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Adhd and structure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143699/are-there-distinct-cognitive-and-motivational-sub-groups-of-children-with-adhd
#1
Rikke Lambek, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Rosemary Tannock, Anne Virring Sørensen, Dorte Damm, Per Hove Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is proposed to be a neuropsychologically heterogeneous disorder that encompasses two distinct sub-groups, one with executive function (EF) deficits and one with delay aversion (DA). However, such claims have often been based on studies that have operationalized neuropsychological deficits using a categorical approach - using intuitive but rather arbitrary, clinical cut-offs. The current study applied an alternative empirical approach to sub-grouping in ADHD, latent profile analysis (LPA), and attempted to validate emerging subgroups through clinically relevant correlates...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129558/time-and-psychostimulants-opposing-long-term-structural-effects-in-the-adult-adhd-brain-a-longitudinal-mr-study
#2
Clara Pretus, J Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Vanessa Richarte, Montse Corrales, Marisol Picado, Susanna Carmona, Óscar Vilarroya
Long-term effects of psychostimulants such as methylphenidate on ADHD patients have been proved to be difficult to capture in cross-sectional studies comparing medicated and non-medicated samples and in longitudinal studies with children, with age-related maturational processes possibly confounding independent effects of medication. However, chronic psychostimulant administration at therapeutic doses has been proven to yield profound neuroadaptive changes in rodent models. Here, we present for the first time the effect of psychostimulant treatment on brain volumes in a sample of medication-naïve adult ADHD patients...
November 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099238/psychometric-properties-of-the-persian-version-of-the-weiss-functional-impairment-rating-scale-self-report-form-in-iranian-adolescents
#3
Habib Hadianfard, Behnaz Kiani, Margaret D Weiss
OBJECTIVE: The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Self-Report Form (WFIRS-S) was developed as a measure of functional impairment in adolescents and adults with ADHD. This study reports the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the WFIRS-S in a sample of normal Iranian adolescents. METHOD: Internal consistency and factor structure of the WFIRS-S were tested on a sample of 386 students (Grades 7-12). The test-retest reliability and the convergent validity of the WFIRS-S were evaluated by using two different subsamples including 50 and 100 students, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098466/prevalence-and-predictors-of-hair-pulling-disorder-and-excoriation-disorder-in-tourette-syndrome
#4
Erica Greenberg, Esther S Tung, Caitlin Gauvin, Lisa Osiecki, Kelly G Yang, Erin Curley, Angela Essa, Cornelia Illmann, Paul Sandor, Yves Dion, Gholson J Lyon, Robert A King, Sabrina Darrow, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Cathy L Budman, Marco Grados, David L Pauls, Nancy J Keuthen, Carol A Mathews, Jeremiah M Scharf
Trichotillomania/hair pulling disorder (HPD) and excoriation/skin picking disorder (SPD) are childhood-onset, body-focused repetitive behaviors that are thought to share genetic susceptibility and underlying pathophysiology with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). We sought to determine the prevalence of DSM-5 HPD and SPD in TS patients, and to identify clinical factors most associated with their co-morbidity with TS. Participants included 811 TS patients recruited from TS specialty clinics for a multi-center genetic study...
November 2, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083026/forming-first-impressions-of-children-the-role-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-emotion-dysregulation
#5
Christine A Lee, Richard Milich, Elizabeth P Lorch, Kate Flory, Julie Sarno Owens, Andrea E Lamont, Steven W Evans
BACKGROUND: Previous research on peer status of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused on already-established peer groups, rendering the specific social behaviors that influence peers' initial impressions largely unknown. Recently, theorists have argued that emotion dysregulation is a key aspect of ADHD, with empirical work finding relations between emotion dysregulation and social outcomes. Therefore, the current study focuses on the initial interactions among children varying in ADHD symptoms duringh a novel playgroup, proposing that emotion dysregulation displayed during the playgroup may serve as a possible pathway between ADHD symptoms and peers' initial negative impressions...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080396/neurobiological-support-to-the-diagnosis-of-adhd-in-stimulant-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-pattern-recognition-analyses-of-mri-data
#6
T M Chaim-Avancini, J Doshi, M V Zanetti, G Erus, M A Silva, F L S Duran, M Cavallet, M H Serpa, S C Caetano, M R Louza, C Davatzikos, G F Busatto
OBJECTIVE: In adulthood, the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been subject of recent controversy. We searched for a neuroanatomical signature associated with ADHD spectrum symptoms in adults by applying, for the first time, machine learning-based pattern classification methods to structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained from stimulant-naïve adults with childhood-onset ADHD and healthy controls (HC). METHOD: Sixty-seven ADHD patients and 66 HC underwent high-resolution T1-weighted and DTI acquisitions...
