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Insulin resistance & oxidation stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791650/metabolic-syndrome-components-are-associated-with-oxidative-stress-in-overweight-and-obese-patients
#1
Nayara Rampazzo Morelli, Bruna Miglioranza Scavuzzi, Lucia Helena da Silva Miglioranza, Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy, Andréa Name Colado Simão, Isaias Dichi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters on oxidative and nitrosative stress in overweight and obese subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Individuals were divided into three groups: the control group (G1, n = 131) with a BMI between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2, the overweight group (G2, n = 120) with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and the obese group (G3, n = 79) with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787912/high-fat-diet-induced-lipidome-perturbations-in-the-cortex-hippocampus-hypothalamus-and-olfactory-bulb-of-mice
#2
Jong Cheol Lee, Se Mi Park, Il Yong Kim, Hyerim Sung, Je Kyung Seong, Myeong Hee Moon
Given their important role in neuronal function, there has been an increasing focus on altered lipid levels in brain disorders. The effect of a high-fat (HF) diet on the lipid profiles of the cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb of the mouse brain was investigated using nanoflow ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in the current study. For 8 weeks, two groups of 5-week-old mice were fed either an HF or normal diet (6 mice from each group analyzed as the F and N groups, respectively)...
May 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782959/targeting-central-%C3%AE-2-receptors-ameliorates-streptozotocin-induced-neuroinflammation-via-inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase3-pathway-in-mice
#3
Nora O Abdel Rasheed, Nesrine S El-Sayed, Aiman S El-Khatib
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is portrayed by progressive cognitive decline and pathological deposition of amyloid plaques as well as neurofibrillary tangles. Most of AD cases are sporadic, resulting from overlap of various environmental and genetic factors. Intra-cerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ) leads to insulin resistance brain state accompanied by memory decline, oxidative stress, and neuro-degeneration which mimic the pathologies associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD). In the current study, protective effects of formoterol in STZ-induced SAD were studied...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766146/the-effect-of-resveratrol-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-liver-and-serum-of-a-rat-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-an-experimental-study
#4
Mahnaz Ghowsi, Homayoun Khazali, Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad
Background: Studies of oxidative status in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients are limited with inconsistent results. The effects of resveratrol as a natural antioxidant on oxidative status in PCOS aren't clear. Objective: This study evaluated effects of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of the PCOS rats. Materials and Methods: Fifteen female Wistar rats (3 wk old) were divided into 3 groups (n=5/each e): Control group, PCO-Control group, and PCO-Resveratrol group...
March 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755549/evaluation-of-diabetogenic-mechanism-of-high-fat-diet-in-combination-with-arsenic-exposure-in-male-mice
#5
Akram Ahangarpour, Soheila Alboghobeish, Mohsen Rezaei, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Ali Akbar Oroojan, Marzieh Zainvand
Obesity is a main reason of type 2 diabetes and also chronic exposure to arsenic (As) can produce diabetic symptoms. In previous studies, the association between high-fat diet and arsenic in the incidence of diabetes was found, but the role of beta cells activity, liver mitochondrial oxidative stress, and hepatic enzymes (leptin, adiponectin and beta amylase) was unclear. Thus, present study was conducted to evaluate the diabetogenic mechanism of arsenic followed by concomitant administration of high-fat diet (HFD) in male mice...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755364/early-effects-of-a-low-fat-fructose-rich-diet-on-liver-metabolism-insulin-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-young-and-adult-rats
#6
Raffaella Crescenzo, Luisa Cigliano, Arianna Mazzoli, Rosa Cancelliere, Rosa Carotenuto, Margherita Tussellino, Giovanna Liverini, Susanna Iossa
The increase in the use of refined food, which is rich in fructose, is of particular concern in children and adolescents, since the total caloric intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome are increasing continuously in these populations. Nevertheless, the effects of high fructose diet have been mostly investigated in adults, by focusing on the effect of a long-term fructose intake. Notably, some reports evidenced that even short-term fructose intake exerts detrimental effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the metabolic changes induced by the fructose-rich diet in rats of different age, i...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753610/improvement-of-hyperglycemia-in-a-murine-model-of-insulin-resistance-and-high-glucose-and-inflammasome-mediated-il-1%C3%AE-expressions-in-macrophages-by-silymarin
#7
Chun-Ping Lu, Chien-Yu Huang, Szu-Hsuan Wang, Chih-Hsien Chiu, Lan-Hui Li, Kuo-Feng Hua, Tzu-Hua Wu
Macrophages and inflammasome pathway are involved in high-glucose toxicity and development of insulin resistance. Silymarin (SMR) was known to modulate glucose homeostasis and reduce inflammation. However, it is still unknown whether SMR possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic-like knockout mice (Hnf-1αkin/- /Ins.cre mice) with insulin resistance and also unclear how SMR regulates LPS induced stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines under stresses of high glucose (HG) or NLRP3 inflammasome activation...
