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Adhd and structure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724480/neuroticism-and-the-overlap-between-autistic-and-adhd-traits-findings-from-a-population-sample-of-young-adult-australian-twins
#1
Shin-Ho Park, Adam J Guastella, Michael Lynskey, Arpana Agrawal, John N Constantino, Sarah E Medland, Yun Ju C Song, Nicholas G Martin, Lucía Colodro-Conde
Neuroticism, a 'Big Five' personality trait, has been associated with sub-clinical traits of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the current study was to examine whether causal overlap between ASD and ADHD traits can be accounted for by genetic and environmental risk factors that are shared with neuroticism. We performed twin-based structural equation modeling using self-report data from 12 items of the Neo Five-Factor Inventory Neuroticism domain, 11 Social Responsiveness Scale items, and 12 Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale items obtained from 3,170 young adult Australian individual twins (1,081 complete pairs)...
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716394/validation-of-a-spanish-language-version-of-the-adhd-rating-scale-iv-in-a-spanish-sample
#2
M Vallejo-Valdivielso, C A Soutullo, P de Castro-Manglano, J J Marín-Méndez, A Díez-Suárez
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to validate a Spanish-language version of the 18-item ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV.es) in a Spanish sample. METHODS: From a total sample of 652 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (mean age was 11.14±3.27), we included 518 who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD and 134 healthy controls. To evaluate the factorial structure, validity, and reliability of the scale, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling on a polychoric correlation matrix and maximum likelihood estimation...
July 14, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710695/serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-treated-with-methylphenidate-an-8-week-observational-pretest-posttest-study
#3
Aynur Pekcanlar Akay, Halil Resmi, Sevay Alsen Güney, Handan Özek Erkuran, Gonca Özyurt, Enis Sargin, Ahmet Topuzoglu, Ali Evren Tufan
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neurotrophin in the brain that modulates dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in serum BDNF levels of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in response to OROS methylphenidate treatment. We also aimed to determine whether there were any pre-post-differences between ADHD subtypes and comorbid psychiatric disorders in serum BDNF levels. Fifty male children with ADHD and 50 male healthy controls within the age range of 6-12 years were recruited to the study...
July 14, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708247/adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-require-specific-support-from-healthcare-professionals
#4
Ida Lindblad, Ann-Charlotte Engström, Charlotte Nylander, Elisabeth Fernell
AIM: Managing type 1 diabetes mellitus requires efficient cognitive and executive skills and adolescents who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may face specific challenges. This study explored young people's experiences of diabetes treatment and care. METHOD: In a population-based study, comprising 175 patients aged 5-16 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus in two Swedish counties, we found that eight also met criteria for ADHD. Six of these, aged 14...
July 14, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706166/-development-and-effects-of-an-instructional-coaching-program-regarding-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-for-elementary-school-teachers
#5
Shin Jeong Park, Wan Ju Park
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the effects of a newly developed instructional coaching program regarding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) for teachers. METHODS: Seventy teachers participated in this study involving a nonequivalent control group and a pretest-posttest design. The instructional coaching program consisted of eight 60-minute sessions. The program was developed through a theoretical development program involving six steps...
