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Insulin resistance & oxidation stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913104/d-ala2-gip-glu-pal-is-neuroprotective-in-a-chronic-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-and-increases-bndf-expression-while-reducing-neuroinflammation-and-lipid-peroxidation
#1
Yanwei Li, WeiZhen Liu, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, treatment to improve insulin resistance in T2DM may be useful for PD patients. Glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the incretin hormone family that can promote insulin release and improve insulin resistance. Several GIP analogues have been developed as potential treatments for T2DM. We had shown previously that D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL, a novel long-acting GIP analogue, can play a neuroprotective role in the PD mouse model induced by acute MPTP injection...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912756/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-responses-and-development-of-insulin-resistance-how-are-they-interlinked
#2
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major hallmark for pathogenesis and etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). IR is directly interlinked with various inflammatory responses which play crucial role in the development of IR. Inflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of IR which is one of the main causative factor for the etiology of T2DM. METHODS: A comprehensive online English literature was searched using various electronic search databases...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910746/nutrition-and-diabetes-mellitus-how-are-they-interlinked
#3
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen exponentially, and the number of incidences increases every day. The purpose of this article is to summarize the experimental evidence supporting the important association between nutrition and diet-based therapy for the control and management of T2DM. Evidence from several in vitro, in vivo, and human studies broadly found that nutrition-based therapy enriched with several important phytochemical constituents modulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and it ameliorates glucolipotoxicity and insulin resistance...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907824/effect-of-dry-tomato-peel-supplementation-on-glucose-tolerance-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-markers-in-mice-fed-high-saturated-fat-high-cholesterol-diets
#5
Sofiane Zidani, Amar Benakmoum, Ali Ammouche, Yasmine Benali, Anissa Bouhadef, Souheila Abbeddou
Many studies have investigated the effect of crude tomato peel in vivo, but no studies have determined the dose-effect of dry tomato peel (DTP) on glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by a high-saturated-fat (HSF) diet in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of DTP on the levels of oxidative stress in mice fed an HSF and cholesterol-rich diet for 12 weeks. The main outcomes are glucose and insulin tolerance, plasma lipids, and hepatic steatosis and inflammation...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905277/connecting-pm2-5-exposure-to-insulin-resistance-oxidative-stress-may-be-an-intermediate-step
#6
Julia R Barrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901349/curcumin-improves-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-high-fructose-diet-fed-rats-role-of-tnf-%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-oxidative-stress
#7
Mohamed Elsayed Kelany, Tahir M Hakami, Adel H Omar
This study aimed to investigate effects of curcumin on high fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rats and the possible mechanisms involved. MetS was induced in male albino rats (n = 20), over 8 weeks, by 65% HFD. For 8-week experiment period, rats were assigned to 2 equal groups: curcumin-treated rats received curcumin (200 mg/kg, p.o, once daily) along with HFD, and untreated rats were fed with HFD only. We evaluated body mass (BM), systolic blood pressure (SBP), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum levels of glucose, insulin, leptin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA; lipid peroxidation product), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; inflammatory cytokine), and serum catalase (endogenous antioxidant) activity and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB; inflammation-related transcription factor) in hepatocytes...
August 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894971/aqueous-seed-extract-of-hunteria-umbellata-k-schum-hallier-f-apocynaceae-palliates-hyperglycemia-insulin-resistance-dyslipidemia-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-high-fructose-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#8
T O Ajiboye, A A Hussaini, B Y Nafiu, O B Ibitoye
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hunteria umbellata is used in the management and treatment of diabetes and obesity in Nigeria. This study evaluates the effect of aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata on insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomized into seven groups (A-G). Control (group A) and group C rats received control diet for nine weeks while rats in groups B, D - G were placed on high-fructose diet for 9 weeks...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891089/effect-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-cognitive-function-and-metabolic-status-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-randomized-double-blind-and-controlled-trial
#9
Elmira Akbari, Zatollah Asemi, Reza Daneshvar Kakhaki, Fereshteh Bahmani, Ebrahim Kouchaki, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Gholam Ali Hamidi, Mahmoud Salami
: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with severe cognitive impairments as well as some metabolic defects. Scant studies in animal models indicate a link between probiotics and cognitive function. This randomized, double-blind, and controlled clinical trial was conducted among 60 AD patients to assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on cognitive function and metabolic status. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (n = 30 in each group) treating with either milk (control group) or a mixture of probiotics (probiotic group)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889764/high-uric-acid-activates-the-ros-ampk-pathway-impairs-cd68-expression-and-inhibits-oxldl-induced-foam-cell-formation-in-a-human-monocytic-cell-line-thp-1
#10
Chaohuan Luo, Xueke Lian, Liangli Hong, Jingfang Zou, Zhi Li, Yuzhang Zhu, Tianliang Huang, Yongneng Zhang, Yaqiu Hu, Huier Yuan, Tengfei Wen, Wanling Zhuang, Bozhi Cai, Xin Zhang, Ichiro Hisatome, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Jiexiong Huang, Jidong Cheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyperuricemia is part of the metabolic-syndrome cluster of abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Monocytes/macrophages are critical in the development of metabolic syndrome, including gout, obesity and atherosclerosis. However, how high uric acid (HUA) exposure affects monocyte/macrophage function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of HUA exposure in monocytes/macrophages and its impact on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced foam-cell formation in a human monocytic cell line, THP-1...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889689/osteoarthritis-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-what-are-the-links
#11
REVIEW
Alice Courties, Jérémie Sellam
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disorder and one of the leading cause of disability. During a long time, it was considered as the consequence of aging and mechanical stress on cartilage. Recent advances in the knowledge of OA have highlighted that it is a whole joint disease with early modifications of synovium and subchondral bone but also that it is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome through systemic mechanisms. In the past year, type 2 diabetes has been described in two meta-analyzes as an independent risk factor for OA...
