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Rachel E Ward, Alycia Fong Yan, Karl F Orishimo, Ian J Kremenic, Marshall Hagins, Marijeanne Liederbach, Claire Hiller, Evangelos Pappas
Repetition of jumps in dance and sport training poses a potential injury risk, however non-contact landing injuries are more common in athletes than dancers. This study aimed to compare the lower limb stiffness characteristics of dancers and athletes during drop landings to investigate possible mechanisms of impact-related injuries. Kinematics and kinetics were recorded as 39 elite modern and ballet dancers (19 men, 20 women) and 40 college level team sport athletes (20 men, 20 women) performed single-legged drop landings from a 30-cm platform...
September 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Enzo Hollville, Antoine Nordez, Gaël Guilhem, Jennyfer Lecompte, Giuseppe Rabita
Animal tendons have been shown to act as shock absorbers to protect muscle fascicles from exercise-induced damage during landing tasks. Meanwhile, the contribution of tendinous tissues to damping activities such as landing has been less explored in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze in vivo fascicle-tendon interactions during drop landing to better understand their role in energy dissipation. Ultrafast ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and vastus lateralis (VL), lower limb electromyographic activity, 2-D kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected from twelve participants during single and double-leg drop landings from various heights...
September 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
J García-García, M A Fernández-García, P Blanco-Arias, M I Díaz-Maroto-Cicuendez, F Salmerón-Martínez, V M Hidalgo-Olivares, M Olivé
X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a rare neuromuscular condition caused by mutations in the MTM1 gene. Female carriers are believed to be usually asymptomatic; nevertheless, recent reports have displayed a wide a spectrum of clinical involvement in females suggesting that MTM1 mutations might be underestimated in this population. Here we report a 55-year-old woman manifesting with an abrupt respiratory decline, whose respiratory function tests revealed a severe restrictive ventilatory defect. The neurological examination identified mild proximal leg weakness and her cardiac evaluation showed a non-compaction cardiomyopathy with normal left ventricle function...
August 13, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Edmund Wee, Rory Wolfe, Catriona Mclean, John W Kelly, Yan Pan
BACKGROUND: The recognition and diagnosis of clinically amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanoma is a challenge. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the anatomic distribution and risk factors associated with clinically amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanoma and compare the survival of patients with clinically amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanoma with that of patients with pigmented melanoma. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of all cases of primary invasive melanoma managed at a tertiary referral center was performed...
October 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Mark Walsh, Eric Slattery, Arden McMath, Ronald Cox, Joshua Haworth
BACKGROUND: Balance and postural control are integral to training and sport performance. Demands on posture are contextual and vary in different ways depending on the specific physical activity. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility that sustained exposure to environmental constraints, through specific sport participation, might lead to a persistent modification of postural control. METHODS: Double and single-leg postural sway were compared between ice hockey players, American football players and physically active college students...
September 11, 2018: Gait & Posture
Mihika T Kozma, Manfred Schmidt, Hanh Ngo-Vu, Shea D Sparks, Adriano Senatore, Charles D Derby
The spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, has two classes of chemosensilla representing "olfaction" and "distributed chemoreception," as is typical for decapod crustaceans. Olfactory sensilla are found exclusively on antennular lateral flagella and are innervated only by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that project into olfactory lobes organized into glomeruli in the brain. Distributed chemoreceptor sensilla are found on all body surfaces including the antennular lateral flagella (LF) and walking leg dactyls (dactyls), and are innervated by both chemoreceptor neurons (CRNs) and mechanoreceptor neurons that project into somatotopically organized neuropils...
