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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545255/frozen-accident-pushing-50-stereochemistry-expansion-and-chance-in-the-evolution-of-the-genetic-code
#1
Eugene V Koonin
Nearly 50 years ago, Francis Crick propounded the frozen accident scenario for the evolution of the genetic code along with the hypothesis that the early translation system consisted primarily of RNA. Under the frozen accident perspective, the code is universal among modern life forms because any change in codon assignment would be highly deleterious. The frozen accident can be considered the default theory of code evolution because it does not imply any specific interactions between amino acids and the cognate codons or anticodons, or any particular properties of the code...
May 23, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544942/behavioural-and-neural-evidence-for-the-impact-of-fluency-context-on-conscious-memory
#2
Carlos Alexandre Gomes, Axel Mecklinger, Hubert Zimmer
It has been recently suggested that fluency may impact recognition memory performance when the fluency context varies from trial-to-trial. Surprisingly, such an effect has proved difficult to detect in the masked priming paradigm, one of the most popular means to increase fluency-based memory judgements. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which participants encoded words at study and, at test, performed a recognition memory task within a masked priming procedure. In order to optimise the chances of finding priming effects on recognition memory performance, we used low-frequency words, which have been shown to increase hits relative to false alarms and enhance masked priming effects...
April 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544665/humidified-high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-in-bronchiolitis-reduces-need-for-invasive-ventilation-but-not-intensive-care-admission
#3
Chong Tien Goh, Lynette J Kirby, David N Schell, Jonathan R Egan
AIM: To describe the changes to paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission patterns and ventilation requirements for children with bronchiolitis following the introduction of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen outside the PICU. METHODS: Retrospective study comparing patients <24 months of age with a discharge diagnosis of bronchiolitis admitted to the PICU. A comparison was made between those before humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use (year 2008) to those immediately following the introduction of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use (year 2011) and those following further consolidation of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use outside the PICU (year 2013)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544614/proteomic-profiling-of-the-hypothalamus-in-two-mouse-models-of-narcolepsy
#4
Sausan Azzam, Daniela Schlatzer, David Nethery, Dania Saleh, Xiaolin Li, Afaf Akladious, Mark R Chance, Kingman P Strohl
Narcolepsy is a disabling neurological disorder of sleepiness linked to the loss of neurons producing orexin neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. Two well characterized phenotypic mouse models of narcolepsy, loss-of-function (orexin-knockout) and progressive loss of orexin (orexin/ataxin-3) exist. The open question is whether the proteomics signatures of the hypothalamus would be different between the two models. To address this gap, we utilized a label-free proteomics approach and conducted a hypothalamic proteome analysis by comparing each disease model to that of wild type...
May 22, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544538/cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-to-diagnose-or-not-to-diagnose-in-utero
#5
REVIEW
Laura Avagliano, Gaetano Pietro Bulfamante, Valentina Massa
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is an inherited condition with a wide spectrum of phenotypic anomalies, consisting mainly of growth impairment, multi-organ abnormalities, and neurocognitive delay. Clinical diagnostic criteria after birth are well defined, whereas when to suspect the syndrome during intrauterine life still remains undefined. This review summarizes the main possible prenatal findings in CdLS, suggesting that a skilled ultrasound scan in cases of intrauterine growth restriction associated with other fetal abnormalities may improve the chance of prenatal diagnosis of CdLS, especially in families known to be at high risk...
May 22, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543771/right-ventricular-pacemaker-lead-position-is-associated-with-differences-in-long-term-outcomes-and-complications
#6
Chance M Witt, Charles J Lenz, Henry H Shih, Elisa Ebrille, Andrew N Rosenbaum, Martin van Zyl, Htin Aung, Kevin K Manocha, Abhishek J Deshmukh, David O Hodge, Siva K Mulpuru, Yong-Mei Cha, Raul E Espinosa, Samuel J Asirvatham, Christopher J McLeod
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac pacing from the right ventricular apex is associated with detrimental long-term effects and non-apical pacing locations may be associated with improved outcomes. There is little data regarding complications with non-apical lead positions. The aim of this study was to assess long-term outcomes and lead-related complications associated with differing ventricular lead tip position. METHODS AND RESULTS: All adult patients who underwent dual-chamber pacemaker implantation from 2004-2014 were included if they had post-procedure chest radiographs amenable to lead position determination...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542682/applicant-perspectives-on-the-otolaryngology-residency-application-process
#7
Matthew Ward, Christian Pingree, Adrienne M Laury, Sarah N Bowe
Importance: It has been nearly 25 years since medical students were queried regarding their perspectives on otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residency selection. Understanding this viewpoint is critical to improving the current application process. Objective: To evaluate the perceptions of 2016 OHNS residency applicants regarding the application process and offer suggestions for reform. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study of anonymous online survey data, a 14-question survey was designed based on resources obtained from a computerized PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar database search of the English language from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2015, was conducted using the following search terms: (medical student OR applicant) AND (application OR match) AND otolaryngology...
