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Insulin resistance & oxidation stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147909/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-protein-dj-1-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Daniel Eberhard, Eckhard Lammert
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide escalating health disorder resulting from insulin resistance and functional loss of insulin-producing beta cells that finally cause chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations. Here we review the role of ubiquitously expressed antioxidant protein DJ-1 in the pathogenesis of T2DM. In beta cells, DJ-1 protects against oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and streptozotocin- and cytokine-induced stress and preserves beta cell viability and insulin secretion...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145148/honokiol-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-against-high-glucose-and-intermittent-hypoxia-induced-injury-by-activating-nrf2-are-pathway-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Chen-Guang Li, Chang-Lin Ni, Min Yang, Yun-Zhao Tang, Zhu Li, Yan-Juan Zhu, Zhen-Huan Jiang, Bei Sun, Chun-Jun Li
Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although several studies have revealed that intermittent hypoxia (IH) in OSAHS may further aggravate pancreatic β cell damage and promote the evolution of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by increasing oxidative stress, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Honokiol, a potent radical scavenger, has been demonstrated to ameliorate oxidative stress in many cases. The present study aimed to explore the potential mechanism of IH and diabetes synergistically damage and destruct the pancreatic β cell, examine the effects of honokiol on ameliorating pancreatic β cell injury in this context and explore the mechanism of such effects...
November 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143180/oxidative-stress-in-adult-growth-hormone-deficiency-different-plasma-antioxidant-patterns-in-comparison-with-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Antonio Mancini, Chantal Di Segni, Carmine Bruno, Giulio Olivieri, Francesco Guidi, Andrea Silvestrini, Elisabetta Meucci, Patrick Orlando, Sonia Silvestri, Luca Tiano, Alfredo Pontecorvi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a condition associated with increased cardiovascular risk and insulin-resistance. Oxidative stress (OS) could be a mechanism underlying both these phenomena. In order to investigate plasma antioxidant defenses in such condition, we evaluated adults with GHD, compared with controls and metabolic syndrome patients (MetS), studying plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, lipophilic antioxidant) levels, both in its oxidized and reduced forms, correlating this data with metabolic and hormonal pattern...
November 15, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141573/liver-protective-effects-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-interaction-between-its-chemical-composition-and-the-cell-signaling-pathways-involved-in-protection
#4
Sandra A Soto-Alarcon, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The liver is an organ susceptible to a multitude of injuries that causes liver damage, like steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), presents several protective effects on the liver, reducing hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, fibrogenesis, preventing lipid peroxidation, among other effects. Due to its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid and phenolic compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, EVOO is able to participate in the activation of different signaling pathways in the hepatocytes involved in the prevention of inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance, allowing the prevention or resolution of liver damage...
November 14, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139042/obesity-and-altered-aspirin-pharmacology
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas B Norgard
Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to atherothrombotic events and represents a group of patients who are in need of optimized antithrombotic therapy. Central to the obesity-related risk of atherothrombosis is a pro-thrombotic state characterized by increased levels of coagulation factors, impaired fibrinolysis, and platelet hyper-reactivity, which results from the interaction among the features clustering in obesity: insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138799/lychee-seed-extract-protects-against-neuronal-injury-and-improves-cognitive-function-in-rats-with-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-with-cognitive-impairment
#6
Yong Tang, Chonglin Yu, Jianming Wu, Haixia Chen, Yuan Zeng, Xiuling Wang, Le Yang, Qibing Mei, Shousong Cao, Dalian Qin
Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and has many beneficial effects such as modulation of blood sugar and lipids, antioxidation, antivirus and antitumor. Studies have indicated that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share common biological mechanisms including insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, β‑amyloid (Aβ) formation, oxidative stress and presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed extract (LSE) on neuroprotection, cognitive function improvement and possible underlying mechanisms in a rat model of T2DM with cognitive impairment...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138180/inhibition-of-vascular-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-2-improves-obesity-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#7
Petia Doytcheva, Thomas Bächler, Erika Tarasco, Vincenzo Marzolla, Michael Engeli, Giovanni Pellegrini, Simona Stivala, Lucia Rohrer, Francesco Tona, Giovanni G Camici, Paul M Vanhoutte, Christian M Matter, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas F Lüscher, Elena Osto
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces obesity-associated comorbidities and cardiovascular mortality. RYGB improves endothelial dysfunction, reducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) vascular phosphorylation. JNK activation links obesity with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Herein, we examined whether JNK1 or JNK2 mediates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and if pharmacological JNK inhibition can mimic RYGB vascular benefits. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 7 weeks of a high-fat high-cholesterol diet, obese rats underwent RYGB or sham surgery; sham-operated ad libitum-fed rats received, for 8 days, either the control peptide D-TAT or the JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 (20 mg/kg per day subcutaneous)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136166/diabetes-induced-hyperglycemia-impairs-male-reproductive-function-a-systematic-review
#8
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, David M de Kretser, Thomas Linn
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129772/glycyrrhizin-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats-by-activating-nrf2-pathway
#9
Nada F Abo El-Magd, Mohamed El-Mesery, Amro El-Karef, Mamdouh M El-Shishtawy
AIM: Obesity based on insulin resistance is a state of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation that are highly regulated through nuclear factor Erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NrF2) pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 70 male Wistar rats were randomized into two models. The prophylactic model was 10weeks and rats were grouped into: normal group, GL group (received glycyrrhizin 50mg/kg/day orally along with normal pellet diet), HFD group and HFD+ GL group (received glycyrrhizin along with HFD)...