2018: PloS One
Redeerat Mahaboonpeeti, Pornpimol Kongtip, Noppanun Nankongnab, Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul, Ariya Bunngamchairat, Witaya Yoosook, Susan Woskie
Vegetable farmers applying the herbicide alachlor may be highly exposed through dermal contact when spraying. Dermal patches were attached to 10 locations on the farmers' skin when they mixed and applied alachlor in vegetable farming areas in Thailand. Measurements were made on farmers using either a backpack sprayer with a 2 stroke gasoline motor and fan or a battery operated pump. Forty-seven vegetable farmers in Bungphra subdistrict of Thailand participated in this study. Both motorized and battery pump backpack sprayers wearing long-sleeve shirts had significantly lower alachlor concentrations on the dermal patches under their long-sleeve shirts compared to those who wore only short-sleeve shirts, regardless of the sprayer type...
September 18, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Ele Ferrannini, Patricia Iozzo, Kirsi A Virtanen, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Marco Bucci, Pirjo Nuutila
Background: Adipose tissue glucose uptake is impaired in insulin-resistant states, but ex vivo studies of human adipose tissue have yielded heterogeneous results. This discrepancy may be due to different regulation of blood supply. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the flow dependency of in vivo insulin-mediated glucose uptake in fat tissues, and to contrast it with that of skeletal muscle. Design: We reanalyzed data from 159 individuals in which adipose tissue depots-subcutaneous abdominal and femoral, and intraperitoneal-and femoral skeletal muscle were identified by MRI, and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake ([18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose) and blood flow ([15O]-H2O) were measured simultaneously by positron emission tomography scanning...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Nicolas H Hart, Robert U Newton, Jason Weber, Tania Spiteri, Timo Rantalainen, Michael Dobbin, Paola Chivers, Sophia Nimphius
Hart, NH, Newton, RU, Weber, J, Spiteri, T, Rantalainen, T, Dobbin, M, Chivers, P, and Nimphius, S. Functional basis of asymmetrical lower-body skeletal morphology in elite Australian footballers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Bone strength is a product of its material and structural properties and is highly responsive to mechanical load. Given the measureable and adaptable features of bone, and thus relevance to medical screening, injury prevention, and injury management in athletes, this study describes the lower-body skeletal morphology of professional Australian rules footballers...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Stéphane Walrand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A large percentage of older adults do not receive recommended amounts of many nutrients from food alone. Accordingly, the routine use of dietary supplements has become common among older persons. Although supplement use provides potential benefits by increasing nutrient intakes, there are potential drawbacks. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have pointed to potential reductions in the risk to develop age-related diseases among older people who reported long-term use of multivitamin supplements...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Ut T Bui, Kathleen Finlayson, Helen Edwards
AIM: This study aimed to validate the relationships between possible predictive factors and clinically diagnosed infection in adult patients with chronic leg ulcers. METHODS: This study used a sample of 636 adult participants whose ulcers were diagnosed as either venous, arterial or mixed aetiology leg ulcers and had no clinical signs of infection at recruitment. Data were extracted from recruitment to 12 weeks from six longitudinal prospective studies from 2004 to 2015...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
F Bertapelli, J S Curtis, B Carlson, M Johnson, B Abadie, S Agiovlasitis
BACKGROUND: Accelerometers and pedometers have been used to monitor the number of steps. However, the evidence on the step-counting accuracy of these devices - especially accelerometers - is limited in persons with Down syndrome (DS). This study therefore examined the accuracy of accelerometers placed on the hip or wrist and of a pedometer with a uni-axial accelerometer mechanism in measuring steps in persons with DS and whether device error is associated with walking speed, height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, leg length, age or sex...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Luca Ruggiero, Ryan L Hoiland, Alexander B Hansen, Philip N Ainslie, Chris J McNeil
KEY POINTS: The reduced oxygen tension of high-altitude compromises performance in Lowlanders. In this environment, Sherpa display superior performance, and little is known on this issue. Sherpa present unique genotypic and phenotypic characteristics at the muscular level, which may enhance resistance to peripheral fatigue at high-altitude compared to Lowlanders. We studied the impact of gradual ascent and exposure to high-altitude (5050 m) on peripheral fatigue in age-matched Lowlanders and Sherpa, using intermittent electrically-evoked contractions of the knee extensors...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Justyna Glik, Armand Cholewka, Beata Englisz, Agata Stanek, Karolina Sieroń, Karolina Mikuś-Zagórska, Grzegorz Knefel, Mariusz Nowak, Marek Kawecki
BACKGROUND: One of the methods to treat chronic wounds is the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Objective measurement of the wound surface is an important element in the process of monitoring and predicting the progress of treatment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on ulcer wound healing in patients with chronic venous insufficiency ulcers and diabetic foot syndrome using thermal imaging and computerized planimetry...