October 28, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076356/development-and-validation-of-the-parents-perceived-self-efficacy-to-manage-children-s-internet-use-scale-for-parents-of-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Yi-Ping Hsieh, Wen-Jiun Chou, Peng-Wei Wang, Cheng-Fang Yen
Background and aims This study developed and validated the Parents' Perceived Self-Efficacy to Manage Children's Internet Use Scale (PSMIS) in the parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In total, 231 parents of children with ADHD were invited to complete the PSMIS, followed by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale and the short version of Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV Scale - Chinese version for analyzing Internet addiction severity and ADHD symptoms, respectively...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072189/association-of-maternal-depression-with-children-s-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
S Sfelinioti, M Livaditis
Family problems are considered to be the main risk factor leading to the development of behavi oural problems during childhood and adolescence as well. A well documented fact in the current literature is that psychopathology of any kind in parents may influence behaviour, personality and appearance of psychopathology in their children. The permanent interaction between children's psychopathology or any kind of developmental disorder on one hand and parental psychopathology on the other, is considered to be one of the most important fields of research during the last decades...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052741/-regional-differences-of-adhd-diagnosis-rates-in-health-insurance-data-from-2005-to-2015-methodological-considerations-and-results
#9
REVIEW
Thomas G Grobe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are among the most common mental disorders in children and adolescents. For a number of years there has been evidence of regional differences in Germany. This article provides current results on the frequency of diagnosis and treatment and also discusses methodological aspects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis is based on routine data of a statutory health insurance company including annual diagnoses and drug prescriptions from 2005 to 2015 of at least 1...
October 20, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046989/epilepsy-and-psychiatric-comorbidities-drug-selection
#10
REVIEW
Marco Mula
Purpose of review The pharmacological treatment of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities may sometimes represent a therapeutic challenge. This review is focused on the pharmacological management of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric problems in terms of rationalization of the antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment and the pharmacological management of the most clinically relevant psychiatric comorbidities, namely mood and anxiety disorders, psychoses, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 19, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034059/lcn-a-random-graph-mixture-model-for-community-detection-in-functional-brain-networks
#11
Christopher Bryant, Hongtu Zhu, Mihye Ahn, Joseph Ibrahim
The aim of this article is to develop a Bayesian random graph mixture model (RGMM) to detect the latent class network (LCN) structure of brain connectivity networks and estimate the parameters governing this structure. The use of conjugate priors for unknown parameters leads to efficient estimation, and a well-known nonidentifiability issue is avoided by a particular parameterization of the stochastic block model (SBM). Posterior computation proceeds via an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Simulations demonstrate that LCN outperforms several other competing methods for community detection in weighted networks, and we apply our RGMM to estimate the latent community structures in the functional resting brain networks of 185 subjects from the ADHD-200 sample...
2017: Statistics and its Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033857/an-update-overview-on-brain-imaging-studies-of-internet-gaming-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein
There are a growing number of studies on structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that IGD adolescents and adults had reduced gray matter volume in regions associated with attention motor coordination executive function and perception. Adolescents with IGD showed lower white matter (WM) integrity measures in several brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition, and emotional regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029564/psychometric-validation-of-the-revised-child-anxiety-and-depression-scales-parent-version-rcads-p-in-children-evaluated-for-adhd
#13
Stephen P Becker, Dana N Schindler, Aaron M Luebbe, Leanne Tamm, Jeffery N Epstein
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid internalizing symptoms. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a frequently used measure of anxiety and depression in children, though its psychometric properties remain unexamined in children referred for ADHD specifically. The present study evaluated the RCADS-P in 372 children (age 7-12 years; 68% male) referred for evaluation at an ADHD specialty clinic (89% met criteria for ADHD)...