November 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129455/plasma-palmitoyl-carnitine-ac16-0-is-a-marker-of-increased-postprandial-nonesterified-incomplete-fatty-acid-oxidation-rate-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Fatima-Zahra Bouchouirab, Mélanie Fortin, Christophe Noll, Jean Dubé, André C Carpentier
OBJECTIVES: Enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid utilization is known to increase radical oxidative stress and induce insulin resistance. An increased level of plasma acylcarnitine (AC) has been proposed to indicate mitochondrial energy substrate overload, a possible mechanism leading to insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to determine fasting and postprandial plasma acetyl-carnitine (AC2:0), palmitoyl-carnitine (AC16:0), oleoyl-carnitine (AC18:1) and linoleoyl-carnitine (AC18:2) levels and their relationships with plasma nonesterified fatty acid appearance and oxidation rates and insulin sensitivity in participants with type 2 diabetes and normoglycemic offspring of 2 parents with type 2 diabetes (FH+) compared to healthy participants without family histories of type 2 diabetes (FH-)...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127192/lipotoxic-very-long-chain-ceramides-cause-mitochondrial-dysfunction-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death-in-cardiomyocytes
#11
Brittany A Law, Xianghai Liao, Kelsey S Moore, Abigail Southard, Patrick Roddy, Ruiping Ji, Zdzislaw Sculz, Ala Bielawska, P Christian Schulze, L Ashley Cowart
Accumulating data support a role for bioactive lipids as mediators of lipotixicity in cardiomyocytes. One class of these, the ceramides, constitutes a family of molecules that differ in structure and are synthesized by distinct enzymes, ceramide synthase (CerS)1-CerS6. Data support that specific ceramides and the enzymes that catalyze their formation play distinct roles in cell function. In a mouse model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, sphingolipid profiling revealed increases in not only the CerS5-derived ceramides but also in very long chain (VLC) ceramides derived from CerS2...
November 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114876/translating-carotid-body-function-into-clinical-medicine
#12
Rodrigo Iturriaga
The carotid body (CB) is considered the main O2 chemoreceptor, which contributes to the cardiorespiratory homeostasis and ventilatory acclimatization. In clinical medicine, the most common pathology associated with the CB are tumours. However, a growing body of evidences supports the novel idea that an enhanced CB chemosensory discharge contributes to the autonomic dysfunction and pathological consequences in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), hypertension, systolic heart failure (HF) and cardiometabolic diseases...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113464/a-new-treatment-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-gut-brain-axis-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-pathway
#13
Dong Seok Kim, Ho-Il Choi, Yun Wang, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig
Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, are critical for maintaining healthy brain function, particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD, and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing, and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases...