September 21, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Mohamed F A Farghly, Enas A M Ahmad, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Reham A M Ali, Shaaban S Elnesr, Ayman E Taha, Ayman S Salah
The management practices implemented by the poultry sector as using some nutritional additives in the early stage of a bird's life can potentially detect other challenges to production development in the poultry farms. Many potential supplements can be included in the early feeding as which are added to drinking water. In this study, 180 1-day-old chicks were randomly distributed into six groups to investigate the use of some nutritional supplements in drinking water of growing turkeys during 1st month of age and their effect on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, leg problems, blood profile and oxidative status...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
K T Weiß, F Zeman, S Schreml
Manjit S. Gohel et al. (N Engl J Med 2018; 378: 2105-2114) aimed to compare early endovenous ablation vs. deferred endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux regarding time to healing of venous leg ulcers, rate of healing at 24 weeks, recurrence rate, ulcer-free time, and health-related quality of life. SETTING AND DESIGN: This multicentre, parallel-group (ratio 1:1), randomized controlled trial was conducted in a vascular surgery department setting at 20 participating centres across the United Kingdom...
September 20, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Tatsuro Amano, Anna Igarashi, Naoto Fujii, Daichi Hiramatsu, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Narihiko Kondo
PURPOSE: This study investigated the influence of β-adrenergic receptor blockade on sweating during bilateral static knee extension (KE) and lateral isometric handgrip (IH) exercises followed by post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) in habitually trained individuals. METHOD: Ten habitually trained men (maximum oxygen uptake, 57.1 ± 3.4 ml kg-1  min-1 ) were mildly heated by increasing their skin temperature, and bilateral KE or lateral IH exercises at an intensity of 60% maximum voluntary contraction were subsequently performed for 1 min, followed by PEMI to stimulate muscle metaboreceptors for 2 min...
September 20, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kohei Watanabe
The toe clearance strategy during leg swinging while walking is closely associated with the risk of tripping and/or falling and is influenced by aging and a fall history. However, it remains unclear how the toe clearance strategy is regulated by the neuromuscular system. The present study investigated the effect of aging and fall/tripping history in the older adults on the toe clearance strategy and neuromuscular regulation of the rectus femoris (RF) muscle, which plays an important role in leg swinging, during prolonged walking...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Bo Wang, Peng Li, Lei Shangguan, Jun Ma, Kezheng Mao, Quan Zhang, Yiguo Wang, Zhongyang Liu, Keya Mao
Introduction: Failed back surgery syndrome is a situation where there is failure after lumbar surgery aimed at correcting lumbar disease that is characterized by continuous back and/or leg pain. Epidural fibrosis and adhesions are among the major causes of failed back surgery syndrome. In recent years, several biomaterials have been applied as barriers or deterrents to prevent the compression of neural structures by postsurgical fibrosis. Methods: In this study, a new bacterial cellulose (BC) anti-adhesion membrane, composed of exosomes from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, was developed...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Omeshwar Singh, Sanjeev Gupta, Mohammad Azhar Ud Din Darokhan, Shakeel Ahmad, Sumeet Singh Charak, Anuradha Sen
Background: Trauma is emerging as an epidemic and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Children <15 years of age comprise about 32.8% or about 1/3rd of the total Indian population. In India, up to one fourth of hospital admissions and approximately 15% of deaths in children are due to injury. This study presents the epidemiology, various causes and pattern of musculoskeletal injuries in pediatric population of North India. Materials and Methods: This is an observational, prospective hospital-based study conducted in a tertiary care center of North India for 6 months from July to December 2016...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
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