October 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016602/relationship-between-parenting-stress-and-informant-discrepancies-on-symptoms-of-adhd-odd-and-internalizing-behaviors-in-preschool-children
#14
Yu-Chi Chen, Shoou-Lian Hwang-Gu, Hsing-Chang Ni, Sophie Hsin-Yi Liang, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Chiao-Fan Lin, Yu-Han Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Parent and teacher ratings of child behaviors are often discrepant, and these discrepancies may be correlated with parenting stress. The present study explored whether various parenting stress factors are associated with discrepancies between parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as well as internalizing symptoms in preschool children. We recruited 299 Taiwanese preschool children (aged 4-6 years) from the community or via clinical referrals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990258/baseline-connectome-modular-abnormalities-in-the-childhood-phase-of-a-longitudinal-study-on-individuals-with-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#15
Liang Zhan, Lisanne M Jenkins, Aifeng Zhang, Giorgio Conte, Angus Forbes, Danielle Harvey, Kathleen Angkustsiri, Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Courtney Durdle, Aaron Lee, Cyndi Schumann, Owen Carmichael, Kristopher Kalish, Alex D Leow, Tony J Simon
Occurring in at least 1 in 3,000 live births, chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) produces a complex phenotype that includes a constellation of medical complications such as congenital cardiac defects, immune deficiency, velopharyngeal dysfunction, and characteristic facial dysmorphic features. There is also an increased incidence of psychiatric diagnosis, especially intellectual disability and ADHD in childhood, lifelong anxiety, and a strikingly high rate of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, which occur in around 30% of adults with 22q11DS...
October 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984497/redefining-adhd-using-an-adult-population-should-inattention-be-viewed-as-a-separate-dimension-from-cognitive-and-physiological-activity-level
#16
Nathan Miller, Frances Prevatt
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to reexamine the latent structure of ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) due to issues with construct validity. Two proposed changes to the construct include viewing hyperactivity and sluggishness (hypoactivity) as a single continuum of activity level, and viewing inattention as a separate dimension from activity level. METHOD: Data were collected from 1,398 adults using Amazon's MTurk. A new scale measuring activity level was developed, and scores of Inattention were regressed onto scores of Activity Level using curvilinear regression...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983327/evaluating-the-factor-validity-of-the-children-s-organizational-skills-scale-in-youth-with-adhd
#17
Stephen J Molitor, Joshua M Langberg, Steven W Evans, Melissa R Dvorsky, Elizaveta Bourchtein, Laura D Eddy, Zoe R Smith, Lauren E Oddo
Children and adolescents with ADHD often have difficulties with organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) skills, and these skills are a common target of intervention. A limited array of tools for measuring these abilities in youth is available, and one of the most prominent measures is the Children's Organizational Skills Scale (COSS). Although the COSS fills an important need, a replication of the COSS factor structure outside of initial measure development has not been conducted in any population...
June 2017: School Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971725/transcranial-sonography-in-psychiatry-as-a-potential-tool-in-diagnosis-and-research
#18
Carsten Drepper, Julia Geißler, Giuseppe Pastura, Rezzak Yilmaz, Daniela Berg, Marcel Romanos, Manfred Gerlach
Objectives During the last two decades' transcranial sonography (TCS) of the brain parenchyma evolved from a pure research tool to a clinical relevant neuroimaging method especially in Parkinson's disease and related movement disorders. The aim of this systematic review is to update and summarize the published TCS findings in psychiatric disorders and critically address the question whether TCS may be a valuable tool for the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of psychiatric disorders similarly to the field of movement disorders...
October 3, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964997/screening-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#19
Sébastien Weibel, Rosetta Nicastro, Paco Prada, Pierre Cole, Eva Rüfenacht, Eléonore Pham, Alexandre Dayer, Nader Perroud
BACKGROUND: A valid screening instrument is needed to detect attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in treatment-seeking borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients. We aimed to test the performance of the widely-used Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1 screener (ASRS-v1.1). METHODS: 317 BPD subjects were systematically assessed for comorbid ADHD and completed the ASRS-v1.1. 79 BPD patients also completed the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25). RESULTS: The prevalence of adult ADHD was of 32...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956183/effectiveness-of-time-related-interventions-in-children-with-adhd-aged-9-15%C3%A2-years-a-randomized-controlled-study
#20
Birgitta Wennberg, Gunnel Janeslätt, Anette Kjellberg, Per A Gustafsson
Specific problems with time and timing that affect daily routines, homework, school work, and social relations have been recognized in children with ADHD. The primary treatments for children with ADHD do not specifically focus on time-related difficulties. The aim of this randomized controlled study (RCT) was to investigate how multimodal interventions, consisting of training in time-processing ability (TPA) and compensation with time-assistive devices (TAD), affect TPA and daily time management (DTM) in children with ADHD and time difficulties, compared with only educational intervention...
September 27, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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