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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922177/phenotype-specific-response-of-circulating-mirnas-provides-new-biomarkers-of-slow-or-fast-muscle-damage
#1
Julien Siracusa, Nathalie Koulmann, Antoine Sourdrille, Charles Chapus, Catherine Verret, Stéphanie Bourdon, Marie-Emmanuelle Goriot, Sébastien Banzet
Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue composed of a continuum of contracting fibers ranging from slow-type to fast-type fibers. Muscle damage is a frequent event and a susceptibility of fast-fibers to exercise-induced damage (EIMD) or statins toxicity has been reported. Biological markers of muscle damage such as creatine kinase (CK) are not fiber-type specific and new biomarkers are needed. Some microRNAs (miRNAs) are specific to the muscle tissue, can be found in the extracellular compartment and can rise in the plasma following muscle damage...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921611/smggds-prevents-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-formation-and-rupture-by-phenotypic-preservation-of-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells
#2
Masamichi Nogi, Kimio Satoh, Shinichiro Sunamura, Nobuhiro Kikuchi, Taijyu Satoh, Ryo Kurosawa, Junichi Omura, Md Elias Al-Mamun, Mohammad Abdul Hai Siddique, Kazuhiko Numano, Shun Kudo, Satoshi Miyata, Masatoshi Akiyama, Kiichiro Kumagai, Shunsuke Kawamoto, Yoshikatsu Saiki, Hiroaki Shimokawa
Background -Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) and dissection (TAD) are fatal diseases, which cause aortic rupture and sudden death. The small GTP-binding protein GDP dissociation stimulator (SmgGDS) is a crucial mediator of the pleiotropic effects of statins. Previous studies revealed that reduced force generation in AoSMCs causes TAA and TAD. Methods -To examine the role of SmgGDS in TAA formation, we employed an angiotensin II (AngII, 1,000 ng/min/kg, 4 weeks)-induced TAA model. Results -33% Apoe-/- SmgGDS+/- mice died suddenly due to TAA rupture, whereas there was no TAA rupture in Apoe-/- control mice...
June 19, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921207/role-of-bisphosphonates-in-vascular-calcification-and-bone-metabolism-a-clinical-summary
#3
Pradeep Dayanand, Harigopal Sandhyavenu, Sandeep Dayanand, Jasmin Martinez, Janani Rangaswami
Vascular calcification is known to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular adverse events and mortality. Atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging, abnormal bone mineral homeostasis and high uremic milieu such as chronic kidney disease are major factors that contribute to the progression of vascular calcification. Several mechanisms such as the osteoblastic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells in response to oxidative stress have shed light on the active nature of vascular calcification, which was once thought to be a passive process...
June 18, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910030/efficacy-and-safety-of-bempedoic-acid-added-to-ezetimibe-in-statin-intolerant-patients-with-hypercholesterolemia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#4
Christie M Ballantyne, Maciej Banach, G B John Mancini, Norman E Lepor, Jeffrey C Hanselman, Xin Zhao, Lawrence A Leiter
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with hyperlipidemia who are unable to tolerate optimal statin therapy are at increased cardiovascular risk due to ongoing elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The objective of CLEAR Tranquility (NCT03001076) was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bempedoic acid when added to background lipid-modifying therapy in patients with a history of statin intolerance who require additional LDL-C lowering. METHODS: This phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled patients with a history of statin intolerance and an LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL while on stable lipid-modifying therapy...
June 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878063/role-of-genetics-in-the-prediction-of-statin-associated-muscle-symptoms-and-optimization-of-statin-use-and-adherence
#5
Liam R Brunham, Steven Baker, Andrew Mammen, G B John Mancini, Robert S Rosenson
Statin therapy reduces cardiovascular events in patients with, or at risk of, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, statins are underutilized in patients for whom they are indicated and are frequently discontinued. Discontinuation may be the result of the development of statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), which encompass a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes from myalgia to severe myopathy. As with many adverse drug reactions (ADRs), inter-individual variability in susceptibility to SAMS is due, at least in part, to differences in host genetics...
June 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869449/retrospective-evaluation-of-statin-prescription-in-the-elderly
#6
Wee Jie Chee, Huda Abdullahi, Yolanda Chan, Amelia Rattle, Stephanie Snedden, Ralph Junckerstorff
BACKGROUND: Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed medications in Australia. Although the cardioprotective effects of statins are well documented, questions remain regarding their risk-benefit profile in elderly adults, especially those with limited life expectancies. AIM: To describe the prevalence and pattern of statin use in elderly patients admitted to a General Medicine Unit. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients aged ≥80 years who were admitted under the General Medical Unit at Monash Medical Centre between 1st January 2015 and 30th June 2015...
