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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439825/small-rna-profiling-by-next-generation-sequencing-using-high-definition-adapters
#1
Martina Billmeier, Ping Xu
Small RNAs (sRNAs) as key regulators of gene expression play fundamental roles in many biological processes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become an important tool for sRNA discovery and profiling. However, NGS data often show bias for or against certain sequences which is mainly caused by adapter oligonucleotides that are ligated to sRNAs more or less efficiently by RNA ligases. In order to reduce ligation bias, High-definition (HD) adapters for the Illumina sequencing platform were developed. However, a large amount of direct 5' and 3' adapter ligation products are often produced when the current commercially available kits are used for cloning with HD adapters...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430402/a-removable-virus-vector-suitable-for-plant-genome-editing
#2
Tetsuya Chujo, Manabu Yoshikawa, Hirotaka Ariga, Masaki Endo, Seiichi Toki, Kazuhiro Ishibashi
Plant genome editing is achieved by expression of sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs). RNA virus vector-mediated expression of SSNs is a promising approach for transgene integration-free targeted mutagenesis in plants. However, removal of virus vectors from infected plants is challenging because no antiviral drugs against plant viruses are available. Here, we developed a removable RNA virus vector that carries the target site of tobacco microRNA398 (miR398) whose expression is induced during shoot regeneration...
April 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427280/progress-in-terpene-synthesis-strategies-through-engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Kalaivani Paramasivan, Sarma Mutturi
Terpenes are natural products with a remarkable diversity in their chemical structures and they hold a significant market share commercially owing to their distinct applications. These potential molecules are usually derived from terrestrial plants, marine and microbial sources. In vitro production of terpenes using plant tissue culture and plant metabolic engineering, although receiving some success, the complexity in downstream processing because of the interference of phenolics and product commercialization due to regulations that are significant concerns...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421861/the-plant-dependent-life-cycle-of-thecaphora-thlaspeos-a-smut-fungus-adapted-to-brassicaceae
#4
Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Kaitlyn J Courville, Lesley Plücker, Ronny Kellner, Julia Kruse, Andreas Brachmann, Michael Feldbrügge, Vera Göhre
Smut fungi are globally distributed plant pathogens that infect agriculturally important crop plants such as maize or potato. To date, molecular studies on plant responses to smut fungi are challenging due to the genetic complexity of their host plants. Therefore, we set out to investigate the known smut fungus of Brassicaceae hosts, Thecaphora thlaspeos. T. thlaspeos infects different Brassicaceae plant species throughout Europe, including the perennial model plant Arabis alpina. In contrast to characterized smut fungi, mature and dry T...
April 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418717/diversity-of-endophytic-bacteria-in-a-fern-species-dryopteris-uniformis-makino-makino-and-evaluation-of-their-antibacterial-potential-against-five-foodborne-pathogenic-bacteria
#5
Gitishree Das, Seonjoo Park, Kwang-Hyun Baek
The fern plant Dryopteris uniformis has traditionally been used in herbal medicine and possesses many biological activities. This study was conducted to explore the endophytic bacterial diversity associated with D. uniformis and evaluate their antibacterial potential against foodborne pathogenic bacteria (FPB). Among 51 isolated endophytic bacteria (EB), 26 EB were selected based on their morphological characteristics and identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The distribution of EB was diverse in the leaf and the stem/root tissues...
April 18, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415512/study-of-epithelial-differentiation-and-protein-expression-of-keratinocyte-mesenchyme-stem-cell-co-cultivation-on-electrospun-nylon-b-vulgaris-extract-composite-scaffold
#6
Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Masoud Soleimani, Manuchehr Vossoughi, Parviz Ranjbarvan, Shokoh Hamedi, Soheila Zamanlui, Matin Mahmoudifard
Employing of the composite electrospun scaffold containing herbal extract in conjugation with co-culturing of cells can open up new window to the design of efficient biomaterials for skin tissue regeneration. Here, we introduce the synergistic effect of composite electrospun nanofibrous scaffold of nylon66 loaded with Beta vulgaris (B. vulgaris) (extract of beet roots, a plants whose widely used in Iranian folk medicine as wound healing medicine) and co-culture of mesenchymal stem-cells (MSCs)-human keratinocyte (H-keratino) differentiation towards epithelial lineage...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414068/modulation-of-anthraquinones-and-phloroglucinols-biosynthesis-in-hypericum-spp-by-cryogenic-treatment
#7
Katarína Bruňáková, Eva Čellárová
Beside the high post-cryogenic recovery rate, a reinstated scale of secondary metabolites in recovered plant tissues represents another inevitable aspect of an effective cryopreservation protocol for medicinal plants. The current study was aimed at evaluation of the elicitation potential of cryogenic treatment on secondary metabolism of some Hypericum species. In agreement with our assumption, the cold stimuli applied during the pre-cryogenic phase increased the tolerance to low temperatures (-196°C) in H...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403182/functional-analysis-of-the-gmesr1-gene-associated-with-soybean-regeneration
#8
Chao Zhang, Xiaodong Wu, Binbin Zhang, Qingshan Chen, Ming Liu, Dawei Xin, Zhaoming Qi, Sinan Li, Yanlong Ma, Lingshuang Wang, Yangmei Jin, Wenbin Li, Xiaoxia Wu, An-Yu Su
