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Quiet eye theory

Michelle Jarick, Alan Kingstone
In contrast to non-human primate eyes, which have a dark sclera surrounding a dark iris, human eyes have a white sclera that surrounds a dark iris. This high contrast morphology allows humans to determine quickly and easily where others are looking and infer what they are attending to. In recent years an enormous body of work has used photos and schematic images of faces to study these aspects of social attention, e.g., the selection of the eyes of others and the shift of attention to where those eyes are directed...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
John F Stins, C Lianne A Kempe, Muriel A Hagenaars, Peter J Beek, Karin Roelofs
OBJECTIVE: Current theories of conversion disorder (CD) propose that motor symptoms are related to heightened self-monitoring and excessive cognitive control of movements. We tested this hypothesis using quantification of performance on a continuous perceptuo-motor task involving quiet standing. METHODS: Twelve CD patients and matched controls maintained static balance on a force platform under various attention conditions: (1) with eyes open; (2) with eyes closed (requiring enhanced attention to proprioceptive information to regulate posture); and (3) while performing an attention demanding cognitive task...
March 2015: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Deborah Apthorp, Fintan Nagle, Stephen Palmisano
Visually-induced illusions of self-motion (vection) can be compelling for some people, but they are subject to large individual variations in strength. Do these variations depend, at least in part, on the extent to which people rely on vision to maintain their postural stability? We investigated by comparing physical posture measures to subjective vection ratings. Using a Bertec balance plate in a brightly-lit room, we measured 13 participants' excursions of the centre of foot pressure (CoP) over a 60-second period with eyes open and with eyes closed during quiet stance...
2014: PloS One
Jeffrey M Kinsella-Shaw, Steven J Harrison, Claudia Carello, M T Turvey
"Quiet standing" is standing without intended movement. To the naked eye, a person "quiet standing" on a rigid surface of support is stationary. In the laboratory quiet standing is indexed by behavior (at the millimeter scale) of the center of pressure (COP), the point location of the vertical ground reaction force vector (GRF). We asked whether quiet standing is lateralized and whether the COP dynamics of the right and left legs differ. In answer, we reexamined a previous quiet standing experiment (Kinsella-Shaw et al...
December 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Samuel J Vine, Don Lee, Lee J Moore, Mark R Wilson
PURPOSE: The quiet eye (QE) is a characteristic of highly skilled perceptual and motor performance that has been shown to be sensitive to increases in anxiety. The present study is the first to examine changes in the QE at the precise point of performance failure under heightened anxiety. QE durations were compared for the first, penultimate, and final (missed) putts taken in a pressurized shootout task. To probe the effects of anxiety more specifically, differences in the component of the QE that occurred before (QE-pre), during (QE-online), and after (QE-dwell) putter movement were examined...
October 2013: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Senih Gurses, Huseyin Celik
Human postural sway during quiet standing demonstrates a complex structured dynamics, which has been studied by applying numerous methods, such as linear system identification methods, stochastic analysis, and nonlinear system dynamics tools. Although each of the methods applied revealed some particular features of the sway data none of them have succeeded to present a global picture of the quiet stance dynamics, which probably has both stochastic and deterministic properties. In this study we have started applying ergodic theory of dynamical systems to explore statistical characteristic of the sway dynamics observed in successive trials of a subject, different subjects in an age group, and finally different age groups constituted by children, adults, and elderly subjects...
February 2013: Human Movement Science
Joe Causer, Paul S Holmes, Nickolas C Smith, A Mark Williams
We tested the predictions of Attentional Control Theory (ACT) by examining the effect of anxiety on attention control and the subsequent influence on both performance effectiveness and performance efficiency within a perceptual-motor context. A sample (N = 16) of elite shotgun shooters was tested under counterbalanced low (practice) and high (competition) anxiety conditions. A head-mounted, corneal reflection system allowed point of gaze to be calculated in relation to the scene, while motion of the gun was evaluated using markers placed on the barrel which were captured by two stationary cameras and analyzed using optical tracking software...
June 2011: Emotion
V Leonetta, M L Livani, G Di Benedetto, M Nebbioso
The authors studied the possible theories on the function of the sleep and provided specific information on its representation. They believe useful the hypnogram in monitoring on the pathophysiology of the processes characterized by clinical and subclinical sleep involvement. The continuous and simultaneous registration of the sleep activities by polysomnography have been developed for the evaluation of neurologic diseases with various technique applications: electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and electroculography (EOG)...
