan, Jennifer L Short, Stephanie A Newman, Kwok H C Choy, Durgesh Tiwari, Christopher Yap, Danielle Senyschyn, William A Banks, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Epidemiological evidence suggests that people with bipolar disorder prescribed lithium exhibit a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to those prescribed other mood-stabilizing medicines. Lithium chloride (LiCl) reduces brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels, and the brain clearance of Aβ is reduced in AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the cognitive benefits of LiCl are associated with enhanced brain clearance of exogenously-administered Aβ. The brain clearance of intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered125 I-Aβ42 was assessed in male Swiss outbred mice administered daily oral NaCl or LiCl (300 mg/kg for 21 days)...
March 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Toby Wise, Matthew J Taylor, Andres Herane-Vives, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Francesco Cappello, David J Lythgoe, Steve Cr Williams, Allan H Young, Anthony J Cleare, Danilo Arnone
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty as to whether alterations in glutamatergic function in affective disorders differ between unipolar and bipolar disorders and between depressive and euthymic states. Additionally, there are currently no available blood-based markers of central glutamatergic function to support clinical diagnosis and aid brain based investigations. METHODS: In this study, we measured levels of glutamate in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in-vivo using 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in medication free unipolar and bipolar patients (n = 29, 20 unipolar and 9 bipolar) experiencing a major depressive episode, in comparison with a group of matched healthy controls (n = 20)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Juliana Brum Moraes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, George Anderson, Marta Kubera, Andre F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Early life trauma (ELT) may increase the risk towards bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), disorders associated with activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways. It has remained elusive whether ELTs are associated with O&NS and which ELTs are associated with distinct affective disorder phenotypes. This case-control study examined patients with BD (n = 68) and MDD (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 66). The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess specific ELT...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
M G Carta, A Preti, H S Akiskal
Human population is increasing in immense cities with millions of inhabitants, in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on many metabolic pathways. Suppression of melatonin incretion at night and the subsequent effect on DNA methylation may increase the risk of prostate and breast cancer...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Sally-Ann Cooper, Elita Smiley, Linda Allan, Jillian Morrison
BACKGROUND: Incidence and determinants of affective disorders among adults with intellectual disabilities are unknown. Aims To investigate affective disorder incidence, and determinants of unipolar depression, compared with general population reports. METHOD: Prospective cohort study measuring mental ill health of adults with mild to profound intellectual disabilities living within a defined community, over 2 years. RESULTS: There was 70% cohort retention (n = 651)...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Moritz E Wigand, Fabian U Lang, Annabel S Müller-Stierlin, Lea Reichhardt, Silvana Trif, Thomas G Schulze, Werner Strik, Thomas Becker, Markus Jäger
BACKGROUND: A neurobiologically informed, system-specific psychopathological approach has been suggested for use in schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, such an approach has not been used to prospectively describe the course of schizophrenia. SAMPLING AND METHODS: We assessed psychopathology in a well-described sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) at 6-month intervals for up to 18 months...
March 14, 2018: Psychopathology
M Sehmbi, C D Rowley, L Minuzzi, F Kapczinski, M Steiner, R B Sassi, N A Bock, B N Frey
OBJECTIVE: Although cognitive dysfunction persists through affective and euthymic states in bipolar disorder (BD), its neurobiological correlates remain undetermined. We explore whole-cortex intracortical myelin (ICM) and cognition in BD-I and controls. METHODS: T1 -weighted images (3T) optimized for ICM measurement were analyzed using a surface-based approach. MRI signal was sampled at cortical mid-depth. Cognitive performance was measured via standardized computerized battery and paper-and-pencil Trails B...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Farid Talih, Nour Y Gebara, Farah S Andary, Stefania Mondello, Firas Kobeissy, Raffaele Ferri
Circadian rhythm disturbances are common in bipolar affective disorder (BD). Delayed sleep-wake phase syndrome (DSWPD) is the most prevalent circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (CRSWDs) and is frequently observed in BD. It is unclear whether DSWPD in BD is an independent process or is a consequence of BD. In this hypothetical review, we discuss the overlap between BD and DSWPD and potential common biomarkers for DSWPD and BD. The review will include a discussion of the genetics of DSWPD and BD. Biomarkers elucidating the pathophysiological processes occurring in these two disorders may offer insight into the etiology and prognosis of both conditions...