May 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752628/correlation-between-heat-shock-proteins-adiponectin-and-t-lymphocyte-cytokine-expression-in-type-2-diabetics
#8
Fadia F Mahmoud, David Haines, Ali A Dashti, Sherief El-Shazly, Fawzia Al-Najjar
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) features insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, and systemic oxidative stress. Here, heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp 90, adiponectin, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, Hsp32) are profiled in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum from 25 T2DM patients and 25 healthy control subjects. Cells cultured with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin were evaluated by three-color flow cytometry for immunophenotypic biomarkers...
May 11, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733945/the-role-of-xanthine-oxidoreductase-and-uric-acid-in-metabolic-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Maria Giulia Battelli, Massimo Bortolotti, Letizia Polito, Andrea Bolognesi
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) could contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome through the oxidative stress and the inflammatory response induced by XOR-derived reactive oxygen species and uric acid. Hyperuricemia is strongly linked to hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. The serum level of XOR is correlated to triglyceride/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, fasting glycemia, fasting insulinemia and insulin resistance index. Increased activity of endothelium-linked XOR may promote hypertension...
May 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733850/chronic-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-protects-vascular-endothelium-by-ameliorating-autophagy-in-metabolic-syndrome-rats
#10
Fang Cui, Yue Guan, Jing Guo, Yan-Ming Tian, Hao-Fei Hu, Xiang-Jian Zhang, Yi Zhang
AIMS: The study aimed to investigate the protective effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) on endothelium function and relaxation of mesenteric artery in metabolism syndrome (MS) rats. MAIN METHODS: Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CON), CIHH (treated with 28-days hypobaric hypoxia simulating an altitude of 5000 m, 6 h daily), MS (induced by high fat diet and 10% fructose water feeding), and MS + CIHH groups...
May 4, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733327/peroxiredoxin2-deficiency-aggravates-aging-induced-insulin-resistance-and-declines-muscle-strength
#11
Hye-Na Cha, Soyoung Park, Yongwook Dan, Jae-Ryong Kim, So-Young Park
This study examined the role of peroxiredoxin2 (Prx2) in aging-induced insulin resistance and reduction in skeletal muscle function in young (2-month-old) and old (24-month-old) Prx2 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice. Plasma insulin levels increased with aging in Prx2 KO mice but not in wild-type mice. Insulin sensitivity in the whole-body and skeletal muscle as assessed with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was lower in Prx2 KO mice than in wild-type mice in the old group but was not significantly different between the two genotypes in the young group...
May 4, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731703/metabolic-syndrome-and-neuroprotection
#12
REVIEW
Melisa Etchegoyen, Mariana H Nobile, Francisco Baez, Barbara Posesorski, Julian González, Néstor Lago, José Milei, Matilde Otero-Losada
Introduction: Over the years the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has drastically increased in developing countries as a major byproduct of industrialization. Many factors, such as the consumption of high-calorie diets and a sedentary lifestyle, bolster the spread of this disorder. Undoubtedly, the massive and still increasing incidence of MetS places this epidemic as an important public health issue. Hereon we revisit another outlook of MetS beyond its classical association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM2), for MetS also poses a risk factor for the nervous tissue and threatens neuronal function...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726290/alpha-lipoic-acid-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology
#13
Chiara Di Tucci, Mara Di Feliciantonio, Flaminia Vena, Carmela Capone, Michele Carlo Schiavi, Daniela Pietrangeli, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
Alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant synthetized by plants and animals, identified as a catalytic agent for oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate. In this review, we analyzed the action of ALA in gynecology and obstetrics focusing in particular on neuropathic pain and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed and Cochrane Library for retrieving articles in English language on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ALA in gynecological and obstetrical conditions...
May 4, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721105/plasma-neuregulin-4-levels-are-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Pijun Yan, Yong Xu, Qin Wan, Jian Feng, Hua Li, Jun Yang, Haihua Zhong, Zhihong Zhang
Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) has been proposed to play a role in the pathogeneses of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. However, information about the link between Nrg4 and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is scarce, especially in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (nT2DM). This study aimed at investigating whether Nrg4 is associated with MetS in nT2DM patients. A total of 311 patients with nT2DM were recruited. Plasma Nrg4 concentration was determined by ELISA. Plasma Nrg4 concentration was lower in nT2DM patients with MetS than in nT2DM patients without MetS ( P = 0...
