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Aapeli Leminen, Markku Tykkyläinen, Tiina Laatikainen
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a major health concern in most regions. In addition to direct healthcare costs, diabetes causes many indirect costs that are often ignored in economic analyses. Patients' travel and time costs associated with the follow-up of T2DM patients have not been previously calculated systematically over an entire healthcare district. The aim of the study was to develop a georeferenced cost model that could be used to measure healthcare accessibility and patient travel and time costs in a sparsely populated healthcare district in Finland...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Yandong Wang, Jun Yang, Jiping Liang, Yanfang Qiang, Shanqi Fang, Minxue Gao, Xiaoyu Fan, Gaihe Yang, Baowen Zhang, Yongzhong Feng
The environmental behavior of farmers plays an important role in exploring the causes of non-point source pollution and taking scientific control and management measures. Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the present study investigated the environmental behavior of farmers in the Water Source Area of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. Results showed that TPB could explain farmers' environmental behavior (SMC=0.26) and intention (SMC=0.36) well. Furthermore, the farmers' attitude towards behavior (AB), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) positively and significantly influenced their environmental intention; their environmental intention further impacted their behavior...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stefania Pane, Maria Letizia Giancola, Pierluca Piselli, Angela Corpolongo, Ernestina Repetto, Rita Bellagamba, Claudia Cimaglia, Stefania Carrara, Piero Ghirga, Alessandra Oliva, Nazario Bevilacqua, Ahmad Al Rousan, Carla Nisii, Giuseppe Ippolito, Emanuele Nicastri
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, whose chronic phase may lead to cardiac and intestinal disorders. Endemic in Latin America where it is transmitted mainly by vectors, large-scale migrations to other countries have turned CD into a global health problem because of its alternative transmission routes through blood transfusion, tissue transplantation, or congenital. Aim of this study was to compare the performance of two commercially available tests for serological diagnosis of CD in a group of Latin American migrants living in a non-endemic setting (Rome, Italy)...
May 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Xin Ping Hao, Biao Chen, Yong Xin Li
Mouret abscess is a rare extracranial complication of suppurative otitis media. It is generally believed to be a deep neck abscess caused by inflammation leading to the rupture of the bony tip of the mastoid tip. The location of Mouret abscess is deep. The symptoms are insidious at the onset, but may eventually spread to the surrounding tissue, and even lead to mediastinal abscess, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, dyspnea and other serious complications. At present, with the popularization of antibiotics, the occurrence rate of Mouret abscess is very low, and only sporadic cases have been reported...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Sumit Gahlawat, Rajeev Sood, Umesh Sharma, Nikhil Khattar, Arif Akhtar, Praveen Kumar Pandey, Akhila Prasad, Swati Jain
Introduction: Urologists tend to prefer retroperitoneal approach for open nephrectomy and transperitoneal route for laparoscopic nephrectomy. Urologists consider retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach difficult to learn and perform. There is a need to objectively define predictors of difficulty during laparoscopic retroperitoneal simple nephrectomy (LRSN) for the proper preoperative selection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to prospectively assess the factors associated with difficulty during LRSN...
April 2018: Urology Annals
Hakan Leblebicioglu, Resat Ozaras
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a non-enveloped single stranded RNA virus causes sporadic cases of hepatitis or outbreaks. The disease is generally self-limited although it may cause fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, elderly, those with underlying chronic hepatitis, immunosuppressed, and transplant recipients. It is transmitted through fecal-oral route and zoonotic transmission. Hepatitis is a main health care problem in Turkey; HBV and HCV prevalences are 4 and 1% respectively. Hepatitis D represents another considerable hepatitis etiology with a prevalence of 5-27%...
