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Branched-chain amino acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526341/preparation-and-characterization-of-amidated-derivatives-of-alginic-acid
#1
Tomáš Taubner, Milan Marounek, Andriy Synytsya
Alginic acid is a suitable material for modification to prepare new derivatives because of presence of its carboxyl groups. The high content of carboxyl groups over the entire length of its chain renders it an easily modifiable material with a possibility of achieving a high degree of substitution in the prepared derivatives. The salt of alginic acid (sodium alginate) is readily commercially available and is widely used in many branches of chemistry. Alginic acid was thus selected as the substrate for amidation...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524009/a-novel-polymorphism-in-the-oxytocin-receptor-encoding-gene-oxtr-affects-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-italian-mediterranean-river-buffalo
#2
Gianfranco Cosenza, Nicolò P P Macciotta, Anna Nudda, Angelo Coletta, Luigi Ramunno, Alfredo Pauciullo
The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin and the complex oxytocin-oxytocin receptor plays an important role in the uterus during calving. A characterisation of the river buffalo OXTR gene, amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis is presented. The DNA regions of the OXTR gene spanning exons 1, 2 and 3 of ten Mediterranean river buffalo DNA samples were analysed and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. We focused on the g...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523011/the-effects-of-herbicides-targeting-aromatic-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-biosynthesis-support-the-presence-of-functional-pathways-in-broomrape
#3
Evgenia Dor, Shmuel Galili, Evgeny Smirnov, Yael Hacham, Rachel Amir, Joseph Hershenhorn
It is not clear why herbicides targeting aromatic and branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis successfully control broomrapes-obligate parasitic plants that obtain all of their nutritional requirements, including amino acids, from the host. Our objective was to reveal the mode of action of imazapic and glyphosate in controlling the broomrape Phelipanche aegyptiaca and clarify if this obligatory parasite has its own machinery for the amino acids biosynthesis. P. aegyptiaca callus was studied to exclude the indirect influence of the herbicides on the parasite through the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522547/a-regulatory-hierarchy-of-the-arabidopsis-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolic-network
#4
Anqi Xing, Robert L Last
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) Ile, Val and Leu are essential nutrients that humans and other animals obtain from plants. However, total and relative amounts of plant BCAAs rarely match animal nutritional needs, and improvement requires a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for BCAA homeostasis. We present an in vivo regulatory model of BCAA homeostasis derived from analysis of feedback-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for the three allosteric committed enzymes in the biosynthetic network: threonine deaminase (also named L-O-methylthreonine resistant 1, OMR1), acetohydroxyacid synthase small subunit 2 (AHASS2) and isopropylmalate synthase 1 (IPMS1)...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521878/combining-a-nontargeted-and-targeted-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-metabolic-pathways-significantly-altered-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
Alice Y Chang, Antigoni Z Lalia, Gregory D Jenkins, Tumpa Dutta, Rickey E Carter, Ravinder J Singh, K Sreekumaran Nair
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition of androgen excess and chronic anovulation frequently associated with insulin resistance. We combined a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify pathways and metabolites that distinguished PCOS from metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Twenty obese women with PCOS were compared with 18 obese women without PCOS. Both groups met criteria for MetS but could not have diabetes mellitus or take medications that treat PCOS or affect lipids or insulin sensitivity...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518283/branched-chain-amino-acids-for-people-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#6
REVIEW
Lise Lotte Gluud, Gitte Dam, Iñigo Les, Giulio Marchesini, Mette Borre, Niels Kristian Aagaard, Hendrik Vilstrup
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a brain dysfunction with neurological and psychiatric changes associated with liver insufficiency or portal-systemic shunting. The severity ranges from minor symptoms to coma. A Cochrane systematic review including 11 randomised clinical trials on branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) versus control interventions has evaluated if BCAA may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of BCAA versus any control intervention for people with hepatic encephalopathy...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516268/gpna-inhibits-the-sodium-independent-transport-system-l-for-neutral-amino-acids
#7
Martina Chiu, Cosimo Sabino, Giuseppe Taurino, Massimiliano G Bianchi, Roberta Andreoli, Nicola Giuliani, Ovidio Bussolati
L-γ-Glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (GPNA) is widely used to inhibit the glutamine transporter ASCT2, although it is known that it also inhibits other sodium-dependent amino acid transporters. In a panel of human cancer cell lines, which express the system L transporters LAT1 and LAT2, GPNA inhibits the sodium-independent influx of leucine and glutamine. The kinetics of the effect suggests that GPNA is a low affinity, competitive inhibitor of system L transporters. In Hs683 human oligodendroglioma cells, the incubation in the presence of GPNA, but not ASCT2 silencing, lowers the cell content of leucine...