2018: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720498/altered-extracellular-vesicle-concentration-cargo-and-function-in-diabetes-mellitus
#15
David W Freeman, Nicole Noren Hooten, Erez Eitan, Jamal Green, Nicolle A Mode, Monica Bodogai, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Alan B Zonderman, Arya Biragyn, Josephine Egan, Kevin G Becker, Mark P Mattson, Ngozi Ejiogu, Michele K Evans
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic age-associated degenerative metabolic disease that reflects relative insulin deficiency and resistance. Extracellular vesicles (EVs; exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) are small (50-400 nM) lipid-bound vesicles capable of shuttling functional proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids as part of intercellular communication systems. Recent studies in mouse models and in cell culture suggest that EVs may modulate insulin signaling. Here, we designed cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts of euglycemic, pre-diabetic and diabetic participants...
May 2, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716602/lower-plasma-trans-4-hydroxyproline-and-methionine-sulfoxide-levels-are-associated-with-insulin-dysregulation-in-horses
#16
Ákos Kenéz, Tobias Warnken, Karsten Feige, Korinna Huber
BACKGROUND: Insulin dysregulation in horses is a metabolic condition defined by high insulin concentrations in the blood and peripheral insulin resistance. This hyperinsulinemia is often associated with severe damage in the hooves, resulting in laminitis. However, we currently lack detailed information regarding the potential involvement of particular metabolic pathways in pathophysiological causes and consequences of equine insulin dysregulation. This study aimed to assess the dynamic metabolic responses given to an oral glucose test (OGT) in insulin-sensitive and insulin-dysregulated horses by a targeted metabolomics approach to identify novel metabolites associated with insulin dysregulation...
May 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714135/natural-alkaloids-intervening-the-insulin-pathway-new-hopes-for-anti-diabetic-agents
#17
Maria-Ioanna Christodoulou, Job Tchoumtchoua, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Andreas Scorilas, Maria Halabalaki
BACKGROUND: Accumulating experimental data support the capacity of natural compounds to intervene in complicated molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of certain human morbidities. Among them, diabetes is now a world's epidemic associated with increased risk of death; thus, the detection of novel anti-diabetic agents and/or adjuvants is of vital importance. Alkaloids represent a diverse group of natural products with a range of therapeutic properties; during the last 20 years published research on their anti-diabetic capacity has been tremendously increased...
April 30, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710548/diosmin-and-crocin-alleviate-nephropathy-in-metabolic-syndrome-rat-model-effect-on-oxidative-stress-and-low-grade-inflammation
#18
Rania El-Fawal, Hassan M El Fayoumi, Mona F Mahmoud
Nephropathy is a serious complication of metabolic syndrome (MS), a global epidemic disorder. This study was undertaken to investigate the actions of diosmin and crocin, two natural ingredients, on diabetic nephropathy in a rat model of MS and the underlying mechanism(s). Metabolic syndrome was induced by the addition of 10% fructose to drinking water and placing the rats on high-salt diet for 16 weeks. Diosmin and Crocin were orally administrated daily for 10 weeks starting at week 6. At the end of study, arterial blood pressure was non-invasively recorded...
June 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709004/mcu-knockdown-attenuates-high-glucose-induced-inflammation-through-regulating-mapks-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-and-ros-production-in-hepg2-cells
#19
Ghodratollah Panahi, Parvin Pasalar, Mina Zare, Rosario Rizzuto, Reza Meshkani
Mitochondrial Ca2+ is a key regulator of organelle physiology and the excessive increase in mitochondrial calcium is associated with the oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms linking mitochondrial calcium to inflammatory and coagulative responses in hepatocytes exposed to high glucose (HG) (33mM glucose). Treatment of HepG2 cells with HG for 24 h induced insulin resistance, as demonstrated by an impairment of insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. HepG2 treatment with HG led to an increase in mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, while cytosolic calcium remained unchanged...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705631/metabolic-switching-in-the-hypoglycemic-and-antitumor-effects-of-metformin-on-high-glucose-induced-hepg2-cells
#20
Yan Lv, Na Tian, Junsong Wang, Minghua Yang, Lingyi Kong
Metformin, a widely prescribed drug for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has potential anticancer effect. Diabetes patients regularly taking metformin have been reported with decreased cancer risk and improved cancer prognosis in recent years. A cell model of high glucose induced HepG2 cells was conducted to mimic insulin resistance, and a 1 H NMR-based metabolomics approach in conjunction with molecular biology was performed to investigate the metabolic changes of high glucose induced HepG2 cells in response to different doses of metformin treatment and to study the differences and links between hypoglycemic and antitumor effects of metformin...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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