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Adhd and structure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104573/anomalous-subcortical-morphology-in-boys-but-not-girls-with-adhd-compared-to-typically-developing-controls-and-correlates-with-emotion-dysregulation
#1
Karen E Seymour, Xiaoying Tang, Deana Crocetti, Stewart H Mostofsky, Michael I Miller, Keri S Rosch
There has been limited investigation of volume and shape difference in subcortical structures in children with ADHD and a paucity of examination of the influence of sex on these findings. The objective of this study was to examine morphology (volume and shape) of subcortical structures and their association with emotion dysregulation (ED) in girls and boys with ADHD as compared to their typically-developing (TD) counterparts. Participants included 218 children ages 8-12 years old with and without DSM-IV ADHD...
January 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103159/the-effects-of-stimulant-medication-and-training-on-sports-competence-among-children-with-adhd
#2
Amy R Altszuler, Anne S Morrow, Brittany M Merrill, Shannon Bressler, Fiona L Macphee, Elizabeth M Gnagy, Andrew R Greiner, Stefany Coxe, Joseph S Raiker, Erika Coles, William E Pelham
The current study examined the relative efficacy of behavioral sports training, medication, and their combination in improving sports competence among youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 73 youth (74% male; 81% Hispanic) between the ages of 5 and 12 diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) ADHD enrolled in a Summer Treatment Program (STP). The study consisted of a 2 (medication: methylphenidate, placebo) × 2 (sports training: instruction and practice, recreational play) between-groups design and was conducted over a 3-week period during the STP...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097536/prevalence-and-correlates-of-adhd-in-individuals-with-substance-use-disorder-in-nigeria
#3
Musa U Umar, Auwal S Salihu, Shakirat D Owolabi
Substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with ADHD. ADHD increases the severity of SUD and has negative influence on the prognosis of the disorder. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of ADHD in individuals with SUD. During 2013-2015, a cross-sectional descriptive study of 233 drug treatment-seeking individuals was assessed. Diagnosis of ADHD was done using DSM-IV criteria with the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults (DIVA 2.0), while Semi-structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA 6...
January 17, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097075/effects-of-an-8-week-yoga-program-on-sustained-attention-and-discrimination-function-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Chien-Chih Chou, Chung-Ju Huang
This study investigated whether a yoga exercise intervention influenced the sustained attention and discrimination function in children with ADHD. Forty-nine participants (mean age = 10.50 years) were assigned to either a yoga exercise or a control group. Participants were given the Visual Pursuit Test and Determination Test prior to and after an eight-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 40 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy rate and reaction time of the two tests were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080145/neuropsychological-predictors-of-odd-symptom-dimensions-in-young-children
#5
Shayl F Griffith, David H Arnold, Benjamin Rolon-Arroyo, Elizabeth A Harvey
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a commonly diagnosed childhood behavior disorder, yet knowledge of relations between ODD and early neuropsychological functions, particularly independent of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is still limited. In addition, studies have not examined neuropsychological functioning as it relates to the different ODD symptom dimensions. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate how preschool neuropsychological functioning predicted negative affect, oppositional behavior, and antagonistic behavior symptom dimensions of ODD in 224 six-year-old children, oversampled for early behavior problems...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076687/parent-and-family-processes-related-to-adhd-management-in-ethnically-diverse-youth
#6
Cynthia P Paidipati, Bridgette Brawner, Ricardo Eiraldi, Janet A Deatrick
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown major disparities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for diverse youth across America. We do not fully understand, however, how parent and family processes are related to the identification, care-seeking approaches, treatment preferences, and engagement with care systems and services for youth with ADHD. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to explore parent and family processes related to the management of ADHD in racially and ethnically diverse youth...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050182/working-memory-training-in-the-form-of-structured-games-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Fatemeh Khalili Kermani, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Fariba Yadegari, Fatemeh Haresabadi, Seyed Mehdi Sadeghi
Objective: In this study, a new training method of working memory (WM) was used in the form of structured games, and the effect of training was evaluated with a controlled design. The training method of WM in the form of structured games includes 20 sets of structured games that can improve WM and performance of executive functions. Method: Sixty children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) aged 8.5 to 11.2 years (35 boys), using no stimulant medication were selected. We randomly assigned 30 participants to the experimental group and provided them with WM training...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#8
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039669/the-development-of-the-sgi-16-a-shortened-sensory-gating-deficit-and-distractibility-questionnaire-for-adults-with-adhd
#9
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Régis Lopez, Pierre Michel, Laura Brandejsky, Stéphanie Bioulac, Pierre Philip, Christophe Lancon, Laurent Boyer
The Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI) is a questionnaire composed of 36 items designed to investigate abnormal perception related to the inability to control sensitivity to sensory stimuli frequently reported in adult with ADHD. This questionnaire can be considered too lengthy to be taken by people with ADHD, and a shortened version is needed. One hundred and sixty-three adults with ADHD responded to the SGI-36. An item reduction process took into account both the results of statistical analyses and the expertise of a steering committee...
