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Insulin resistance & oxidation stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645653/catalase-overexpression-modulates-metabolic-parameters-in-a-new-stress-less-leptin-deficient-mouse-model
#1
Deborah L Amos, Tanner Robinson, Melissa B Massie, Carla Cook, Alexis Hoffsted, Courtney Crain, Nalini Santanam
Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity by modifying the function of important biological molecules, thus altering obesogenic pathways such as glucose and lipid signaling. Catalase, is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that catabolizes hydrogen peroxide produced by the dismutation of superoxide. Recent studies have shown knockdown of catalase exacerbates insulin resistance and leads to obesity. We hypothesized that overexpressing catalase in an obese mouse will modulate obesogenic pathways and protect against obesity...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642082/clinical-trial-of-the-effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-psychological-symptoms-and-metabolic-profiles-in-maintenance-methadone-treatment-patients
#2
Amir Ghaderi, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Maryam Motmaen, Morad Rasouli-Azad, Fereshteh Bahmani, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with some complications including nonspecific musculoskeletal pain and periodontal disease in maintenance methadone treatment (MMT) patients. This study was designed to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on psychological symptoms and metabolic profiles in MMT patients. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out among 68 MMT patients. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either 50,000IU vitamin D supplements (n=34) or placebo (n=34) every 2weeks for 12weeks...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641051/beneficial-role-of-citrus-fruit-polyphenols-against-hepatic-dysfunctions-a-review
#3
Md Mohabbulla Mohib, Kazi Afnan, Tasfiq Zaman Paran, Salma Khan, Juthika Sarker, Nahid Hasan, Istiaque Hasan, Md Abu Taher Sagor
Alcoholic liver diseases and virus-induced hepatic dysfunctions are prevalent in western countries. Evidence also suggests that hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are key players in the development of hepatic diseases and their complications. Since the comorbid diseases like obesity, diabetes and vascular dysfunctions primarily affect liver, the modern therapies against other hepatic dysfunctions are becoming a major challenge to treat. In addition to these, polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are further aggravating the phenomenon...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637594/association-of-plasma-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-activity-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-nondiabetic-chinese-population
#4
Tianpeng Zheng, Bo Chen, Liuxue Yang, Xueping Hu, Xiaoxi Zhang, Hongbo Liu, Linyuan Qin
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is attributed to a "multi-hits hypothesis" involving insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing the"multi-hits". Hence, we investigated the association between plasma DPP4 activity and NAFLD in nondiabetic Chinese population. DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1105 subjects (36-79years) in Guilin between 2015 and 2016...
April 27, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637520/citrulline-decreases-hepatic-endotoxin-induced-injury-in-fructose-induced-non-alcoholic-liver-disease-an-ex-vivo-study-in-the-isolated-perfused-rat-liver
#5
Wassila Ouelaa, Prasanthi Jegatheesan, Japhète M'bouyou-Boungou, Christelle Vicente, Samir Nakib, Esther Nubret, Jean-Pascal De Bandt
Steatosis can sensitise the liver to various challenges and favour the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this context, fructose feeding promotes endotoxin translocation from the gut, contributing to disease progression via an inflammatory process. Citrulline is protective against fructose-induced NAFLD; we hypothesised that this property might be related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative action against endotoxin-induced hepatic injuries. This hypothesis was evaluated in a model of perfused liver isolated from NAFLD rats...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637359/decreased-paraoxonase-2-enzymatic-activity-in-monocyte-macrophages-cells-a-comparative-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study-for-diabetes
#6
D Lixandru, P Alexandru, A Mihai, A Roşca, C Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, L I Braşoveanu, B Manuel-Y-Keenoy
Aim To investigate peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Mø) paraoxonase2 (PON2) in diabetes and the factors modulating its activity. Methods 118 patients with newly diagnosed uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus were compared regarding clinical, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters with 80 healthy subjects. The capacity of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) to release pro-oxidants and to neutralize them was determined by measuring the respiratory burst (RB) and the intracellular antioxidant enzyme PON2...
