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Dream sleep

Jennifer M Windt, Tore Nielsen, Evan Thompson
Consciousness is often said to disappear in deep, dreamless sleep. We argue that this assumption is oversimplified. Unless dreamless sleep is defined as unconscious from the outset there are good empirical and theoretical reasons for saying that a range of different types of sleep experience, some of which are distinct from dreaming, can occur in all stages of sleep. We introduce a novel taxonomy for describing different kinds of dreamless sleep experiences and suggest research methods for their investigation...
October 17, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Mitchell G Miglis, Srikanth Muppidi, Emmanuel During, Safwan Jaradeh
PURPOSE: Data on the prevalence of RBD in patients with PAF are limited, with discrepancies in the literature regarding prevalence. We aimed to provide further data on this association with a series of eight patients with PAF. METHODS: We reviewed the electronic medical records of all patients seen at the Stanford neurology clinics from 2012 to 2016 who were given a provisional diagnosis of PAF (343 patients), and further screened by procedure codes to identify those patients who underwent both attended video-polysomonography and autonomic testing (18 patients), and met strict exclusionary criteria (8 patients)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Youngsin Jung, Erik K St Louis
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common parasomnia disorder affecting between 1 and 7 % of community-dwelling adults, most frequently older adults. RBD is characterized by nocturnal complex motor behavior and polysomnographic REM sleep without atonia. RBD is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. The approach to RBD management is currently twofold: symptomatic treatment to prevent injury and prognostic counseling and longitudinal follow-up surveillance for phenoconversion toward overt neurodegenerative disorders...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Judith Koppehele-Gossel, Ansgar Klimke, Karin Schermelleh-Engel, Ursula Voss
Dreams are usually centered around a dream self capable of tasks generally impossible in waking, e.g. flying or walking through walls. Moreover, the bodily dream self appears relatively stable and insensitive to changes of the embodied wake self, raising the question of whether and to what extent the dream self is embodied. To further explore its determinants, we tested whether the dream self would be affected by either pre-sleep focused attention to a body part or by its experimental alteration during the day...
October 5, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Sue Llewellyn
Writing about dreaming, the poet Raymond Carver said "I feel as if I've crossed some kind of invisible line". In creative people, the "line" between wake, dreaming and psychopathology may be porous, engendering a de-differentiated, super-critical, hybrid state. Evidence exists for a relationship between creativity and psychopathology but its nature has been elusive. De-differentiation between wake, sleep and dreaming may be the common substrate, as dream-like cognition pervades wake and wake-like neurophysiology suffuses sleep...
October 5, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Stuart J McCarter, Michael J Howell
Sleep disorders and neurodegenerative diseases are commonly encountered in primary care. A common, but underdiagnosed sleep disorder, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), is highly associated with Parkinson disease and related disorders. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is common. It is estimated to affect 0.5% of the general population and more than 7% of individuals older than 60 years; however, most cases go unrecognized. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder presents as dream enactment, often with patients thrashing, punching, and kicking while they are sleeping...
October 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Mitsuaki Kashiwagi, Yu Hayashi
Our sleep is composed of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. REM sleep is the major source of dreams, whereas synchronous cortical oscillations, called slow waves, are observed during NREM sleep. Both stages are unique to certain vertebrate species, and therefore, REM and NREM sleep are thought to be involved in higher-order brain functions. While several studies have revealed the importance of NREM sleep in growth hormone secretion, memory consolidation and brain metabolite clearance, the functions of REM sleep are currently almost totally unknown...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Chi-Hang Lee, Ferran Barbé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Giulia L Poerio, Stephen Kellett, Peter Totterdell
This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which "dream-like" mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Carlo Cipolli, Michele Ferrara, Luigi De Gennaro, Giuseppe Plazzi
Recent advances in electrophysiological [e.g., surface high-density electroencephalographic (hd-EEG) and intracranial recordings], video-polysomnography (video-PSG), transcranial stimulation and neuroimaging techniques allow more in-depth and more accurate investigation of the neural correlates of dreaming in healthy individuals and in patients with brain-damage, neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders or parasomnias. Convergent evidence provided by studies using these techniques in healthy subjects has led to a reformulation of several unresolved issues of dream generation and recall [such as the inter- and intra-individual differences in dream recall and the predictivity of specific EEG rhythms, such as theta in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, for dream recall] within more comprehensive models of human consciousness and its variations across sleep/wake states than the traditional models, which were largely based on the neurophysiology of REM sleep in animals...
July 28, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Julia Heller, Nikolina Brcina, Imis Dogan, Florian Holtbernd, Sandro Romanzetti, Jörg B Schulz, Johannes Schiefer, Kathrin Reetz
Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the loss of physiological atonia of skeletal muscles with abnormal behavior during dream sleep. RBD may be the initial manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly of α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). However, gauging the individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion and making assumptions on the type of disease that may subsequently follow RBD is challenging...