September 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111905/the-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-supplementation-on-glucose-metabolism-lipid-profiles-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-patients-with-diabetic-nephropathy-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Tahereh Gholnari, Esmat Aghadavod, Alireza Soleimani, Gholam Ali Hamidi, Nasrin Sharifi, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: Data on the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on glucose metabolism, lipid profiles, inflammation, and oxidative stress in subjects with diabetic nephropathy (DN) are scarce. This research was done to determine the effects of CoQ10 supplementation on metabolic status in subjects with DN. METHODS: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was done in 50 subjects with DN. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to intake either 100 mg/day CoQ10 supplements (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) for 12 weeks...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109760/influence-of-serum-hmw-adiponectin-level-in-patients-with-pregnancy-induced-hypertension-syndrome-on-the-occurrence-of-eclampsia-in-secondary-pregnancy
#15
Qian Xu, Dongmei Fan, Fahong Li, Zhanhong Zhang
In the present study, we studied the influence of serum high-molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA) levels in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) on the occurrence of eclampsia in secondary pregnancy and its related mechanisms. In total, 130 patients who were diagnosed with PIH for the first time were selected for this study; the median interval of the secondary pregnancy was 28.5 months. The serum HMWA and leptin levels both times were detected, and the insulin resistance indexes (HOMA-IR) were calculated...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109032/molecular-mechanisms-of-cardiac-pathology-in-diabetes-experimental-insights
#16
REVIEW
U Varma, P Koutsifeli, V L Benson, K M Mellor, L M D Delbridge
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a distinct pathology independent of co-morbidities such as coronary artery disease and hypertension. Diminished glucose uptake due to impaired insulin signaling and decreased expression of glucose transporters is associated with a shift towards increased reliance on fatty acid oxidation and reduced cardiac efficiency in diabetic hearts. The cardiac metabolic profile in diabetes is influenced by disturbances in circulating glucose, insulin and fatty acids, and alterations in cardiomyocyte signaling...
November 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108880/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Sahapab Anuwatmatee, Shudi Tang, Ben J Wu, Kerry-Anne Rye, Kwok Leung Ong
The association between fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and kidney function has been extensively studied in recent years in both animal and human studies. However, the exact functional role of FGF21 in the kidney remains unclear. Previous animal studies have shown that administration of FGF21 ameliorates kidney function, morphological glomerular abnormalities, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and obesity. In human studies, FGF21 levels negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate...
November 3, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108865/insulin-expression-in-cultured-astrocytes-and-the-decrease-by-amyloid-%C3%AE
#18
Katsura Takano, Keisuke Koarashi, Kenji Kawabe, Masanori Itakura, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Mitsuaki Moriyama, Yoichi Nakamura
Insulin resistance in brain has been reported in Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Insulin signaling is important for homeostasis in brain function and reported to be disturbed in neurons leading to tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles. Many investigations of insulin in neurons have been reported; however, it has not been reported whether astrocytes also produce insulin. In the present study, we assessed the expression of insulin in astrocytes cultured from rat embryonic brain and the effects of amyloid β1-42 (Aβ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression...
November 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107826/inhibition-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-premature-senescence-with-rutin-attenuates-and-stabilizes-diabetic-atherosclerosis
#19
Yihui Li, Ranran Qin, Hongdan Yan, Feng Wang, Shanying Huang, Yun Zhang, Ming Zhong, Wei Zhang, Zhihao Wang
Atherosclerosis is an age-associated disease; however, diabetic atherosclerosis has higher severity beyond age range for accumulative premature senescent cells in diabetes. Recent findings suggest that rutin, a flavonoid, has potential benefits for diabetic individuals. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of rutin on premature senescence and atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice exhibiting insulin resistance after 6 weeks of high-fat diet were administered with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107025/association-of-changes-in-er-stress-mediated-signaling-pathway-with-lead-induced-insulin-resistance-and-apoptosis-in-rats-and-their-prevention-by-a-type-dimeric-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
#20
Chan-Min Liu, Jie-Qiong Ma, Jian-Mei Sun, Zhao-Jun Feng, Chao Cheng, Wei Yang, Hong Jiang
A-type dimeric epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type-EGCG-dimer, AEd), a new proanthocyanidins dimer from persimmon fruits, has been shown to have health benefit effects. However, A-type-EGCG-dimer affects gluose metabolism in the liver and the underlying mechanism is not clarified. The present study aims to examine the protective effects of A-type-EGCG-dimer on Pb-induced hepatic insulin resistance, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in rats. Male wistar rats exposed to 0.05% w/v Pb acetate in the drinking water with or without A-type-EGCG-dimer coadministration (200 mg/kg body weight/day, intragastrically) for three months...
October 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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