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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911901/structural-brain-abnormalities-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#1
Siri D S Noordermeer, Marjolein Luman, Corina U Greven, Kim Veroude, Stephen V Faraone, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula...
July 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895146/differential-diagnosis-and-comorbidity-of-adhd-and-anxiety-in-adults
#2
Katie Grogan, Claire I Gormley, Brendan Rooney, Robert Whelan, Hanni Kiiski, Marie Naughton, Jessica Bramham
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine symptom profiles of people diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or anxiety (ANX) in order to determine the validity of widely used ADHD and ANX rating scales for differential diagnostic use and to develop modified measures that take symptom overlap into account. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design was used to assess differences in rating scale scores between clinical (n = 52) and control (n = 74) samples as well as differences among subgroups of the clinical sample (22 ADHD; 16 ADHD + ANX; 14 ANX)...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892073/progress-and-roadblocks-in-the-search-for-brain-based-biomarkers-of-autism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
REVIEW
L Q Uddin, D R Dajani, W Voorhies, H Bednarz, R K Kana
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders benefit most from early interventions and treatments. The development and validation of brain-based biomarkers to aid in objective diagnosis can facilitate this important clinical aim. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of current progress in the use of neuroimaging to identify brain-based biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders. We summarize empirical work that has laid the foundation for using neuroimaging to objectively quantify brain structure and function in ways that are beginning to be used in biomarker development, noting limitations of the data currently available...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888495/teachers-experiences-with-and-perceptions-of-students-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Kay Lawrence, Robin Dawson Estrada, Jessica McCormick
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to examine teacher experiences with and perceptions of students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teachers are integral in helping these children learn effectively and foster healthy relationships, yet little is known about their interactions with these children. DESIGN AND METHOD: Semi structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of fourteen currently practicing or retired elementary and middle schools teachers in North Carolina and South Carolina...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877317/association-of-white-matter-structure-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Yuta Aoki, Yuliya N Yoncheva, Bosi Chen, Tanmay Nath, Dillon Sharp, Mariana Lazar, Pablo Velasco, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Importance: Clinical overlap between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly appreciated, but the underlying brain mechanisms remain unknown to date. Objective: To examine associations between white matter organization and 2 commonly co-occurring neurodevelopmental conditions, ASD and ADHD, through both categorical and dimensional approaches. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study at an outpatient academic clinical and research center, the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at New York University Langone Medical Center...
September 6, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863310/altered-patterns-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-the-caudate-and-other-brain-regions-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Zhilong Yang, Hongxing Li, Wenjuan Tu, Suhong Wang, Yanling Ren, Yang Yi, Ting Wu, Kaihua Jiang, Huijuan Shen, Jian Wu, Xuan Dong
BACKGROUND: Structural and functional alterations occur in the caudate of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we aimed to investigate the functional connectivity between the dorsal caudate and other brain regions in ADHD children. METHODS: Resting-state functional connectivity from 30 ADHD and 33 age- and gender-matched "normal" children were measured by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. RESULTS: Positive connectivity with dorsal caudate was observed in the prefrontal areas, cingulate cortex and temporal lobe...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857587/factor-structure-and-predictive-validity-of-a-homework-motivation-measure-for-use-with-middle-school-students-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#7
Joshua M Langberg, Zoe R Smith, Melissa R Dvorsky, Stephen J Molitor, Elizaveta Bourchtein, Laura D Eddy, Hana-May Eadeh, Lauren E Oddo
Many students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit deficits in motivation to pursue long-term goals. Students with ADHD have particular difficulty with motivation to complete homework-related tasks and often fail to complete assignments. Although these problems are common and may impact academic performance, no homework-motivation measures have been validated for use with students with ADHD. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure and predictive validity of a homework-motivation measure based upon the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation...