February 13, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Takahiro Ogura, Tim Bryant, Brian A Mosier, Tom Minas
BACKGROUND: Treating bipolar chondral lesions in the tibiofemoral (TF) compartment with cartilage repair procedures is challenging, and a suitable treatment remains unclear. PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical outcomes after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for the treatment of bipolar chondral lesions in the TF compartment. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: We evaluated 57 patients who underwent ACI for the treatment of symptomatic bipolar chondral lesions in the TF compartment by a single surgeon between October 1995 and June 2014...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Claudio Toma, Alex D Shaw, Richard J N Allcock, Anna Heath, Kerrie D Pierce, Philip B Mitchell, Peter R Schofield, Janice M Fullerton
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex psychiatric condition with high heritability, the genetic architecture of which likely comprises both common variants of small effect and rare variants of higher penetrance, the latter of which are largely unknown. Extended families with high density of illness provide an opportunity to map novel risk genes or consolidate evidence for existing candidates, by identifying genes carrying pathogenic rare variants. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 15 BD families (117 subjects, of whom 72 were affected), augmented with copy number variant (CNV) microarray data, to examine contributions of multiple classes of rare genetic variants within a familial context...
March 13, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Steffie Damgaard Pedersen, Søren Dinesen Østergaard, Liselotte Petersen
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have indicated that both high and low school grades are associated with development of bipolar disorder (BD), but these studies have not adjusted for parental history of mental disorder, which is a likely confounder. Furthermore, the association between school grades and bipolar I disorder (BD-I) has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to study the association between school exam grades and subsequent development of BD and BD-I while adjusting for parental history of mental disorder...
March 13, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Shu-Guang Cheng
The electronic transport of graphene p-n junctions under perpendicular magnetic field is investigated in theory. Under low magnetic field, the transport is determined by the resonant tunneling of Landau levels and conductance versus magnetic field shows a Shubnikov de-Haas oscillation. At higher magnetic field, the p-n junction subjected to the quasi-classical regime and the formation of snake states results in periodical backscattering and transmission as magnetic field varies. The conductance oscillation pattern is mediated both by magnetic field and the carrier concentration on bipolar regions...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Brain activity derives from intrinsic dynamics (due to neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity) in concert with stochastic effects that arise from sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random fluctuations can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs). This article, Part II of a two-part series, reviews applications of SDMs to large-scale neural systems in health and disease. Stochastic models have already elucidated a number of pathophysiological phenomena, such as epilepsy and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, although their use in biological psychiatry remains rather nascent...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Julian Macoveanu, William Baaré, Kristoffer H Madsen, Lars Vedel Kessing, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Maj Vinberg
Background: Major depression and bipolar disorders aggregates in families and are linked with a wide range of neurobiological abnormalities including cortical gray matter (GM) alterations. Prospective studies of individuals at familial risk may expose the neural mechanisms underlying risk transmission. Methods: We used voxel based morphometry to investigate changes in regional GM brain volume, over a seven-year period, in 37 initially healthy individuals having a mono- or di-zygotic twin diagnosed with major depression or bipolar disorder (high-risk group; mean age 41...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
N L O'Brien, A Fiorentino, D Curtis, C Rayner, C Petrosellini, M Al Eissa, N J Bass, A McQuillin, S I Sharp
Recent results imply that rare variants contribute to the risk of schizophrenia. Exome sequence data from the UK10K project was used to identify three rare, amino acid changing variants in the ITGB4 gene which segregated with schizophrenia in two families: rs750367954, rs147480547 and rs145976111. Association analysis was carried out in the exome-sequenced Swedish schizophrenia study and in UCL schizophrenia and bipolar cases and controls genotyped for these variants. A gene-wise weighted burden test was performed on a trio sample of schizophrenia cases and their parents...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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