December 30, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030565/using-functional-or-structural-magnetic-resonance-images-and-personal-characteristic-data-to-identify-adhd-and-autism
#10
Sina Ghiassian, Russell Greiner, Ping Jin, Matthew R G Brown
A clinical tool that can diagnose psychiatric illness using functional or structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images has the potential to greatly assist physicians and improve treatment efficacy. Working toward the goal of automated diagnosis, we propose an approach for automated classification of ADHD and autism based on histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features extracted from MR brain images, as well as personal characteristic data features. We describe a learning algorithm that can produce effective classifiers for ADHD and autism when run on two large public datasets...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013402/psychometric-properties-of-the-japanese-version-of-the-weiss-functional-impairment-rating-scale-self-report
#11
Toshinobu Takeda, Yui Tsuji, Junichiro Kanazawa, Takanobu Sakai, Margaret D Weiss
The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale Self-Report has been translated into nine languages and has been widely used in assessing functional impairment of adults with ADHD. This study is a psychometric validation of the WFIRS-S in Japanese. The WFIRS-S-J and other questionnaires were administered to 46 adults with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 104 control adults, and 889 university students. ADHD diagnoses were made using the Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview for adult ADHD, which is compatible with the DSM-5...
December 24, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000020/structural-brain-imaging-correlates-of-asd-and-adhd-across-the-lifespan-a-hypothesis-generating-review-on-developmental-asd-adhd-subtypes
#12
REVIEW
Nanda Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Catharina A Hartman
We hypothesize that it is plausible that biologically distinct developmental ASD-ADHD subtypes are present, each characterized by a distinct time of onset of symptoms, progression and combination of symptoms. The aim of the present narrative review was to explore if structural brain imaging studies may shed light on key brain areas that are linked to both ASD and ADHD symptoms and undergo significant changes during development. These findings may possibly pinpoint to brain mechanisms underlying differential developmental ASD-ADHD subtypes...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981420/imaging-genetics-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-related-neurodevelopmental-domains-state-of-the-art
#13
REVIEW
Natàlia Vilor-Tejedor, Alejandro Cáceres, Jesús Pujol, Jordi Sunyer, Juan R González
Joint analysis of genetic and neuroimaging data, known as Imaging Genetics (IG), offers an opportunity to deepen our knowledge of the biological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental domains. There has been exponential growth in the literature on IG studies, which challenges the standardization of analysis methods in this field. In this review we give a complete up-to-date account of IG studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related neurodevelopmental domains, which serves as a reference catalog for researchers working on this neurological disorder...