June 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702771/evidence-for-the-trait-impulsivity-etiological-model-in-a-clinical-sample-bifactor-structure-and-its-relation-to-impairment-and-environmental-risk
#6
Klaas Rodenacker, Christopher Hautmann, Anja Görtz-Dorten, Manfred Döpfner
The trait-impulsivity etiological model assumes that a general factor (trait-impulsivity) underlies attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and other externalizing disorders. We investigated the plausibility of this assumption by testing the factor structure of ADHD and ODD in a bifactor framework for a clinical sample of 1420 children between 6 and 18 years of age (M = 9.99, SD = 3.34; 85% male). Further, the trait-impulsivity etiological model assumes that ODD emerges only if environmental risk factors are present...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689473/psychiatric-comorbidities-modify-the-association-between-childhood-adhd-and-risk-for-suicidality-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#7
Kouichi Yoshimasu, William J Barbaresi, Robert C Colligan, Robert G Voigt, Jill M Killian, Amy L Weaver, Slavica K Katusic
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychiatric comorbidities on the association between childhood ADHD and suicidality among adults. METHOD: Subjects were recruited from a population-based birth cohort. Participating adult subjects with childhood ADHD and non-ADHD controls were administered a structured psychiatric interview to assess suicidality and psychiatric comorbidities. Associations were assessed using logistic regression...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687733/catechol-o-methyltransferase-polymorphism-is-associated-with-the-cortico-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-of-executive-function-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Yoshifumi Mizuno, Minyoung Jung, Takashi X Fujisawa, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Koji Shimada, Daisuke N Saito, Hirotaka Kosaka, Akemi Tomoda
The cerebellum, although traditionally considered a motor structure, has been increasingly recognized to play a role in regulating executive function, the dysfunction of which is a factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Additionally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with executive function. We examined whether the cortico-cerebellar executive function network is altered in children with ADHD and whether COMT polymorphism is associated with the altered network...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680313/affective-temperaments-in-parents-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Esra Yazici, Esra Yürümez, Ahmet Bülent Yazici, Yusuf Yasin Gümüş, Atila Erol
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate affective temperaments of parents of children with ADHD and the relationship between ADHD and affective temperaments. METHODS: The children diagnosed with ADHD were evaluated with a structured interview and the Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S) was filled by parents. Then parents were evaluated by a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I), and those with no diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (in the past and at the time of the study) were included to the study...
June 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675949/comt-and-dat1-polymorphisms-moderate-the-indirect-effect-of-parenting-behavior-on-youth-adhd-symptoms-through-neurocognitive-functioning
#10
Julia E Morgan, Barbara Caplan, Irene Tung, Amanda N Noroña, Bruce L Baker, Steve S Lee
Although gene × environment interactions contribute to youth attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, the pathways mediating these influences are unknown. We tested genetic moderation of indirect effects from parenting behavior to youth ADHD symptoms through multiple neurocognitive factors. Two hundred and twenty-nine youth with and without ADHD were assessed at baseline (Wave 1; ages 5-10) and at a 2-year follow-up (Wave 2; ages 7-13). At Wave 1, youth completed a neurocognitive battery including measures of response inhibition, visuospatial working memory, and fluid reasoning, and a standardized parent-child interaction task yielding observational measures of positive and negative parenting...
July 4, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670953/the-probable-role-of-adrenomedullin-and-nitric-oxide-in-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Börte Gürbüz Özgür, Hatice Aksu, Mustafa Yılmaz, Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya
BACKGROUND: The role of adrenomedullin hormone, which has been shown to be associated with many psychiatric disorders, in the etiology of ADHD and its relation to disease is not yet known. AIM: In this study, it was aimed to compare plasma adrenomedullin and nitric oxide (NO) levels of newly diagnosed, treatment-naive patients with ADHD with healthy children. METHODS: A total of 45 children with ADHD and 45 healthy children were included. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS), a semi-structured interview, was applied to all cases by child and adolescent psychiatrist...
July 2, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670125/risk-factors-for-the-existence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Anna Linda Lamanna, Francesco Craig, Emilia Matera, Marta Simone, Maura Buttiglione, Lucia Margari
Over the years, several authors have reported symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, studies on the risk factors of ADHD symptoms in children with ASD are lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the risk factors for the development of ADHD symptoms in children with ASD. The sample consisted of 67 children with ASD who were assessed with Conner's Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R), and with a semi-structured detailed interview administered to parents, to collect a series of clinical data such as coexisting somatic and neuropsychiatric problems and familial and pre/peri/postpartum risk factors...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664230/cortical-thickness-abnormalities-in-trichotillomania-international-multi-site-analysis
#13
Samuel R Chamberlain, Michael Harries, Sarah A Redden, Nancy J Keuthen, Dan J Stein, Christine Lochner, Jon E Grant
Trichotillomania is a prevalent but often hidden psychiatric condition, characterized by repetitive hair pulling. The aim of this study was to confirm or refute structural brain abnormalities in trichotillomania by pooling all available global data. De-identified MRI scans were pooled by contacting authors of previous studies. Cortical thickness and sub-cortical volumes were compared between patients and controls. Patients (n = 76) and controls (n = 41) were well-matched in terms of demographic characteristics...
