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Joan Torres Puig-Gros, Rosa Mar Alzuria Alós
OBJECTIVE: Sometimes and when a registry is not available, influenza vaccination (IV) is based on vaccination records reported by citizens. When the opportunity of comparing both information sources exists, sometimes, discrepancies between both have been observed. The objectives of this study are: to know the IV coverage in pregnant women (both referred and recorded in the clinical history), to determine the concordance between both sources of information and to quantify the lost opportunities of IV due to errors in verbalization...
March 16, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Craig G J Newman, Adam D Bevins, John P Zajicek, John R Hodges, Emil Vuillermoz, Jennifer M Dickenson, Denise S Kelly, Simona Brown, Rupert F Noad
Introduction: Ensuring reliable administration and reporting of cognitive screening tests are fundamental in establishing good clinical practice and research. This study captured the rate and type of errors in clinical practice, using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III (ACE-III), and then the reduction in error rate using a computerized alternative, the ACEmobile app. Methods: In study 1, we evaluated ACE-III assessments completed in National Health Service (NHS) clinics ( n  = 87) for administrator error...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Vivian Pera, Kavon Karrobi, Syeda Tabassum, Fei Teng, Darren Roblyer
Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) is a wide-field diffuse optical imaging modality that has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Typically, diffuse reflectance measurements of spatially modulated light are used to quantify the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissue, and with these, chromophore concentrations are extracted. However, uncertainties in estimated absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are rarely reported, and we know of no method capable of providing these when look-up table (LUT) algorithms are used to recover the optical properties...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Adam L Smith, Sofía S Villar
Adaptive designs for multi-armed clinical trials have become increasingly popular recently because of their potential to shorten development times and to increase patient response. However, developing response-adaptive designs that offer patient-benefit while ensuring the resulting trial provides a statistically rigorous and unbiased comparison of the different treatments included is highly challenging. In this paper, the theory of Multi-Armed Bandit Problems is used to define near optimal adaptive designs in the context of a clinical trial with a normally distributed endpoint with known variance...
2018: Journal of Applied Statistics
David M Murray, Sherri L Pals, Stephanie M George, Andrey Kuzmichev, Gabriel Y Lai, Jocelyn A Lee, Ranell L Myles, Shakira M Nelson
The purpose of this paper is to summarize current practices for the design and analysis of group-randomized trials involving cancer-related risk factors or outcomes and to offer recommendations to improve future trials. We searched for group-randomized trials involving cancer-related risk factors or outcomes that were published or online in peer-reviewed journals in 2011-15. During 2016-17, in Bethesda MD, we reviewed 123 articles from 76 journals to characterize their design and their methods for sample size estimation and data analysis...
March 15, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jill M Binkley, Paul Stratford, Stephanie Kirkpatrick, Clara R Farley, Joel Okoli, Sheryl Gabram
BACKGROUND: Activity limitations as well as impairments such as pain, numbness, limitation of shoulder range of motion, and weakness are common and well documented during and after treatment for breast cancer. There is limited information regarding the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures of upper extremity activity limitation in this population. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Upper Extremity Functional Index (UEFI) in patients after surgery for breast cancer...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
C M Chingkoe, A Brook, A J Moser, K J Mortele
PURPOSE: At our tertiary medical center, multidisciplinary subspecialists meet twice a week during a CME-accredited conference to discuss oncologic and non-oncologic patients with pancreatic diseases at which time a subspecialized abdominal staff radiologist reinterprets the patient's relevant imaging studies. This study assesses the changes in patient management due to imaging reinterpretation during multidisciplinary pancreas conference (MPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, imaging studies of all patients discussed at MPC between July 1 and December 31, 2015 were assessed for technical adequacy, and original reports analyzed for congruency with reinterpretation...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Christos Savva, Paraskevas Mougiaris, Christoforos Xadjimichael, Christos Karagiannis, Michalis Efstathiou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of test-retest reliability of grip strength measurement using a hand dynamometer in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. METHODS: A total of 19 patients (10 women and 9 men; mean ± standard deviation age, 33.2 ± 12.9 years; range 18-59 years) with shoulder impingement syndrome were measured using a hand dynamometer by the same data collector in 2 different testing sessions with a 7-day interval...
March 2018: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Panagiotis Galanos, George Pappas, Alexander Polyzos, Athanassios Kotsinas, Ioanna Svolaki, Nickolaos N Giakoumakis, Christina Glytsou, Ioannis S Pateras, Umakanta Swain, Vassilis L Souliotis, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Nicholas Geacintov, Luca Scorrano, Claudia Lukas, Jiri Lukas, Zvi Livneh, Zoi Lygerou, Dipanjan Chowdhury, Claus Storgaard Sørensen, Jiri Bartek, Vassilis G Gorgoulis
BACKGROUND: Genomic instability promotes evolution and heterogeneity of tumors. Unraveling its mechanistic basis is essential for the design of appropriate therapeutic strategies. In a previous study, we reported an unexpected oncogenic property of p21WAF1/Cip1 , showing that its chronic expression in a p53-deficient environment causes genomic instability by deregulation of the replication licensing machinery. RESULTS: We now demonstrate that p21WAF1/Cip1 can further fuel genomic instability by suppressing the repair capacity of low- and high-fidelity pathways that deal with nucleotide abnormalities...