May 25, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542570/evolutionary-morphology-in-shape-and-size-of-haptoral-anchors-in-14-ligophorus-spp-monogenea-dactylogyridae
#8
Abril Rodríguez-González, Volodimir Sarabeev, Juan Antonio Balbuena
The search for phylogenetic signal in morphological traits using geometric morphometrics represents a powerful approach to estimate the relative weights of convergence and shared evolutionary history in shaping organismal form. We assessed phylogenetic signal in the form of ventral and dorsal haptoral anchors of 14 species of Ligophorus occurring on grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The phylogenetic relationships among these species were mapped onto the morphospaces of shape and size of dorsal and ventral anchors and two different tests were applied to establish whether the spatial positions in the morphospace were dictated by chance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542028/bilateral-optic-disc-pits-with-posterior-pituitary-ectopia
#9
Jonathan C Horton, A James Barkovich
Posterior pituitary ectopia has been reported previously in association with optic nerve hypoplasia, as a variant of septo-optic dysplasia. We describe a 14-year-old boy with posterior pituitary ectopia and bilateral optic disc pits. He had hypopituitarism and a reduction in visual acuity to 20/40 in each eye, owing to loss of foveal ganglion cells. Optic pits and posterior pituitary ectopia may have occurred together in the same subject by chance, but the rarity of both conditions suggests a possible association...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541645/raloxifene-plus-antipsychotics-versus-placebo-plus-antipsychotics-in-severely-ill-decompensated-postmenopausal-women-with-schizophrenia-or-schizoaffective-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Mark Weiser, Linda Levi, Shimon Burshtein, Michal Hagin, Valentin P Matei, Delia Podea, Ioana Micluția, Alexandru Tiugan, Bogdan Păcală, Iosif Gabos Grecu, Adam Noy, Daisy Zamora, John M Davis
OBJECTIVE: Several single-center studies have found raloxifene, an estrogen agonist, to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of schizophrenia in stable patients as augmentation of antipsychotics. This multicenter study assessed whether raloxifene plus antipsychotic treatment, in comparison to placebo plus antipsychotics, improves symptoms or cognition in severely ill decompensated schizophrenia patients. METHODS: In this 16-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 200 severely ill, decompensated postmenopausal women who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from January 2011 to December 2012 and were randomized to receive either raloxifene 120 mg/d plus antipsychotics or placebo plus antipsychotics...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541122/chance-of-surgery-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#11
Carianne L Verheugt, Cuno Spm Uiterwaal, Ilonca Vaartjes, Enno T van der Velde, A C Zomer, Folkert J Meijboom, Petronella G Pieper, Marco C Post, Hubert W Vliegen, Mark G Hazekamp, Diederick E Grobbee, Barbara Jm Mulder
Background Young patients with congenital heart disease reaching adulthood face mandatory transition to adult cardiology. Their new cardiologist needs to assess the chances of major future events such as surgery. Using a large national registry, we assessed if patient characteristics at the age of 18 years could predict the chance of congenital heart surgery in adulthood. Design and methods Of 10,300 patients from the CONCOR national registry, we used general patient characteristics at age 18 years, underlying congenital heart defect, history of complications, and interventions in childhood as potential predictors of congenital heart surgery occurring from age 18 years up to age 40 and 60 years...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540979/alcohol-consumption-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-gene-polymorphisms-and-cardiovascular-health-in-korea
#12
REVIEW
Min Jeong Shin, Yoonsu Cho, George Davey Smith
Alcohol consumption is a serious health issue in Korea in terms of the amount consumed and the behavior related to its consumption. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme in alcohol metabolism that degrades acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetic acid. The enzyme is coded by the ALDH2 gene, which is commonly polymorphic in East Asian populations. A point mutation in the ALDH2 gene (the rs671 allele) yields an inactive form of ALDH2 that causes acetaldehyde accumulation in the body after alcohol consumption, thereby inhibiting normal alcohol metabolism...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540317/relationship-of-musculotendinous-junction-location-to-harvested-semitendinosus-and-gracilis-tendon-length
#13
Omer A Ilahi, Eugene F Stautberg, David J Mansfield, Ali A Qadeer
BACKGROUND: Harvested hamstring tendon length has received scant attention in published anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction literature, yet length can limit the ability to increase graft diameter by folding the tendon over more than once. Indeed, some ultrashort tendons may be too short to yield a clinically useful graft after being folded over just once. Ultimately, the total length of a harvested hamstring tendon may depend on the length of the tendon distal to its musculotendinous (MT) junction...