June 21, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637102/-the-progression-of-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Moon Young Kim
Understanding the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its fibrosis progression is still evolving. Nonetheless, current evidence suggests that mechanisms involved are very complex parallel processes with multiple metabolic factors. Lipotoxicity related with excess saturated free fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance acts as the central driver of cellular injury via oxidative stress. Hepatocyte apoptosis and/or senescence are also contribute to the activation of inflammasome via various intra- and inter-cellular signaling mechanisms that lead to fibrosis...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631330/foxo-transcription-factors-at-the-interface-of-metabolism-and-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Wolfgang Link, Pablo J Fernandez-Marcos
Diabetes refers to a group of metabolic diseases characterized by impaired insulin signalling and high blood glucose. A growing body of epidemiological evidence links diabetes to several types of cancer but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The signalling cascade connecting insulin and FOXO proteins provides a compelling example for a conserved pathway at the interface between insulin signalling and cancer. FOXOs are transcription factors that orchestrate programs of gene expression known to control a variety of processes in response to cellular stress...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630460/oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-is-impaired-in-leukocytes-from-metabolically-unhealthy-vs-healthy-obese-individuals
#9
C Bañuls, S Rovira-Llopis, S Lopez-Domenech, N Diaz-Morales, A Blas-Garcia, S Veses, C Morillas, V M Victor, M Rocha, A Hernandez-Mijares
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to obesity, but the influence of metabolic disturbances on these parameters and their relationship with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unknown. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate whether metabolic profile influences ER and oxidative stress in an obese population with/without comorbidities. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 113 obese patients were enrolled in the study; 29 were metabolically healthy (MHO), 53 were metabolically abnormal (MAO), and 31 had type 2 diabetes (MADO)...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629731/pterostilbene-ameliorates-insulin-sensitivity-glycemic-control-and-oxidative-stress-in-fructose-fed-diabetic-rats
#10
Ramoji Kosuru, Sanjay Singh
AIMS: The present investigation was designed to explore the effectiveness of pterostilbene (PT) on insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats. MAIN METHODS: Age-matched, male Sprague-Dawley rats (330±30g body weight) were allocated into five groups (n=10). Control (C) group received 65% cornstarch, and the diabetic (D) group received 65% fructose for eight weeks. The third group (D+PT20) received 65% fructose and PT 20mg/kg/day for eight weeks...
June 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627510/glycogen-controls-caenorhabditis-elegans-lifespan-and-resistance-to-oxidative-stress
#11
Ivan Gusarov, Bibhusita Pani, Laurent Gautier, Olga Smolentseva, Svetlana Eremina, Ilya Shamovsky, Olga Katkova-Zhukotskaya, Alexander Mironov, Evgeny Nudler
A high-sugar diet has been associated with reduced lifespan in organisms ranging from worms to mammals. However, the mechanisms underlying the harmful effects of glucose are poorly understood. Here we establish a causative relationship between endogenous glucose storage in the form of glycogen, resistance to oxidative stress and organismal aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that glycogen accumulated on high dietary glucose limits C. elegans longevity. Glucose released from glycogen and used for NADPH/glutathione reduction renders nematodes and human hepatocytes more resistant against oxidative stress...
June 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625137/chemokine-like-receptor-1-cmklr-1-receptor-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-management-of-chemerin-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-cancer
#12
Sangeetha Perumalsamy, Nurul Ain Aqilah Mohd Zin, Riyanto Teguh Widodo, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad, Shireene Ratna Db Vethakkan, Hasniza Zaman Huri
BACKGROUND: Chemerin is an adipokine that induces insulin resistance by the mechanism of inflammation in adipose tissue but these are still unclear. A high level of chemerin in humans is considered as a marker of inflammation in insulin resistance and obesity as well as in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the role of chemerin in insulin resistance progression, chemerin as one of the novel adipokines is proposed to be involved in high cancer risk and mortality. AIM: The aim of this paper was to review the role of CMKLR-1 receptor and the potential therapeutic target in the management of chemerin induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624654/insulin-signaling-an-opportunistic-target-to-minify-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Rohit Pardeshi, Nityanand Bolshette, Kundlik Gadhave, Ashutosh Ahire, Sahabuddin Ahmed, Tommaso Cassano, Veer Bala Gupta, Mangala Lahkar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neurodegeneration. The diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the risk factors for AD pathogenesis by impairment in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in central as well as peripheral system. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose and lipid metabolism lead to the Aβ (Aβ) aggregation, Tau phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, protein misfolding, memory impairment and also mark over Aβ transport through central to peripheral and vice versa...