December 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976935/oculomotor-abnormalities-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-are-improved-by-methylphenidate
#14
Maria Pia Bucci, Coline Stordeur, Mathilde Septier, Eric Acquaviva, Hugo Peyre, Richard Delorme
BACKGROUND: There are relatively few studies of saccadic eye movements in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine inhibitory abilities of eye movements in children with ADHD and to explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on eye movement performance. METHODS: Thirty-one children with ADHD (mean age 9.9 ± 0.4 years) and 31 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children with normal development were examined...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969004/sleep-disturbances-in-adolescents-with-adhd-a-systematic-review-and-framework-for-future-research
#15
REVIEW
Jessica R Lunsford-Avery, Andrew D Krystal, Scott H Kollins
BACKGROUND: Biological mechanisms underlying symptom and prognostic heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are unclear. Sleep impacts neurocognition and daytime functioning and is disrupted in ADHD, yet little is known about sleep in ADHD during adolescence, a period characterized by alterations in sleep, brain structure, and environmental demands as well as diverging ADHD trajectories. METHODS: A systematic review identified studies published prior to August 2016 assessing sleep in adolescents (aged 10-19years) with ADHD or participating in population-based studies measuring ADHD symptoms...
October 23, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967261/a-conceptual-framework-for-a-long-term-economic-model-for-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Balázs Nagy, Juliana Setyawan, David Coghill, Tamás Soroncz-Szabó, Zoltán Kaló, Jalpa A Doshi
BACKGROUND: Models incorporating long-term outcomes (LTOs) are not available to assess the health economic impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OBJECTIVE: Develop a conceptual modelling framework capable of assessing long-term economic impact of ADHD therapies. METHODS: Literature was reviewed; a conceptual structure for the long-term model was outlined with attention to disease characteristics and potential impact of treatment strategies...
December 26, 2016: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939188/effects-of-working-memory-training-on-neural-correlates-of-go-nogo-response-control-in-adults-with-adhd-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Zhong-Xu Liu, Victoria Lishak, Rosemary Tannock, Steven Woltering
Working memory and response control are conceptualized as functions that are part of a closely connected and integrated executive function system mediated by the prefrontal cortex and other related brain structures. In the present paper, we asked whether effects of intensive and adaptive computerized working memory training (CWMT) would generalize to enhancements in response control at behavioral and neural levels. A total of 135 postsecondary students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a condition associated with executive function impairments, were randomized into a Standard-length CWMT (45-min /session, 25 sessions), Shortened-length CWMT (15min/session, 25 sessions), and a waitlist group...
December 6, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928244/theory-of-mind-in-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-in-euthymic-phase-%C3%A2-using-the-strange-stories-test
#18
Hamid Zarrabipoor, Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Zahra Shahrivar
Objective: This study evaluated the theory of mind (ToM) in adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder ‎‎(BD) during their euthymic period compared to a typically developing (TD) group.‎ Method: The BD group consisted of thirty 11-18 year old inpatients in euthymic phase. The TD ‎group included 30 age, gender, and IQ matched volunteer students. To assess the diagnosis and ‎comorbid disorders, we performed the semi-structured interview of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders ‎and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) for the BD adolescents...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923146/behaviors-associated-with-negative-affect-in-the-friendships-of-children-with-adhd-an-exploratory-study
#19
Sébastien Normand, James Ambrosoli, Joanna Guiet, Marie Michèle Soucisse, Barry H Schneider, Marie-France Maisonneuve, Matthew D Lee, Fulvio Tassi
Our objective was to identify behaviors and contextual situations associated with negative affect observed in the interactions of children with and without ADHD and their real-life friends. We expected negative affect to be linked to rule violations and disagreements about the choice of games. Loss of game was associated with episodes of negative affect in a structured game. Negative appraisal of friend's ability was most frequently associated with negative affect during unstructured free play. Comparison children expressed greater frustration regarding their own abilities, whereas children with ADHD commented more frequently about the inabilities of their friends...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919751/less-head-motion-during-mri-under-task-than-resting-state-conditions
#20
Willem Huijbers, Koene R A Van Dijk, Meta M Boenniger, Rüdiger Stirnberg, Monique M B Breteler
Head motion reduces data quality of neuroimaging data. In three functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments we demonstrate that people make less head movements under task than resting-state conditions. In Experiment 1, we observed less head motion during a memory encoding task than during the resting-state condition. In Experiment 2, using publicly shared data from the UCLA Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics LA5c Study, we again found less head motion during several active task conditions than during a resting-state condition, although some task conditions also showed comparable motion...
December 2, 2016: NeuroImage
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