May 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540230/genital-tuberculosis-current-status-of-diagnosis-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Siddharth Yadav, Prabhjot Singh, Ashok Hemal, Rajeev Kumar
Genitourinary Tuberculosis (GUTB) is the second most common extra-pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis (Tb) and an isolated involvement of genital organs is reported in 5-30% of the cases. Genital involvement results from primary reactivation of latent bacilli either in the epididymis or the prostate or by secondary spread from the already infected urinary organs. The epididymis are the commonest involved organs affected primarily by a hematogenous mode of spread. Tb is characterized by extensive destruction and fibrosis, thus an early diagnosis may prevent function and organ loss...
April 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540213/ct-as-gatekeeper-of-invasive-coronary-angiography-in-patients-with-suspected-cad
#15
REVIEW
Carlos A G Van Mieghem
Cardiac CT has been accepted as a valuable diagnostic tool in today's patient care. However, several other noninvasive, in particular, functional diagnostic tests are available on the menu for the ordering clinician and target more or less the same patient population. These tests come with a cost and financial constraints in the present economic environment will no longer allow its indiscriminate use. The gatekeeper function of a diagnostic testing strategy implies that a test is selected judiciously with the aim of preventing access to invasive yet expensive coronary angiography...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540146/-combined-diagnostic-tool-application-to-a-retrospective-series-of-patients-undergoing-total-joint-revision-surgery
#16
Enrico Gallazzi, Lorenzo Drago, Andrea Baldini, Ian Stockley, David A George, Sara Scarponi, Carlo L Romanò
Background: Differentiating between septic and aseptic joint prosthesis may be challenging, since no single test is able to confirm or rule out infection. The choice and interpretation of the panel of tests performed in any case often relies on empirical evaluation and poorly validated scores. The "Combined Diagnostic Tool (CDT)" App, a smartphone application for iOS, was developed to allow to automatically calculate the probability of having a of periprosthetic joint infection, on the basis of the relative sensitivity and specificity of the positive and negative diagnostic tests performed in any given patient...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540029/adaptation-induced-blindness-is-orientation-tuned-and-monocular
#17
Deborah Apthorp, Scott Griffiths, David Alais, John Cass
We examined the recently discovered phenomenon of Adaptation-Induced Blindness (AIB), in which highly visible gratings with gradual onset profiles become invisible after exposure to a rapidly flickering grating, even at very high contrasts. Using very similar stimuli to those in the original AIB experiment, we replicated the original effect across multiple contrast levels, with observers at chance in detecting the gradual onset stimuli at all contrasts. Then, using full-contrast target stimuli with either abrupt or gradual onsets, we tested both the orientation tuning and interocular transfer of AIB...
March 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540028/social-eavesdropping-can-you-hear-the-emotionality-in-a-hello-that-is-not-meant-for-you
#18
Sethu Karthikeyan, Vijayachandra Ramachandra
The study examined third-party listeners' ability to detect the Hellos spoken to prevalidated happy, neutral, and sad facial expressions. The average detection accuracies from the happy and sad (HS), happy and neutral (HN), and sad and neutral (SN) listening tests followed the average vocal pitch differences between the two sets of Hellos in each of the tests; HS and HN detection accuracies were above chance reflecting the significant pitch differences between the respective Hellos. The SN detection accuracy was at chance reflecting the lack of pitch difference between sad and neutral Hellos...
March 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538757/brazilian-cross-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-list-of-threatening-events-questionnaire-lte-q
#19
Patrícia B de Abreu, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Regina A Pose, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Raul Caetano, Carolina M Gaya, Clarice S Madruga
Objective: To perform a construct validation of the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire (LTE-Q), as well as convergence validation by identifying its association with drug use in a sample of the Brazilian population. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS), which used a cross-cultural adaptation of the LTE-Q in a probabilistic sample of 4,607 participants aged 14 years and older. Latent class analysis was used to validate the latent trait adversity (which considered the number of events from the list of 12 item in the LTE experienced by the respondent in the previous year) and logistic regression was performed to find its association with binge drinking and cocaine use...
May 22, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538446/coaching-the-debriefer-peer-coaching-to-improve-debriefing-quality-in-simulation-programs
#20
Adam Cheng, Vincent Grant, James Huffman, Gavin Burgess, Demian Szyld, Traci Robinson, Walter Eppich
Formal faculty development programs for simulation educators are costly and time-consuming. Peer coaching integrated into the teaching flow can enhance an educator's debriefing skills. We provide a practical guide for the who, what, when, where, why, and how of peer coaching for debriefing in simulation-based education. Peer coaching offers advantages such as psychological safety and team building, and it can benefit both the educator who is receiving feedback and the coach who is providing it. A feedback form for effective peer coaching includes the following: (1) psychological safety, (2) framework, (3) method/strategy, (4) content, (5) learner centeredness, (6) co-facilitation, (7) time management, (8) difficult situations, (9) debriefing adjuncts, and (10) individual style and experience...
May 20, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
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