2010: La Clinica Terapeutica
Mark R Wilson, Samuel J Vine, Greg Wood
The aim of this study was to test the predictions of attentional control theory using the quiet eye period as an objective measure of attentional control. Ten basketball players took free throws in two counterbalanced experimental conditions designed to manipulate the anxiety they experienced. Point of gaze was measured using an ASL Mobile Eye tracker and fixations including the quiet eye were determined using frame-by-frame analysis. The manipulation of anxiety resulted in significant reductions in the duration of the quiet eye period and free throw success rate, thus supporting the predictions of attentional control theory...
April 2009: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Hirotoki Kawasaki, Takanobu Morinushi, Masashi Yakushiji, Morikuni Takigawa
The present study investigated the search by correlation dimension (D2) for the effect of six stimuli (sucrose, spearmint, gum-base chewing as a voluntary movement, and three combinations of these stimuli) on EEG findings. Twenty normal adult subjects received sucrose, spearmint oil, gum-base alone, and three combinations of these stimuli. EEG recordings were obtained while the subjects rested quietly with their eyes closed, as the following procedure: section I, 1 minute at rest; section II, first 5-minute recording (control record); session III, each stimulus affecting for 3 minutes; session IV, 1 minute at rest; session V, 5-minute recording (poststimulus record)...
February 2009: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Luca Bonfiglio, Stefano Sello, Paolo Andre, Maria Chiara Carboncini, Pieranna Arrighi, Bruno Rossi
Over the past decades, many studies have linked the variations in frequency of spontaneous blinking with certain aspects of information processing and in particular with attention and working memory functions. On the other hand, according to the theory postulated by Crick and Koch, the actual function of primary consciousness is based on the reciprocal interaction between attention and working memory in the automatic and serial mode. The purpose of this study was to investigate for electrophysiological correlates compatible with the cognitive nature of spontaneous blinking, by using the EEG recordings obtained in a group of seven healthy volunteers while they rested quietly though awake, with their eyes open, but not actively engaged in attention-demanding goal-directed behaviours...
January 2, 2009: Neuroscience Letters
Brenda R Santos, Alain Delisle, Christian Larivière, André Plamondon, Daniel Imbeau
This study aimed to (1) estimate the reliability of 36 centre of pressure (COP) summary measures in healthy participants and (2) identify the main sources of variability in order to estimate the most appropriate measurement strategies to improve reliability. Twelve healthy males performed, on two separate days, eight 1-min trials of quiet standing on a force platform in two conditions [eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC)]. The generalizability theory was used as a framework to estimate the magnitude of the different variance components (Subject, Trial, Day and all interactions) and the reliability of the measures corresponding to various simulations of measurement strategies...
April 2008: Gait & Posture
Richard J Doyle, Brian G Ragan, Karthikeyan Rajendran, Karl S Rosengren, Elizabeth T Hsiao-Wecksler
Quiet standing balance and postural control are often assessed by drawing information from center of pressure (COP) data collected with a force platform. Efforts to better understand the underlying processes involved in postural control have lead to methods that examine the dynamic or stochastic characteristics of the COP. One method that has recently gained popularity is Stabilogram Diffusion Analysis (SDA). There is, however, a lack of standardization in the methodology of data collection for this approach, i...
February 2008: Gait & Posture
Richard J Doyle, Elizabeth T Hsiao-Wecksler, Brian G Ragan, Karl S Rosengren
Center of pressure (COP) measures are commonly used as indicators of balance and postural control. At present, there are no universally accepted standards in research investigating fluctuations in the COP with regard to the number of trials or the length of a given trial. The purpose of this study was to use the tools of Generalizability Theory (G-Theory) to investigate the reliability of COP measures of quiet standing and to establish an optimal measurement protocol. G-Theory provides a tool that allows us to break down the sources of variation, or facets, in a measurement procedure and ultimately design a protocol that provides optimal reliability...
February 2007: Gait & Posture
Hélène Corriveau, Réjean Hébert, Michel Raîche, Marie-France Dubois, François Prince
The study investigated whether physiological factors related to specific body systems can explain postural control as measured by the scalar distance at a given time between the center of pressure (COP) and the center of mass (COM), the COP-COM variable. The data from 46 healthy subjects and 29 subjects with disabilities due to stroke or diabetic peripheral neuropathy were analyzed. The biomechanical variable COP-COM was determined using two force platforms and an optoelectric system. Three systems were considered as possible predictors of the COP-COM amplitude: sensory (somatosensory and vision), musculoskeletal and central processor...
September 2004: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Park, Kim
A posture control model has been developed on the basis of the 2-dimensional feedback control theory. Human postural characteristics were investigated in 5 healthy participants. Tests were performed with eyes open and eyes closed. After 5 s of quiet standing, each participant was unexpectedly pulled forward by 30 mm at his pelvis height and then released. Postural sway was measured over 20 s at a rate of 100 per second. Transfer functions to represent the posture control characteristic were identified by the least squares' method...
1998: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
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