June 25, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Yves Dauvilliers, Régis Lopez
Central hypersomnias include narcolepsy type 1, type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia with daytime sleepiness excessive in the foreground of the clinical symptoms. Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the narcolepsy type 1 with a low level of hypocretin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid, its current management is only symptomatic. The current management is also only symptomatic for type 2 narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia with an unknown pathophysiology. Treatment options may vary from a single drug targeting several symptoms or several drugs treating a specific symptom...
June 2016: La Revue du Praticien
Seishu Nakagawa, Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Yuka Kotozaki, Carlos M Miyauchi, Kunio Iizuka, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Takamitsu Shinada, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Keiko Kunitoki, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima
Poor sleep quality negatively affects memory performance, and working memory in particular. We investigated sleep habits related to sleep quality including sleep duration, daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and dream content recall frequency (DCRF). Declarative working memory can be subdivided into verbal working memory (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM). We hypothesized that sleep habits would have different effects on VWM and VSWM. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate differences between VWM and VSWM related to daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jaakko O Nieminen, Olivia Gosseries, Marcello Massimini, Elyana Saad, Andrew D Sheldon, Melanie Boly, Francesca Siclari, Bradley R Postle, Giulio Tononi
When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma...
2016: Scientific Reports
Brian A Sharpless
This review summarizes the empirical and clinical literature on sleep paralysis most relevant to practitioners. During episodes of sleep paralysis, the sufferer awakens to rapid eye movement sleep-based atonia combined with conscious awareness. This is usually a frightening event often accompanied by vivid, waking dreams (ie, hallucinations). When sleep paralysis occurs independently of narcolepsy and other medical conditions, it is termed "isolated" sleep paralysis. Although the more specific diagnostic syndrome of "recurrent isolated sleep paralysis" is a recognized sleep-wake disorder, it is not widely known to nonsleep specialists...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jim Hopkins
The main concepts of the free energy (FE) neuroscience developed by Karl Friston and colleagues parallel those of Freud's Project for a Scientific Psychology. In Hobson et al. (2014) these include an innate virtual reality generator that produces the fictive prior beliefs that Freud described as the primary process. This enables Friston's account to encompass a unified treatment-a complexity theory-of the role of virtual reality in both dreaming and mental disorder. In both accounts the brain operates to minimize FE aroused by sensory impingements-including interoceptive impingements that report compliance with biological imperatives-and constructs a representation/model of the causes of impingement that enables this minimization...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Dan Denis, Giulia L Poerio
Sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming are both dissociated experiences related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Anecdotal evidence suggests that episodes of sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming are related but different experiences. In this study we test this claim systematically for the first time in an online survey with 1928 participants (age range: 18-82 years; 53% female). Confirming anecdotal evidence, sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming frequency were related positively and this association was most apparent between lucid dreaming and sleep paralysis episodes featuring vestibular-motor hallucinations...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
Ahnaf Rashik Hassan, Mohammed Imamul Hassan Bhuiyan
BACKGROUND: Automatic sleep scoring is essential owing to the fact that conventionally a large volume of data have to be analyzed visually by the physicians which is onerous, time-consuming and error-prone. Therefore, there is a dire need of an automated sleep staging scheme. NEW METHOD: In this work, we decompose sleep-EEG signal segments using tunable-Q factor wavelet transform (TQWT). Various spectral features are then computed from TQWT sub-bands. The performance of spectral features in the TQWT domain has been determined by intuitive and graphical analyses, statistical validation, and Fisher criteria...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Shirley Xin Li, Siu Ping Lam, Jihui Zhang, Mandy Wai Man Yu, Joey Wing Yin Chan, Yaping Liu, Venny Kwai Ho Lam, Crover Kwok Wah Ho, Junying Zhou, Yun Kwok Wing
BACKGROUND: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by prominent dream-enacting behaviors, often resulting in sleep-related injuries. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to prospectively examine the treatment response of people with RBD treated with clonazepam, by quantitatively delineating the characteristic changes in the clinical and polysomnographic features, and to explore the factors associated with this response. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) were consecutively recruited and invited to complete clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) assessments and self-administered questionnaires (including the modified REM Sleep Behavior Questionnaire, RBDQ-3M) before and after the initiation of treatment with clonazepam...
May 2016: Sleep Medicine
Hristina Denic-Roberts, Tina Costacou, Trevor J Orchard
AIMS: To date, studies on sleep disturbances in type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been limited to youth and/or small samples. We therefore assessed the prevalence of subjective sleep disturbances and their associations with glycemia and estimated insulin sensitivity in individuals with long-standing T1D. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 222 participants of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study of childhood-onset T1D attending the 25-year examination (mean age=52years, diabetes duration=43years)...
September 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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