May 2, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Norihito Kohara, Masayuki Kaneko, Mamoru Narukawa
BACKGROUND: The concept of the risk-based approach has been introduced as an effort to secure the quality of clinical trials. In the risk-based approach, identification and evaluation of risk in advance are considered important. For recently completed clinical trials, we investigated the relationship between study characteristics and protocol deviations leading to the exclusion of subjects from Per Protocol Set (PPS) efficacy analysis. METHODS: New drugs approved in Japan in the fiscal year 2014-2015 were targeted in the research...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Matthew Aijuka, Araceli E Santiago, Jorge A Girón, James P Nataro, Elna M Buys
Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) has been implicated in foodborne outbreaks worldwide and have been associated with childhood stunting in the absence of diarrhoea. Infection is extraordinarily common, but the routes of transmission have not been determined. Therefore, determining the most prevalent pathotypes in food and environmental sources may help provide better guidance to various stakeholders in ensuring food safety and public health and advancing understanding of the epidemiology of enteric disease. We characterized 205 E...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
H M Ding, X P Zhou, J Z Huang
Objective: To investigate the cause of occupational exposure among 136 nurses in a tertiary infectious disease hospital, and puts forward the prevention strategy. Methods: A total of 136 nurses exposed to occupational exposure between 2014 and 2016 were included in the study. Analysis was conducted from the years of work of nurses, exposure routes, and the pathogens. Results: The nurses suffer from the highest risk of occupational exposures (73.91%) .Nurses working for less than 5 years and interns are most likely to suffer occupational exposure (45...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Ioannis D Gallos, Helen M Williams, Malcolm J Price, Abi Merriel, Harold Gee, David Lissauer, Vidhya Moorthy, Aurelio Tobias, Jonathan J Deeks, Mariana Widmer, Özge Tunçalp, Ahmet Metin Gülmezoglu, G Justus Hofmeyr, Arri Coomarasamy
BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Prophylactic uterotonic drugs can prevent PPH, and are routinely recommended. There are several uterotonic drugs for preventing PPH but it is still debatable which drug is best. OBJECTIVES: To identify the most effective uterotonic drug(s) to prevent PPH, and generate a ranking according to their effectiveness and side-effect profile. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (1 June 2015), ClinicalTrials...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Beatriz de Souza Lima Nino, Eloiza Teles Caldart, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Juliana Arena Galhardo, Camila Marinelli Martins, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Although leishmaniasis has been described as a classic example of a zoonosis requiring a comprehensive approach for control, to date, no study has been conducted on the spatial distribution of simultaneous Leishmania spp. seroprevalence in dog owners and dogs from randomly selected households in urban settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to simultaneously identify the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors of infection with Leishmania spp. in dog owners and their dogs in the city of Londrina, a county seat in southern Brazil with a population of half a million people and ranked 18th in population and 145th in the human development index (HDI) out of 5570 Brazilian cities...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Alison A McCormick, Aisha Shakeel, Chris Yi, Hardeep Kaur, Ahd M Mansour, Chandra Shekhar Bakshi
Tularemia is a fatal human disease caused by Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative encapsulated coccobacillus bacterium. Due to its low infectious dose, ease of aerosolized transmission, and lethal effects, the CDC lists F. tularensis as a Category A pathogen, the highest level for a potential biothreat agent. Previous vaccine studies have been conducted with live attenuated, inactivated, and subunit vaccines, which have achieved partial or full protection from F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge, but no vaccine has been approved for human use...
2018: PloS One
Abbas Khan, Shoaib Saleem, Muhammad Idrees, Syed Shujait Ali, Muhammad Junaid, Aman Chandra Kaushik, Dong-Qing Wei
Dengue virus belongs to a group of human pathogens, which causes different diseases, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome in humans. It possesses RNA as a genetic material and is replicated with the aid of NS5 protein. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an important domain of NS5 in the replication of that virus. The catalytic process activity of RdRp is making it an important target for antiviral chemical therapy. To date, No FDA drug has been approved and marketed for the treatment of diseases caused by Dengue virus...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Michael Kahsay Ghebremariam, Tiny Hlokwe, Victor P M G Rutten, Alberto Allepuz, Simeon Cadmus, Adrian Muwonge, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Anita L Michel
Mycobacterium bovis (M.bovis) is the main causative agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and can also be the cause of zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. In view of its zoonotic nature, slaughterhouse surveillance, potentially resulting in total or partial condemnation of the carcasses and organs, is conducted routinely.Spoligotyping, VNTR profiling, and whole genome sequencing (WGS)ofM. bovis isolated from tissues with tuberculosis-like lesions collected from 14 cattle at Eritrea's largest slaughterhouse in the capital Asmara, were conducted...