November 5, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889327/epigenetics-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
REVIEW
Jooho Lee, Yuri Kim, Simonetta Friso, Sang-Woon Choi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common hepatic disorder ranging from simple steatosis through steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis, is an emerging health concern. NAFLD is a pathologic condition characterized by the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol consumption. Excess hepatic fat accumulation results from increased delivery of triglycerides (TG) to the liver or conversion of surplus carbohydrates to TG. Importantly, a subgroup of NAFLD results in hepatocellular injury and inflammation, which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and may progress to irreversible cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884224/the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-obesity-and-hypertension-roles-in-the-cardiorenal-metabolic-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Peminda K Cabandugama, Michael J Gardner, James R Sowers
In the United States, more than 50 million people have blood pressure at or above 120/80 mm Hg. All components of cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) are linked to metabolic abnormalities and obesity. A major driver for CRS is obesity. Current estimates show that many of those with hypertension and CRS show some degree of systemic and cardiovascular insulin resistance. Several pathophysiologic factors participate in the link between hypertension and CRS. This article updates recent literature with a focus on the function of insulin resistance, obesity, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system-mediated oxidative stress on endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of hypertension...
January 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879401/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-the-case-for-a-role-of-fructose-in-disease-etiology
#14
Lea M D Delbridge, Vicky L Benson, Rebecca H Ritchie, Kimberley M Mellor
A link between excess dietary sugar and cardiac disease is clearly evident and has been largely attributed to systemic metabolic dysregulation. Now a new paradigm is emerging, and a compelling case can be made that fructose-associated heart injury may be attributed to the direct actions of fructose on cardiomyocytes. Plasma and cardiac fructose levels are elevated in patients with diabetes, and evidence suggests that some unique properties of fructose (vs. glucose) have specific cardiomyocyte consequences. Investigations to date have demonstrated that cardiomyocytes have the capacity to transport and utilize fructose and express all of the necessary proteins for fructose metabolism...
December 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875248/vildagliptin-and-caloric-restriction-for-cardioprotection-in-pre-diabetic-rats
#15
Pongpan Tanajak, Hiranya Pintana, Natthaphat Siri-Angkul, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption causes cardiac dysfunction. Although calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to be useful in obesity, we hypothesized that combined CR with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor provides greater efficacy than monotherapy in attenuating cardiac dysfunction and metabolic impairment in HFD-induced obese-insulin resistant rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups to be fed on either a normal diet (ND, n = 6) or a HFD (n = 24) for 12 weeks. Then, HFD rats were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 6/subgroup) to receive just the vehicle, CR diet (60% of mean energy intake and changed to ND), vildagliptin (3 mg/kg/day) or combined CR and vildagliptin for 4 weeks...
February 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872172/urea-a-true-uremic-toxin-the-empire-strikes-back
#16
REVIEW
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces disintegration of the gut epithelial barrier, leading to translocation of bacterial toxins into the bloodstream and systemic inflammation...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852975/rpd3-interacts-with-insulin-signaling-in-drosophila-longevity-extension
#17
Jared K Woods, Tahereh Ziafazeli, Blanka Rogina
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 regulates chromatin compaction and gene expression by removing acetyl groups from lysine residues within histones. HDAC1 affects a variety of processes including proliferation, development, metabolism, and cancer. Reduction or inhibition of Rpd3, yeast and fly HDAC1 orthologue, extends longevity. However, the mechanism of rpd3's effects on longevity remains unclear. Here we report an overlap between rpd3 and the Insulin/Insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) longevity pathways...
November 14, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852331/energy-restriction-combined-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-exerts-neuroprotection-in-obese-male-rats
#18
Hiranya Pintana, Pongpan Tanajak, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Piangkwan Sa-Nguanmoo, Titikorn Chunchai, Pattarapong Satjaritanun, Linlada Leelarphat, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors and energy restriction (ER) are widely used to treat insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the effects of ER or the combination with vildagliptin on brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in obese insulin-resistant rats have never been investigated. We hypothesised that ER with DDP-4 inhibitor exerts better efficacy than ER alone in improving cognition in obese insulin-resistant male rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity...
November 17, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843952/swimming-exercise-alleviated-insulin-resistance-by-regulating-tripartite-motif-family-protein-72-expression-and-akt-signal-pathway-in-sprague-dawley-rats-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#19
Jie Qi, Bo Yang, Cailing Ren, Jian Fu, Jun Zhang
We aimed to investigate whether swimming exercise could improve insulin resistance (IR) by regulating tripartite motif family protein 72 (TRIM72) expression and AKT signal pathway in rats fed with high-fat diet. Five-week-old rats were classified into 3 groups: standard diet as control (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD plus swimming exercise (Ex-HFD). After 8 weeks, glucose infusion rate (GIR), markers of oxidative stress, mRNA and protein expression of TRIM72, protein of IRS, p-AKT(Ser473), and AKT were determined in quadriceps muscles...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830011/catalpol-ameliorates-diabetic-atherosclerosis-in-diabetic-rabbits
#20
Jiang-Yue Liu, Chen-Zhao Zheng, Xin-Ping Hao, Dai-Juan Zhang, An-Wei Mao, Ping Yuan
Catalpol, isolated from the roots of Rehmanniaglutinosa, Chinese foxglove, is an iridoid glycoside with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic agent. The present study was to investigate the effects of catalpol on diabetic atherosclerosis in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced in rabbits by a hyperlipidemic diet and intravenous injection of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Rabbits were treated for 12 weeks. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of insulin resistance, total cholesterol and triglyceride were measured...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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