June 5, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803682/carotid-artery-plaque-echomorphology-and-its-association-with-histopathologic-characteristics
#7
Konstantinos Spanos, Ioannis Tzorbatzoglou, Paraskevi Lazari, Dimitrios Maras, Athanasios D Giannoukas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the association of ultrasonic texture features (severity of stenosis, grey scale median, plaque area, juxtaluminal black area [JBA], and discrete white areas) previously shown to be independent predictors for stroke with established histologic features of plaque instability. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed involving 70 patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy. Before surgery, carotid plaque texture features were obtained with ultrasound after normalization using commercially available software (LifeQ Medical, Nicosia, Cyprus)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803327/-indirect-and-mixed-mechanisms-of-action-in-toxic-myopathies
#8
REVIEW
A Khelfi, M Azzouz, R Abtroun, M Reggabi, B Alamir
Toxic myopathies are a group of pathologies characterized by a structural and/or functional disturbance of muscles induced by an exogenous agent. The most frequent are those induced by drugs used in clinical practice. Illegal drugs, pesticides, solvents, metals and even physical and gaseous agents can cause this kind of disease and exert toxicity on muscle tissues. Some toxins from animals, plants or micro-organisms are potent myotoxic agents, which can lead to fatal complications. Respiratory arrest and rhabdomyolysis are often referred to as the ultimate complications of these pathologies...
May 23, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796131/prevention-and-management-of-statin-adverse-effects-a-practical-approach-for-pharmacists
#9
Arden R Barry, Jessica E Beach, Glen J Pearson
Statin-associated adverse effects, primarily muscle-related symptoms, occur in up to approximately one-third of patients in clinical practice. Recently, a Canadian Consensus Working Group outlined 6 key principles to assess and manage patients with goal-inhibiting statin intolerance, defined as a syndrome characterized by symptoms or biomarker abnormalities that prevent the long-term use of and adherence to indicated statin therapy, which includes a trial of at least 2 statins and precludes reversible causes of statin adverse effects...
May 2018: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794992/management-of-dyslipidemia-in-type-2-diabetes-recent-advances-in-nonstatin-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Kazutoshi Sugiyama, Yoshifumi Saisho
Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Statins have played a crucial role in its management, but residual risk remains since many patients cannot achieve their desired low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level and up to 20% of patients are statin-intolerant, experiencing adverse events perceived to be caused by statins, most commonly muscle symptoms. Recently, great advances have been made in nonstatin treatment with ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), all showing a proven benefit with an excellent safety profile in cardiovascular outcome trials...
May 24, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785116/myopathy-due-to-hmgcr-antibodies-in-adult-mimicking-muscular-dystrophy-associated-with-cancer-and-statin-exposure-narrative-review-of-the-literature-case-report
#11
Alzira Alves de Siqueira Carvalho, Vinicius Gomes da Silva, Edmar Zanoteli, David Feder
Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy is characterized by predominant muscle fiber necrosis and regeneration with little or no inflammation. We describe a 58-year-old woman with previous breast cancer and statin use who complained of rapidly progressive weakness of lower limbs without pain, making walking, running and climbing stairs difficult. The creatine kinase level was 2,843 U/L, and muscle biopsy showed a dystrophic pattern. The genetic test for muscular dystrophies was negative and for anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was positive...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784023/delayed-presentation-of-severe-rhabdomyolysis-leading-to-acute-kidney-injury-following-atorvastatin-gemfibrozil-combination-therapy-a-case-report
#12
Chamara Dalugama, Manoji Pathirage, S A M Kularatne
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but serious complication of lipid-lowering therapy. Statin and fibrate combination increases the risk of rhabdomyolysis possibly by pharmacodynamic interactions. Advanced age, diabetes, hypothyroidism, polypharmacy, and renal impairment are known to increase the risk of rhabdomyolysis. Management strategies include fluid resuscitation and urine alkalinization. Renal indications such as refractory hyperkalemia, acidosis, fluid overload, or uremic complications mandate renal replacement therapy in rhabdomyolysis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770231/cardiovascular-outcomes-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-with-special-emphasis-on-its-effect-beyond-ldl-cholesterol-lowering
#13
REVIEW
Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Kumar Ashish, Adrija Hajra, Arshna Qureshi, Raktim K Ghosh
PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are novel antihypercholesterolemic drugs. FDA first approved them in July 2015. PCSK9 protein (692-amino acids) was discovered in 2003. It plays a major role in LDL receptor degradation and is a prominent modulator in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 protein in liver and inhibiting this protein leads to drastically lowering harmful LDL-C level in the bloodstream. Despite widespread use of the statin, not all the high-risk patients were able to achieve targeted level of LDL-C...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766349/recent-developments-in-the-role-of-coenzyme-q10-for-coronary-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Jessica Ayers, Jamie Cook, Rachel A Koenig, Evan M Sisson, Dave L Dixon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines recent randomized clinical trials evaluating the role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in the management of coronary heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: CoQ10 is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in the USA. Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, CoQ10 has been studied extensively for possible use in managing coronary heart disease. One of the most common applications of CoQ10 is to mitigate statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) based on the theory that SAMS are caused by statin depletion of CoQ10 in the muscle...