March 16, 2018: Genome Biology
Marsha Tijssen, Igor Tak, Janine Stubbe, Daniel Haverkamp, Enrico de Visser, Maria Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Robert van Cingel
Study Design Prospective cohort. Background The International Hip Outcome Tool 33 (iHOT-33), developed in English, has been shown to be a valid and reliable questionnaire for young physically active individuals with symptomatic hip joint pathology. Objectives Translate and validate the iHOT-33 in Dutch (iHOT-33 NL) in the target population. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the iHOT-33 was performed following existing guidelines. Young to middle-aged (18-50 years), active (Tegner score ≥ 3) individuals presenting with symptomatic hip joint related pain (Numeric Pain Rating Score (NPRS) ≥ 1) in primary healthcare/hospital setting were included...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
René Ledesma-Alonso, Romeli Barbosa, Jaime Ortegón
The characterization and reconstruction of heterogeneous materials, such as porous media and electrode materials, involve the application of image processing methods to data acquired by scanning electron microscopy or other microscopy techniques. Among them, binarization and decimation are critical in order to compute the correlation functions that characterize the microstructure of the above-mentioned materials. In this study, we present a theoretical analysis of the effects of the image-size reduction, due to the progressive and sequential decimation of the original image...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
C J Bradly, A L Owczarek, T Prellberg
Recently, it has been proposed that the adsorption transition for a single polymer in dilute solution, modeled by lattice walks in three dimensions, is not universal with respect to intermonomer interactions. Moreover, it has been conjectured that key critical exponents ϕ, measuring the growth of the contacts with the surface at the adsorption point, and 1/δ, which measures the finite-size shift of the critical temperature, are not the same. However, applying standard scaling arguments the two key critical exponents should rather be identical, hence pointing to a potential breakdown of these standard scaling arguments...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Cristan Farmer, Margo Thienemann, Collin Leibold, Gabrielle Kamalani, Bethany Sauls, Jennifer Frankovich
Objectives: To establish the psychometric properties of the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) in patients with Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS), which is characterized by the abrupt onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or restricted eating and at least two additional psychiatric symptoms. Parents of patients with PANS have reported high caregiver burden. However, no validated instrument of burden exists for this population. Methods: Study took place at a community-based PANS clinic where the CBI is administered as part of routine clinical care...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Brian Shiner, Christine Leonard Westgate, Vanessa Simiola, Richard Thompson, Paula P Schnurr, Joan M Cook
Objective: Available studies on implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) for patients attending Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) residential post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) programs rely on therapist self-report of EBP delivery. Patient-level data on receipt of EBP are needed both to corroborate therapist self-report and to understand patient factors that predict receipt of EBPs for PTSD. Materials and Methods: We identified 159 therapists from 38 VA residential PTSD programs who responded to a survey about EBP implementation during the 2015 fiscal year (FY15)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Pavani Rangachari
In 1999, the Institute of Medicine reported that 98,000 people die each year due to medical errors. In the following years, the focus on hospital quality was intensified nationally, with policymakers providing evidence-based practice guidelines for improving health care quality. However, these innovations (evidence-based guidelines) that were being produced at policy levels were not translating to clinical practice at the hospital organizational level easily, and stark variations continued to persist, in the quality of health care...
2018: Innov Entrep Health
Robin P Shook, Gregory A Hand, Daniel P O'Connor, Diana M Thomas, Thomas G Hurley, James R Hébert, Clemens Drenowatz, Gregory J Welk, Alicia L Carriquiry, Steven N Blair
Background: Assessments of energy intake (EI) are frequently affected by measurement error. Recently, a simple equation was developed and validated to estimate EI on the basis of the energy balance equation [EI = changed body energy stores + energy expenditure (EE)]. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare multiple estimates of EI, including 2 calculated from the energy balance equation by using doubly labeled water (DLW) or activity monitors, in free-living adults...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Jeliazko R Jeliazkov, Adnan Sljoka, Daisuke Kuroda, Nobuyuki Tsuchimura, Naoki Katoh, Kouhei Tsumoto, Jeffrey J Gray
Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody's antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR) loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ann Mansur, Megan A Hird, Alexa Desimone, Iryna Pshonyak, Tom A Schweizer, Sunit Das
The purpose of the study is to determine driving habits and behaviors of patients with brain tumors in order to better inform discussions around driving safety in this population. Eight-four patients with brain tumors participated in a survey on their driving behaviors since their diagnosis. Thirteen of these patients and thirteen sex- and age-matched healthy controls participated in cognitive testing and several driving simulation scenarios in order to objectively assess driving performance. Survey responses demonstrated that patients with brain tumors engage in a variety of driving scenarios with little subjectve difficulty...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Achim Fieß, Alexander Karl-Georg Schuster, Stefan Nickels, Heike M Elflein, Andreas Schulz, Manfred E Beutel, Maria Blettner, Norbert Pfeiffer
PURPOSE: Low birth weight (BW) is linked to impaired organ development in childhood, including altered ocular morphological and functional development. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether low BW has long-term effects on visual acuity and refraction in adulthood. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based, observational cohort study in Germany, including 15 010 participants aged between 35 and 74 years. These participants were divided into three different BW groups (low: <2500 g; normal: between 2500 and 4000 g; and high: >4000 g)...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Louise Ramsden, Martin Patrick McColgan, Thomas Rossor, Anne Greenough, Simon J Clark
Studies of adult patients have demonstrated that weekend admissions compared with weekday admissions had a significantly higher hospital mortality rate. We have reviewed the literature to determine if the timing of admission, for example, weekend or weekday, influenced mortality and morbidity in children. Seventeen studies reported the effect of timing of admission on mortality, and only four studies demonstrated an increase in those admitted at the weekend. Meta-analysis of the results of 15 of the studies demonstrated there was no significant weekend effect...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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