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Adhd and schedule

Eleni Angeli, Terpsichori Korpa, Elizabeth O Johnson, Filia Apostolakou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Panagiota Pervanidou
There is growing evidence for dysregulation of the stress system in individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The stress system includes neuroanatomical and functional components that function in concert to maintain homeostasis and its main effectors are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic/adrenomedullary nervous system (SNS). As stress system activity demonstrates a distinct circadian variation, we aimed to describe simultaneously, diurnal rhythms of both the HPA axis and the SNS in children with ADHD and a comparison group...
February 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jeroen Van Dessel, Sarah Morsink, Saskia Van der Oord, Jurgen Lemiere, Matthijs Moerkerke, Margaux Grandelis, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Marina Danckaerts
Impulsivity is a core feature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been conceptualized in a number of different ways. In the current article, we examine how the new concept of "waiting impulsivity", which refers to premature responding before a scheduled target appears, adds to our understanding of impulsivity in ADHD. Sixty children (8-12 years old; 30 ADHD; 30 typically developing controls) completed the 4-choice serial reaction time task, a measure of waiting impulsivity, alongside tasks measuring inhibitory control and temporal discounting and questionnaires measuring behavioral disorder symptoms, delay aversion, and various aspects of impulsivity...
February 28, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Berit Hjelde Hansen, Beate Oerbeck, Benedicte Skirbekk, Beáta Éva Petrovski, Hanne Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Accurate prevalence rates of the neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) and comorbid conditions in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) are essential for treatment planning and organization of health care. However, valid and reliable prevalence estimates from Nordic CAMHS populations are scarce, and the published findings vary. AIMS: To report prevalence rates of ND (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: ADHD, tic disorder: TD or autism spectrum disorder: ASD) and comorbid disorders by a validated diagnostic instrument in children referred to CAMHS outpatient clinics...
February 28, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Hui Cao, Shuangqin Yan, Chunli Gu, Sumei Wang, Lingling Ni, Huihui Tao, Ting Shao, Yeqing Xu, Fangbiao Tao
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children is an increasing public health concern. The identification of behavioral risk factors, including sleep quality, has important public health implications for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies for ADHD. Herein, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of high levels of ADHD symptoms and to explore the association between sleep schedules, sleep-related problems and ADHD symptoms among preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years in mainland China...
February 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Paulo Mattos, Bruno P Nazar, Rosemary Tannock
OBJECTIVE: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. METHODS: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) adapted for adults...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Hisham Ramy, Mona El Sheikh, Marwa Sultan, Rasha Bassim, Maissa Eid, Ramy Ali, Marwa El Missiry
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders. Severity of symptoms is associated with more behavioral problems, poor academic performance, and persistence of symptoms into adulthood. METHODS: To examine the clinical and social correlates that may be identified as risk factors associated with ADHD severity in a sample of adolescent ADHD school students. A total of 925 students were recruited from two public and two private schools from eastern Cairo...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Franziska Minder, Agnieszka Zuberer, Daniel Brandeis, Renate Drechsler
There is controversy regarding the clinical efficacy of neurofeedback (NF) and computerized cognitive training (CogT) as treatments for ADHD. Meta-analyses claim that probably blinded teachers observe smaller effects than parents, because they are less biased. We investigated informant-specific effects by manipulating the involvement of informants, by controlling for waiting time effects, and by adding a blinded outcome measure. Seventy-seven children with ADHD were randomly allocated to slow cortical potential NF or to individualized CogT (of attention, working memory or inhibition)...
February 2, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Symon M Kariuki, Charles R J C Newton, Amina Abubakar, Mary A Bitta, Rachael Odhiambo, Jacqueline Phillips Owen
OBJECTIVE: We determined the reliability of The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) for screening and diagnosing ADHD in children. METHOD: K-SADS-PL was administered to 2,074 children in the community. Psychometric properties, factorial structure, and clinical validity of K-SADS-PL in screening or diagnosis of ADHD were examined. RESULTS: Internal consistency was excellent for items in the screening interview (Macdonald's Omega [ω] = 0...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ryan T Lacy, Hannah K Schorsch, Bridget P Austin
Diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has risen drastically over the past 20 years in the United States and abroad. Amphetamine-based prescription stimulants are the most prescribed treatment for ADHD and the diversion of these drugs has also increased. Reports indicate 61% of individuals with an ADHD medication prescription have sold or shared their medication. Exposure to prescription stimulants, especially for those without an ADHD diagnosis, may increase susceptibility to drugs of abuse...
February 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Megan C Finsaas, Sara J Bufferd, Lea R Dougherty, Gabrielle A Carlson, Daniel N Klein
BACKGROUND: Many preschool-age children meet criteria for psychiatric disorders, and rates approach those observed in later childhood and adolescence. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining the outcomes of preschool diagnoses. METHODS: Families with a 3-year-old child (N = 559) were recruited from the community. Primary caregivers were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment when children were 3 years old (n = 541), and, along with children, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version when children were 9 and 12 years old...