May 16, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760586/atorvastatin-and-diacerein-reduce-insulin-resistance-and-increase-disease-tolerance-in-rats-with-sepsis
#15
K L C da Silva, A P Camacho, F C Mittestainer, B M Carvalho, A Santos, D Guadagnini, A G Oliveira, M J A Saad
Background: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death among hospitalized patients. At the onset of this condition, there is an over-production of pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to organ failure and death. The excess production of pro-inflammatory mediators also impairs insulin signaling, which may be a pathophysiological tissue marker of proinflammatory cytokine action before organ failure. Statins and diacerein have pleiotropic effects, such as the blockage of inflammatory signaling pathways, suggesting that these drugs may be an attractive therapeutic or prophylactic strategy against sepsis...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749101/understanding-patient-adherence-and-concerns-with-statins-and-medication-discussions-with-physicians-action-a-survey-on-the-patient-perspective-of-dialogue-with-healthcare-providers-regarding-statin-therapy
#16
Eliot A Brinton
BACKGROUND: Statin therapy is used first-line for cholesterol lowering and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), but side effects and the potential for drug-drug interactions may complicate its use. Provider-patient communication is essential for shared decision-making, which, in turn, is recommended by guidelines to reduce or overcome these challenges. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about provider-patient communication surrounding statin use. METHOD: We conducted an online survey of 5,014 patients, U...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743974/simvastatin-treatment-upregulates-ho-1-in-patients-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-but-independently-of-nrf2
#17
Aleksandra Piechota-Polanczyk, Aleksandra Kopacz, Damian Kloska, Branislav Zagrapan, Christoph Neumayer, Anna Grochot-Przeczek, Ihor Huk, Christine Brostjan, Jozef Dulak, Alicja Jozkowicz
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), encoded by HMOX1 gene and regulated by Nrf2 transcription factor, is a cytoprotective enzyme. Its deficiency may exacerbate abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development, which is also often associated with hyperlipidemia. Beneficial effects of statins, the broadly used antilipidemic drugs, were attributed to modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 axis. However, the effect of statins on Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in patients with AAA has not been studied yet. We analyzed AAA tissue from patients treated with simvastatin ( N  = 28) or without statins ( N  = 14)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732374/chinese-herbal-medicine-as-a-potential-treatment-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#18
Sai Wang Seto, Dennis Chang, Hosen Kiat, Ning Wang, Alan Bensoussan
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an irreversible condition where the abdominal aorta is dilated leading to potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the development and progression of AAA, including chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) apoptosis, immune cell infiltration and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Currently surgical therapies, including minimally invasive endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), are the only viable interventions for AAAs...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720800/necrotizing-autoimmune-myopathy-clinicopathologic-study-from-a-single-tertiary-care-centre
#19
Sobiya Mahnaz Ayesha, A K Meena, Navatha Vangala, Liza Rajasekhar, Subhash Kaul, Rupam Borgahain, Megha S Uppin
Background: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a group of chronic, autoimmune disorders which include a new entity, necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM). NAM lacks inflammation and presents with markedly elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. It is associated with connective tissue diseases (CTDs), statin use, malignancies, and most cases are idiopathic. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to describe the clinicopathologic features in muscle biopsy-proven cases of NAM...
January 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718253/adverse-effects-of-statin-therapy-perception-vs-the-evidence-focus-on-glucose-homeostasis-cognitive-renal-and-hepatic-function-haemorrhagic-stroke-and-cataract
#20
François Mach, Kausik K Ray, Olov Wiklund, Alberto Corsini, Alberico L Catapano, Eric Bruckert, Guy De Backer, Robert A Hegele, G Kees Hovingh, Terry A Jacobson, Ronald M Krauss, Ulrich Laufs, Lawrence A Leiter, Winfried März, Børge G Nordestgaard, Frederick J Raal, Michael Roden, Raul D Santos, Evan A Stein, Erik S Stroes, Paul D Thompson, Lale Tokgözoglu, Georgirene D Vladutiu, Baris Gencer, Jane K Stock, Henry N Ginsberg, M John Chapman
Aims: To objectively appraise evidence for possible adverse effects of long-term statin therapy on glucose homeostasis, cognitive, renal and hepatic function, and risk for haemorrhagic stroke or cataract. Methods and results: A literature search covering 2000-2017 was performed. The Panel critically appraised the data and agreed by consensus on the categorization of reported adverse effects. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and genetic studies show that statin therapy is associated with a modest increase in the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus (about one per thousand patient-years), generally defined by laboratory findings (glycated haemoglobin ≥6...
April 27, 2018: European Heart Journal
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