April 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Liina Kinkar, Teivi Laurimäe, Ibrahim Balkaya, Adriano Casulli, Houria Zait, Malik Irshadullah, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Steffen Rehbein, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Sami Simsek, Viliam Šnábel, Gérald Umhang, Antonio Varcasia, Urmas Saarma
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a severe parasitic disease caused by the species complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Human infections are most commonly associated with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), comprising genotypes G1 and G3. The objective of the current study was to provide first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G3. Despite the epidemiological importance of the genotype, it has remained poorly explored due to the ambiguity in the definition of the genotype. However, it was recently demonstrated that long sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) provide a reliable method to discriminate G1 and G3 from each other...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology
Davide Barreca, Lorenzo Bigiani, Matteo Monai, Giorgio Carraro, Alberto Gasparotto, Cinzia Sada, Sara Martí-Sanchez, Albert Grau-Carbonell, Jordi Arbiol, Chiara Maccato, Paolo Fornasiero
Photoreforming promoted by metal oxide nanophotocatalysts is an attractive route for clean and sustainable hydrogen generation. In the present work, we propose for the first time the use of supported Mn3 O4 nanosystems, both pure and functionalized with Au nanoparticles (NPs), for hydrogen generation by photoreforming. The target oxide systems, prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and decorated with gold NPs by radio frequency (RF) sputtering, were subjected to a thorough chemico-physical characterization and utilized for a proof-of-concept H2 generation in aqueous ethanolic solutions under simulated solar illumination...
April 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Eun-Ji Won, Bohyung Choi, Seongjin Hong, Jong Seong Khim, Kyung-Hoon Shin
During the last several decades, persistent organic pollutants and metals cause great concern for their toxicity in organisms as well as for their bioaccumulation and/or trophic transfer through the food chains in ecosystems. A large number of studies therefore have focused on the trophic levels of organisms to illustrate food web structure, as a critical component in the study of pollutant dynamics and biomagnification. The trends in biomagnification of pollutants in food webs indeed provide fundamental information about the properties and fates of pollutants in ecosystems...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jannatul Ferdous, Rebeca Sultana, Ridwan B Rashid, Md Tasnimuzzaman, Andreas Nordland, Anowara Begum, Peter K M Jensen
Bangladesh is a cholera endemic country with a population at high risk of cholera. Toxigenic and non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae ( V. cholerae ) can cause cholera and cholera-like diarrheal illness and outbreaks. Drinking water is one of the primary routes of cholera transmission in Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of the presence of V. cholerae between point-of-drinking water and source water, and to investigate the variability of virulence profile using molecular methods of a densely populated low-income settlement of Dhaka, Bangladesh...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jiyoung S Kim, Claire B de La Serre
Advances in sequencing technologies have allowed for a more complete analysis of the microbiota composition and identification of differences among individuals and/or physiologies. Changes in microbiota composition and associated inflammation have been linked to both metabolic and behavioral disorders, and abnormality in microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, may play a causal role in the etiology and maintenance of these pathologies. There is accumulating evidence showing that the gut microbiota can communicate to the central nervous system to alter host behavior...
March 30, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jason S Williams, Jessica Y Hsu, Christy Cortez Rossi, Kristin Bruk Artinger
Melanocytes derive from neural crest cells, which are a highly migratory population of cells that play an important role in pigmentation of the skin and epidermal appendages. In most vertebrates, melanocyte precursor cells migrate solely along the dorsolateral pathway to populate the skin. However, zebrafish melanocyte precursors also migrate along the ventromedial pathway, in route to the yolk, where they interact with other neural crest derivative populations. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for zebrafish paralogs pcdh10a and pcdh10b in zebrafish melanocyte precursor migration...
March 28, 2018: Developmental Biology
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