January 16, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Daryl Efron, Kirsten Furley, Alisha Gulenc, Emma Sciberras
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the associations between maternal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child functional outcomes in a community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. DESIGN AND SETTING: In this cohort study, children with ADHD and healthy controls were recruited through schools in Melbourne, Australia, using a combined screening (Conners 3 ADHD Index) and case confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV) procedure...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
William Poh, Jonathan M Payne, Alisha Gulenc, Daryl Efron
OBJECTIVE: To examine in a community-based cohort: (1) the prevalence of chronic tic disorder (CTD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with non-ADHD controls at ages 7 and 10; and (2) the additional psychiatric and functional burden of CTD in children with ADHD. METHODS: Children aged 6-8 years with ADHD (n=179) and controls (n=212) were recruited through 43 Victorian schools using parent and teacher screening surveys (Conners 3 ADHD Index), followed by case confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV))...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Joseph Biederman, Maura Fitzgerald, Mai Uchida, Thomas J Spencer, Ronna Fried, Jennifer Wicks, Alexandra Saunders, Stephen V Faraone
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether specific symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can help identify ADHD patients with mind wandering. METHODS: Subjects were adults ages 18-55 of both sexes (n=41) who completed the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and the ADHD module of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version. We used Spearman's rank correlation and Pearson's χ2 analyses to examine associations between the ADHD module and the MWQ and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the ADHD module...
December 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Marco Mula
Purpose of review The pharmacological treatment of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities may sometimes represent a therapeutic challenge. This review is focused on the pharmacological management of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric problems in terms of rationalization of the antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment and the pharmacological management of the most clinically relevant psychiatric comorbidities, namely mood and anxiety disorders, psychoses, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 19, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Francesca Perrino, Serena Licchelli, Giulia Serra, Giorgia Piccini, Cristina Caciolo, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Flavia Cirillo, Chiara Leoni, Maria Cristina Digilio, Giuseppe Zampino, Marco Tartaglia, Paolo Alfieri, Stefano Vicari
INTRODUCTION: Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, skeletal and haematological/lymphatic defects, distinctive facies, cryptorchidism, and a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects. Recurrent features also include variable cognitive deficits and behavioural problems. Recent research has been focused on the assessment of prevalence, age of onset and characterization of psychiatric features in this disorder. Herein, we evaluated the prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depressive symptoms and syndromes in a cohort of individuals with clinical and molecular diagnosis of NS...
January 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Stephen P Becker, Dana N Schindler, Aaron M Luebbe, Leanne Tamm, Jeffery N Epstein
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid internalizing symptoms. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a frequently used measure of anxiety and depression in children, though its psychometric properties remain unexamined in children referred for ADHD specifically. The present study evaluated the RCADS-P in 372 children (age 7-12 years; 68% male) referred for evaluation at an ADHD specialty clinic (89% met criteria for ADHD)...
October 1, 2017: Assessment
Hyun-Jeong Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Mi-Sun Yum, Tae-Sung Ko, Hyo-Won Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the attention profiles of subjects with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) to those of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 20 children (age 7.2 ± 1.6 years, 5 boys) in whom CAE was diagnosed at the Department of Pediatric Neurology of Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. ADHD and control subjects were selected from children who visited the Department of Pediatric Psychiatry and were confirmed as having or not having ADHD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL)...
October 6, 2017: Brain & Development
Carlos F Aparicio, Paul J Hennigan, Laurel J Mulligan, Benigno Alonso-Alvarez
Indications of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) are not consistent across different tests of impulsivity, questioning the SHR's validity as a rodent model of ADHD. This study used a concurrent-chains procedure to examine possible differences in impulsive choice between SHRs and control-normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The aim was to extend the generality of findings showing regularities between the hyperbolic-decay model and the generalized matching law fitting delay discounting data from nonhuman animals...
September 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Pavel Golubchik, Abraham Weizman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of the suspiciousness in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in comparison to ADHD alone and the response of suspiciousness symptoms to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. METHODS: In this open-label comparative study, children with DSM-IV-TR ADHD, aged 8-18 years, with (N = 30) or without (N = 30) ODD received MPH treatment for 12 weeks. The severity of ODD symptoms was assessed by the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Jeffrey S Danforth, Leonard A Doerfler, Daniel F Connor
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to examine whether anxiety modifies the risk for, or severity of, conduct problems in children with ADHD. METHOD: Assessment included both categorical and dimensional measures of ADHD, anxiety, and conduct problems. Analyses compared conduct problems between children with ADHD features alone versus children with co-occurring ADHD and anxiety features. RESULTS: When assessed by dimensional rating scales, results showed that compared with children with ADHD alone, those children with ADHD co-occurring with anxiety are at risk for more intense conduct problems...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
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