August 31, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855123/biotransformation-of-ritalinic-acid-by-laccase-in-the-presence-of-mediator-tempo
#8
Aza Kobakhidze, Vladimir Elisashvili, Philippe F-X Corvini, Monika Čvančarová
Methylphenidate is widely used as a medication for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Less than 1% of methylphenidate is excreted unchanged in urine, while 80% of an oral dose is excreted as ritalinic acid (which is reportedly poorly degradable). This study aims to investigate the biotransformation of ritalinic acid by free and immobilized enzymes. The influence of various laccase mediators on biotransformation efficiency has been tested. Formation of the main transformation products has been monitored and their potential structures suggested...
August 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853328/the-feasibility-effectiveness-and-process-of-change-of-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-for-adults-with-adhd-a-mixed-method-pilot-study
#9
Lotte Janssen, Alicia M de Vries, Sevket Hepark, Anne E M Speckens
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a promising psychosocial intervention for adult ADHD. The feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted MBCT program is explored, together with the possible process of change. METHOD: Mixed-method study with 31 ADHD patients participating in an adapted MBCT program. Self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, patient functioning, and health status were administered before and after MBCT...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852240/effects-of-family-structure-on-mental-health-of-children-a-preliminary-study
#10
Aniruddh Prakash Behere, Pravesh Basnet, Pamela Campbell
BACKGROUND: To find any association between family structure and rates of hospitalization as an indicator for behavior problems in children. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 154 patients who were admitted to the preadolescent unit at Lincoln Prairie Behavioral Health Center between July and December 2012. RESULTS: We found that only 11% of children came from intact families living with biological parents while 89% had some kind of disruption in their family structure...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844652/spanish-validation-of-the-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-rating-scale-adhd-rs-relevance-of-clinical-subtypes
#11
Vanesa Richarte, Montserrat Corrales, Marian Pozuelo, Juanfran Serra-Pla, Pol Ibáñez, Eva Calvo, Margarida Corominas, Rosa Bosch, Miquel Casas, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
INTRODUCTION: Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a prevalence between 2.5% and 4% of the general adult population. Over the past few decades, self-report measures have been developed for the current evaluation of adult ADHD. The ADHD-RS is a 18-items scale self-report version for assessing symptoms for ADHD DSM-IV. A validation of Spanish version of the ADHD-RS was performed. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The sample consisted of 304 adult with ADHD and 94 controls...
August 24, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843999/predicting-clinical-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-based-on-temporal-patterns-between-and-within-intrinsic-connectivity-networks
#12
Xun-Heng Wang, Yun Jiao, Lihua Li
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common brain disorder with high prevalence in school-age children. Previously developed machine learning-based methods have discriminated patients with ADHD from normal controls by providing label information of the disease for individuals. Inattention and impulsivity are the two most significant clinical symptoms of ADHD. However, predicting clinical symptoms (i.e., inattention and impulsivity) is a challenging task based on neuroimaging data. The goal of this study is twofold: to build predictive models for clinical symptoms of ADHD based on resting-state fMRI and to mine brain networks for predictive patterns of inattention and impulsivity...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832748/prevalence-clinical-correlates-and-maternal-psychopathology-of-deliberate-self-harm-in-children-and-early-adolescents-results-from-a-large-community-study
#13
André R Simioni, Pedro M Pan, Ary Gadelha, Gisele G Manfro, Jair J Mari, Eurípedes C Miguel, Luis A Rohde, Giovanni A Salum
Objectives: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in children from low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the prevalence of DSH and its clinical and maternal psychopathological associations in Brazilian children (n=2,508, ages 6-14y) in a community-based study. Methods: Participants of the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (HRC) and their mothers were assessed in structured interviews...