May 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514978/jugular-infused-methionine-lysine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-does-not-improve-milk-production-in-holstein-cows-experiencing-heat-stress
#8
K R Kassube, J D Kaufman, K G Pohler, J W McFadden, A G Ríus
Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514443/cancer-progression-by-reprogrammed-bcaa-metabolism-in-myeloid-leukaemia
#9
Ayuna Hattori, Makoto Tsunoda, Takaaki Konuma, Masayuki Kobayashi, Tamas Nagy, John Glushka, Fariba Tayyari, Daniel McSkimming, Natarajan Kannan, Arinobu Tojo, Arthur S Edison, Takahiro Ito
Reprogrammed cellular metabolism is a common characteristic observed in various cancers. However, whether metabolic changes directly regulate cancer development and progression remains poorly understood. Here we show that BCAT1, a cytosolic aminotransferase for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is aberrantly activated and functionally required for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in humans and in mouse models of CML. BCAT1 is upregulated during progression of CML and promotes BCAA production in leukaemia cells by aminating the branched-chain keto acids...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513068/a-randomized-controlled-trial-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-and-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-obesity-and-sleep-apnea
#10
Antonia Barceló, Daniel Morell-Garcia, Neus Salord, Cristina Esquinas, Gerardo Pérez, Antonio Pérez, Carmen Monasterio, Merce Gasa, Ana Maria Fortuna, Josep Maria Montserrat, Mercedes Mayos
There is evidence that changes in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels may correlate with the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for affecting improvement in metabolic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) could mediate in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective randomized controlled trial of OSA patients with morbid obesity was conducted...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501528/bckdk-of-bcaa-catabolism-cross-talking-with-the-mapk-pathway-promotes-tumorigenesis-of-colorectal-cancer
#11
Peipei Xue, Fanfan Zeng, Qiuhong Duan, Juanjuan Xiao, Lin Liu, Ping Yuan, Linni Fan, Huimin Sun, Olesya S Malyarenko, Hui Lu, Ruijuan Xiu, Shaoqing Liu, Chen Shao, Jianmin Zhang, Wei Yan, Zhe Wang, Jianyong Zheng, Feng Zhu
Branched-chain amino acids catabolism plays an important role in human cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, and the new global incidence is over 1.2 million cases. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK) is a rate-limiting enzyme in branched-chain amino acids catabolism, which plays an important role in many serious human diseases. Here we investigated that abnormal branched-chain amino acids catabolism in colorectal cancer is a result of the disease process, with no role in disease initiation; BCKDK is widely expressed in colorectal cancer patients, and those patients that express higher levels of BCKDK have shorter survival times than those with lower levels; BCKDK promotes cell transformation or colorectal cancer ex vivo or in vivo...
May 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497654/oxidative-stickland-reactions-in-an-obligate-aerobic-organism-amino-acid-catabolism-in-the-crenarchaeon-sulfolobus-solfataricus
#12
Helge Stark, Jacqueline Wolf, Andreas Albersmeier, Trong K Pham, Julia D Hofmann, Bettina Siebers, Jörn Kalinowski, Phillip C Wright, Meina Neumann-Schaal, Dietmar Schomburg
The thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is a model organism for archaeal adaptation to extreme environments and renowned for its ability to degrade a broad variety of substrates. It has been well characterised concerning the utilisation of numerous carbohydrates as carbon source. However, its amino acid metabolism, especially the degradation of single amino acids, is not as well understood. In this work, we performed metabolic modelling as well as metabolome, transcriptome and proteome analysis on cells grown on caseinhydrolysate as carbon source in order to draw a comprehensive picture of amino acid metabolism in S...
May 12, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496435/serum-metabolomic-profiling-of-piglets-infected-with-virulent-classical-swine-fever-virus
#13
Wenjie Gong, Junjie Jia, Bikai Zhang, Shijiang Mi, Li Zhang, Xiaoming Xie, Huancheng Guo, Jishu Shi, Changchun Tu
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine infectious disease and causes significant economic losses for the pig industry worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine whether small molecule metabolites contribute to the pathogenesis of CSF. Birefly, serum metabolomics of CSFV Shimen strain-infected piglets were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF/MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494241/gut-microbiome-function-predicts-response-to-anti-integrin-biologic-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#14
Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Chengwei Luo, Vijay Yajnik, Hamed Khalili, John J Garber, Betsy W Stevens, Thomas Cleland, Ramnik J Xavier
The gut microbiome plays a central role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) pathogenesis and propagation. To determine whether the gut microbiome may predict responses to IBD therapy, we conducted a prospective study with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) patients initiating anti-integrin therapy (vedolizumab). Disease activity and stool metagenomes at baseline, and weeks 14, 30, and 54 after therapy initiation were assessed. Community α-diversity was significantly higher, and Roseburia inulinivorans and a Burkholderiales species were more abundant at baseline among CD patients achieving week 14 remission...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487605/changes-in-human-hepatic-metabolism-in-steatosis-and-cirrhosis
#15
Zoe Schofield, Michelle Ac Reed, Philip N Newsome, David H Adams, Ulrich L Günther, Patricia F Lalor
AIM: To understand the underlying metabolic changes in human liver disease we have applied nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics analysis to human liver tissue. METHODS: We have carried out pilot study using (1)H-NMR to derive metabolomic signatures from human liver from patients with steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or alcohol-related liver damage (ARLD) to identify species that can predict outcome and discriminate between alcohol and metabolic-induced liver injuries...