June 29, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664227/within-family-effects-of-smoking-during-pregnancy-on-adhd-the-importance-of-phenotype
#14
Kristine Marceau, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Hollis C Karoly, Allison Schettini Evans, Alexandre A Todorov, Rohan H Palmer, Andrew C Heath, Valerie S Knopik
We sought to test within- and between- family associations of smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using a structured interview based on the conventional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) symptoms and the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behavior (SWAN) scale, which is a population based measure that grew out of the notion that an ADHD diagnosis exists on the extreme end of a continuum of normative behaviors and includes both above- and below- average performance on attention and activity...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649849/toward-establishing-a-standard-symptom-set-for-assessing-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-children-evidence-from-teacher-ratings-in-a-community-sample
#15
Stephen P Becker, G Leonard Burns, Aidan P Schmitt, Jeffery N Epstein, Leanne Tamm
Despite increasing interest in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in children, the field is stymied by the lack of a standard symptom set that can be used across studies. Without a standard symptom set, it is difficult to determine if differences across studies are due to methodological or sample differences, or simply the way SCT was measured. To move the field toward a standard symptom set, this study evaluates a teacher-report rating scale of SCT revised based on recent meta-analytic findings that identified optimal items for distinguishing SCT from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN)...
June 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641216/psychoeducational-groups-for-adults-with-adhd-and-their-significant-others-pegasus-a-pragmatic-multicenter-and-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
T Hirvikoski, T Lindström, J Carlsson, E Waaler, J Jokinen, S Bölte
OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and effectiveness of PEGASUS, a group-based structured psychoeducation for adults with ADHD and their significant others. METHOD: A pragmatic parallel group add-on design multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing an 8-session treatment with PEGASUS (allocated n=97; 48 with ADHD and 49 with significant others) to treatment as usual (TAU, allocated n=82; 39 with ADHD and 43 significant others)...
May 9, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640989/stimulant-treatment-trajectories-are-associated-with-neural-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Lizanne J S Schweren, Annabeth Groenman, Daniel von Rhein, Wouter Weeda, Stephen F Faraone, Marjolein Luman, Hanneke van Ewijk, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVE: The past decades have seen a surge in stimulant prescriptions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulants acutely alleviate symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with ADHD by modulating striatal dopamine neurotransmission and induce therapeutic changes in brain activation patterns. Long-term functional changes after treatment are unknown, as long-term studies are scarce and have focused on brain structure. In this observational study (2009-2012), we investigated associations between lifetime stimulant treatment history and neural activity during reward processing...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633299/structural-covariance-networks-in-children-with-autism-or-adhd
#18
R A I Bethlehem, R Romero-Garcia, E Mak, E T Bullmore, S Baron-Cohen
Background: While autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are considered distinct conditions from a diagnostic perspective, clinically they share some phenotypic features and have high comorbidity. Regardless, most studies have focused on only one condition, with considerable heterogeneity in their results. Taking a dual-condition approach might help elucidate shared and distinct neural characteristics. Method: Graph theory was used to analyse topological properties of structural covariance networks across both conditions and relative to a neurotypical (NT; n = 87) group using data from the ABIDE (autism; n = 62) and ADHD-200 datasets (ADHD; n = 69)...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624962/the-scope-and-nature-of-reading-comprehension-impairments-in-school-aged-children-with-higher-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Nancy S McIntyre, Emily J Solari, Joseph E Gonzales, Marjorie Solomon, Lindsay E Lerro, Stephanie Novotny, Tasha M Oswald, Peter C Mundy
This study of 8-16-year-olds was designed to test the hypothesis that reading comprehension impairments are part of the social communication phenotype for many higher-functioning students with autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Students with HFASD (n = 81) were compared to those with high attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology (ADHD; n = 39), or typical development (TD; n = 44), on a comprehensive battery of oral language, word recognition, and reading comprehension measures. Results indicated that students with HFASD performed significantly lower on the majority of the reading and language tasks as compared to TD and ADHD groups...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621145/evaluating-the-hierarchical-structure-of-adhd-symptoms-and-invariance-across-age-and-gender
#20
Alexandra Sturm, James T McCracken, Li Cai
The bifactor model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been extensively explored, yet the tendency of the bifactor model to overfit data necessitates investigation of alternative, more parsimonious models, such as a modified bifactor structure. The present study used item response theory to compare unidimensional, correlated factors, bifactor, and modified bifactor models of ADHD symptoms in a clinical sample of youth ( N = 1,612) and examined differential item functioning (DIF) by age (<11 and ≥11 years) and gender...
June 1, 2017: Assessment
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