August 21, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832320/refinement-by-integration-aggregated-effects-of-multimodal-imaging-markers-on-adult-adhd
#14
Thomas Wolfers, Alberto Llera Arenas, A Marten H Onnink, Janneke Dammers, Martine Hoogman, Marcel P Zwiers, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Andre F Marquand, Christian F Beckmann
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is biologically heterogeneous, with different biological predispositions - mediated through developmental processes - converging upon a common clinical phenotype. Brain imaging studies have variably shown altered brain structure, activity and connectivity in children and adults with ADHD. Recent methodological developments allow for the integration of information across imaging modalities, potentially yielding a more coherent view regarding the biology underlying the disorder...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816910/acceptability-of-group-visits-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-pediatric-clinics
#15
Nerissa S Bauer, Nina Azer, Paula D Sullivan, Dorota Szczepaniak, Sarah M Stelzner, Stephen M Downs, Aaron E Carroll
OBJECTIVE: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have ongoing needs that impair home and school functioning. Group visit models are a promising way to deliver timely parenting support but family and provider acceptance has not previously been examined. The objective was to describe the acceptability of ADHD group visits in busy pediatric clinics based on caregivers, child participants and facilitators. METHODS: Data were analyzed from school-age children and caregivers who participated in one of two 12-month long randomized controlled studies of the ADHD group visit model from 2012 to 2013 or 2014 to 2015...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808832/factor-structure-of-teacher-ratings-of-the-odd-symptoms-in-children
#16
Rapson Gomez, Vasileios Stavropoulos, George Van Doorn
This study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the best model for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms in children aged 3 to 15 years, as presented in the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale. Teachers' ratings of the ODD symptoms of 213 children from general community schools in Australia were obtained. The findings provided most support for a bifactor model based on Stringaris and Goodman's [1] three-factor model (primary factors for irritable, hurtful, and headstrong). The general factor, but not the group factors in the model, showed high omega hierarchical and explained common variance...
August 15, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806385/a-naturalistic-comparison-of-methylphenidate-and-risperidone-monotherapy-in-drug-naive-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-and-aggression
#17
Gabriele Masi, Azzurra Manfredi, Giulia Nieri, Pietro Muratori, Chiara Pfanner, Annarita Milone
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generation antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, are frequently used. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and risperidone in a consecutive sample of 40 drug-naive male youths diagnosed as having ADHD-combined presentation, comorbid with ODD and aggression, without psychiatric comorbidities, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and a structured clinical interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801917/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-interaction-between-socioeconomic-status-and-parental-history-of-adhd-determines-prevalence
#18
Andrew S Rowland, Betty J Skipper, David L Rabiner, Fares Qeadan, Richard A Campbell, A Jack Naftel, David M Umbach
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported a higher prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among disadvantaged populations, but few have considered how parental history of ADHD might modify that relationship. We evaluated whether the prevalence of ADHD varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and parental history of ADHD in a population-sample of elementary school children age 6-14 years. METHODS: We screened all children in grades 1-5 in 17 schools in one North Carolina (U...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799448/association-of-adhd-and-executive-functioning-with-childhood-depression
#19
Michelle C Fenesy, Steve S Lee
OBJECTIVE: Despite its association with increased severity and treatment resistance, relatively little is known about the correlates of early-onset childhood depression. ADHD and executive functioning (EF) are each related to depression. Given their covariation, we tested the independent association of ADHD dimensions (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity) and EF with childhood depression using structural equation modeling to identify potential targets for intervention. METHOD: Participants were 225 five- to 10-year-old children (68% male) with ( n = 117) and without ( n = 108) ADHD...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764867/effect-of-tobacco-smoking-on-frontal-cortical-thickness-development-a-longitudinal-study-in-a-mixed-cohort-of-adhd-affected-and-unaffected-youth
#20
Sophie E A Akkermans, Daan van Rooij, Nanda Rommelse, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Maarten Mennes, Jan K Buitelaar
Smoking rates are particularly high during adolescence and young adulthood, when the brain is still undergoing significant developmental changes. Cross-sectional studies have revealed altered brain structure in smokers, such as thinner frontal cortical areas. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk of becoming nicotine-dependent, and has also been associated with abnormalities in frontal gray matter structure. The present study examines the relationships between smoking, cortical thickness and ADHD symptoms in a longitudinal design that compares adolescent and young adult smokers (n=44; 35 ADHD-affected) and non-smokers (n=45; 32 ADHD-affected) on frontal cortical thickness...
July 29, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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