May 30, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619389/the-promising-effect-of-linagliptin-and-or-indole-3-carbinol-on-experimentally-induced-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-the-role-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-oxidative-stress-and-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#14
Ahmed M Kabel, Aisha H Al-Shehri, Rehab A Altalhi
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common medical condition that leads to female infertility worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of linagliptin and/or indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on PCOS in female rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five equal groups: Control group; Letrozole induced PCOS group; Letrozole + Linagliptin group; Letrozole + I3C group and Letrozole + Linagliptin + I3C group. Body weight, body mass index, Lee index and ovarian indices were determined...
June 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618996/the-influence-of-obese-insulin-resistance-on-the-outcome-of-the-ischemia-reperfusion-insult-to-the-heart
#15
Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Obese insulin-resistance is one of the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases including ischemic heart disease (IHD). Growing evidences suggest that the susceptibility to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is increased in an obese insulin-resistance condition. Based on the currently available evidence from human and animal studies, this review mainly focuses on the influence of obese insulin-resistance on the outcome of the I/R insult to the heart...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618991/effects-of-polyphenolic-derivatives-on-heme-oxygenase-system-in-metabolic-dysfunctions
#16
Valeria Pittala, Luca Vanella, Loredana Salerno, Giuseppe Romeo, Agostino Marrazzo, Claudia Di Giacomo, Valeria Sorrenti
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review is to summarize the effects of various naturally occurring polyphenols in the management of metabolic dysfunctions. This cluster of metabolic abnormalities comprises insulin resistance, increased levels of free fatty acids, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, hyperglycemia and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) along with DM-induced complications. Most of them are included in the well-known metabolic syndrome (MS). These metabolic dysfunctions in turn are tightly associated to a high risk of development of cardiovascular diseases...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615764/evaluation-of-antioxidant-status-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-and-insulin-resistance-in-male-chronic-opiate-users-without-comorbidities
#17
Purvi Purohit, Naresh Nebhinani, Praveen Sharma
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR), and oxidative stress in Indian opiate users without comorbidities. OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of opiate use on frequency of MS, homeostasis model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and oxidative stress in opiate-dependent male patients without comorbidities. METHODS: Participants (n = 120) were grouped as controls (Group I), pure opiate dependents (Group II), opiate + tobacco dependents (Group III), and tobacco dependents (Group IV) with a minimum of 1-year dependence participated in the study...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611442/competing-factors-link-to-bone-health-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-takes-a-toll
#18
Shirin Kalyan, Millan S Patel, Elaine Kingwell, Hélène C F Côté, Danmei Liu, Jerilynn C Prior
Chronic inflammation predisposes to poor bone health. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience androgen excess, ovulatory disturbances, insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity and chronic inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the relationships among bone health parameters, chronic subclinical inflammation and anthropometric measures in premenopausal women with and without PCOS. In 61 premenopausal women, 22 women with PCOS and 39 controls, we assessed bone parameters (total hip bone mineral density [BMD] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and radius strength-strain index [SSI] by peripheral quantitative computed tomography), inflammation (C-reactive protein/albumin), oxidative stress (leukocyte telomere length, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine); hemoglobin A1c; anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, cross-sectional muscle area)...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608320/chronic-treatment-with-prebiotics-probiotics-and-synbiotics-attenuated-cardiac-dysfunction-by-improving-cardiac-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-male-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#19
Wannipa Tunapong, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Pongpan Tanajak, Keerati Wanchai, Titikorn Chunchai, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Anusorn Lungkaphin, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
PURPOSE: In metabolic syndrome, the composition of gut microbiota has been disrupted, and is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Several types of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics have been shown to exert cardioprotection by restoring gut microbiota from dysbiosis and reducing systemic inflammation. However, the effects of prebiotics such as xylooligosaccharides (XOS); probiotics such as Lactobacillus paracasei STII01 HP4, and synbiotics on metabolic and LV function in obese insulin-resistant rats have not been investigated...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607631/hypoxia-in-obesity-and-diabetes-potential-therapeutic-effects-of-hyperoxia-and-nitrate
#20
REVIEW
Reza Norouzirad, Pedro González-Muniesa, Asghar Ghasemi
The prevalence of obesity and diabetes is increasing worldwide. Obesity and diabetes are associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Obesity, a chronic hypoxic state that is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, is one of the main causes of type 2 diabetes. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is involved in the regulation of several genes of the metabolic pathways including proinflammatory adipokines, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and insulin signaling components...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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