April 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486439/branched-chain-and-aromatic-amino-acids-in-relation-to-behavioral-problems-among-young-inuit-from-nunavik-canada-a-cohort-study
#16
Audray St-Jean, Salma Meziou, Cynthia Roy, Pierre Ayotte, Gina Muckle, Michel Lucas
BACKGROUNDObesity and insulin resistance are linked with mood disorders, and elevated concentrations of branched-chain (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs). Our study aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between childhood plasma BCAAs and AAAs and behavioral problems in young Inuit from Nunavik.METHODSWe analyzed data on 181 children (mean age 11.4 years at baseline) involved in the Nunavik Child Development Study. Plasma BCAA and AAA concentrations were measured in childhood (2005-2010). BCAA/AAA tertiles - the ratio of total BCAAs to AAAs-were considered as a surrogate categorical independent variable...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485824/crystal-structure-of-plant-acetohydroxyacid-synthase-the-target-for-several-commercial-herbicides
#17
Mario Daniel Garcia, Jian-Guo Wang, Thierry Lonhienne, Luke William Guddat
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, E.C. 2.2.1.6) is the first enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. Five of the most widely used commercial herbicides (i.e. sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, triazolopyrimidines, pyrimidinyl-benzoates and sulfonylamino-cabonyl-triazolinones) target this enzyme. Here we have determined the first crystal structure of a plantAHAS in the absence of any inhibitor (2.9 Å resolution) and itshows that the herbicide-binding site adopts a folded state even in the absence of an inhibitor...
May 9, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482070/elevated-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-bcaa-levels-predict-deterioration-of-glycemic-control-in-adolescents
#18
Domenico Tricò, Hetty Prinsen, Cosimo Giannini, Robin de Graff, Christoph Juchem, Fangyong Li, Sonia Caprio, Nicola Santoro, Raimund I Herzog
Context: Traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are weak predictors of changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in youth. Objective: To identify early metabolic features of insulin resistance in youth and whether they predict deterioration of glycemic control. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted at the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic. Patients and Intervention: Concentrations of α-hydroxybutyrate, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) were measured by NMR spectroscopy in 78 non-diabetic adolescents during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471367/crystal-structure-of-the-novel-amino-acid-racemase-isoleucine-2-epimerase-from-lactobacillus-buchneri
#19
Junji Hayashi, Yuta Mutaguchi, Yume Minemura, Noriko Nakagawa, Kazunari Yoneda, Taketo Ohmori, Toshihisa Ohshima, Haruhiko Sakuraba
Crystal structures of Lactobacillus buchneri isoleucine 2-epimerase, a novel branched-chain amino-acid racemase, were determined for the enzyme in the apo form, in complex with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), in complex with N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-isoleucine (PLP-L-Ile) and in complex with N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-D-allo-isoleucine (PLP-D-allo-Ile) at resolutions of 2.77, 1.94, 2.65 and 2.12 Å, respectively. The enzyme assembled as a tetramer, with each subunit being composed of N-terminal, C-terminal and large PLP-binding domains...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468523/non-essential-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-differentially-regulate-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-production-and-phosphorylation-in-hepg2-cells
#20
Kei Tanaka, Keiji Sakai, Miho Matsushima, Yukiko Matsuzawa, Tomoko Izawa, Yoichi Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Iwashita
Deprivation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) induces insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) production in HepG2 cells, while the role of non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) remains unknown. We investigated changes in IGFBP-1 production and phosphorylation induced by NEAAs and also examined its significance on IGF-I activity in HepG2 cells. We demonstrated that decreased BCAAs and increased NEAAs stimulated phosphorylated IGFBP-1 secretion. We also revealed that decreased BCAA-to-NEAA ratios enhanced phosphorylated IGFBP-1 secretion, while changes in the total amount of amino acids (AAs) had no effect...
May 4, 2017: Growth Factors
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