Plant regeneration can occur via in vitro tissue culture through somatic embryogenesis or de novo shoot organogenesis. Transformation of soybean (Glycine max) is difficult, hence optimization of the transformation system for soybean regeneration is required. This study investigated ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION 1 (GmESR1), a soybean transcription factor that targets regeneration-associated genes. Sequence analysis showed that GmESR1 contained a conserved 57 amino acid APETALA 2 (AP2)/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF) DNA-binding domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402782/ecology-and-pathology-of-phytophthora-its-clade-3-species-in-forests-in-western-oregon-usa
#9
Everett M Hansen, Paul W Reeser, Wendy Sutton
Phytophthora species are widespread and diverse in forest ecosystems, but little is known about their ecology. We explore ecological attributes of the closely related clade 3 species that occur sympatrically in western North American forests. We address the population structure, pathology, and epidemiology of P. ilicis, P. nemorosa, P. pluvialis, P. pseudosyringae, and P. psychrophila. Phytophthora species were isolated from plant tissues, rainwater falling through the forest canopy, streams, and soils in forests in western Oregon...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402593/a-new-method-for-the-production-of-sterile-colonies-of-lucilia-sericata
#10
N E Gasz, M L Harvey
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) refers to the use of blowfly larvae to clean or debride an infected wound. Most commonly, larvae of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are used, and are sterilized prior to use to ensure no further bacterial infections are introduced during treatment. Current methods sterilize eggs from laboratory-reared blowfly colonies, after which sterile early second instar maggots can be provided to hospitals for use in treatment. Maggots not required for treatment are used for colony regeneration, in which sterility is not maintained...
April 12, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401459/optimizing-culture-conditions-for-establishment-of-hairy-root-culture-of-semecarpus-anacardium-l
#11
Bhuban Mohan Panda, Urmil J Mehta, Sulekha Hazra
Semecarpus anacardium L. is a tree species which produces secondary metabolites of medicinal importance. Roots of the plant have been traditionally used in folk medicines. Different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4, ATCC15834 and LBA 9402) were used for induction of hairy roots in in vitro grown tissues of the plant. Hairy root initiation was observed after 25-30 days of infection. Optimum transformation frequency of 61% was achieved on leaf explants with ATCC15834 strain. Infection time of 30 min resulted in greater transformation frequency compared to 10 and 20 min, respectively...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400781/seed-derived-ethylene-facilitates-colonization-but-not-aflatoxin-production-by-aspergillus-flavus-in-maize
#12
Shi Wang, Yong-Soon Park, Yang Yang, Eli J Borrego, Tom Isakeit, Xiquan Gao, Michael V Kolomiets
Ethylene (ET) emitted by plant tissues has been broadly reported to play important roles in plant development, response to environmental stresses and defense against certain pathogens. Recent evidence obtained from using in vitro fungal cultures exposed to ET suggested that exogenous ET may regulate the production of aflatoxin by Aspergilli. However, the function of endogenous, seed-derived ET has not been explored. In this study, we found that the maize lipoxygenase lox3 mutant, previously reported to be susceptible to Aspergillus spp...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393691/biotechnological-approaches-for-production-of-anti-cancerous-compounds-resveratrol-podophyllotoxin-and-zerumbone
#13
Krishnadas Nandagopal, Mihir Halder, Biswabhusan Dash, Sanghamitra Nayak, Sumita Jha
Secondary metabolites from numerous plant sources have been developed as anti-cancer reagents and compounds such as resveratrol, podophyllotoxin and zerumbone are of particular importance in this regard. Since their de novo chemical synthesis is both arduous and commercially expensive, there has been an impetus to develop viable, biotechnological methods of production. Accordingly, this review focuses on recent developments in the field, highlighting the use of micropropagation, cell suspension cultures, callus cultures, hairy root cultures, recombinant microbes and genetically modified higher plants...
April 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387154/production-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-pha-using-sludge-from-different-wastewater-treatment-processes-and-the-potential-for-medical-and-pharmaceutical-applications
#14
Wai Lam, Yujie Wang, Pui Ling Chan, Shun Wan Chan, Yiu Fai Tsang, Hong Chua, Peter Hoi Fu Yu
In this study, seven strains of bacteria with polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)-producing ability (i.e. Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomona huttiensis, Yersinia frederiksenii, Aeromonas ichthiosmia, and Sphingopyxis terrae) were isolated from various waste treatment plants in Hong Kong. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and PHA accumulation were successfully achieved in the bioreactors using isolated bacteria from different sludges. At the organic loading less than 13,000 ppm, more than 95% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed by the isolated strains before the decrease of PHA accumulation...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384119/status-of-water-pollution-in-relation-to-industrialization-in-rajasthan
#15
Ritu Singh Rajput, Sonali Pandey, Seema Bhadauria
India is a large and densely populated country; its economy is largely agricultural. Making the best use of the country's manpower has always posed a challenge. Industrialization could become a dominant component of the economy and displace agriculture. Traditional livelihoods of occupational groups are threatened by the practice of disposing untreated industrial waste into rivers and bodies of water. These uncontrolled disposals impact local natural resources with negative long-term effects. Industrialization is the development of intellectual and financial trade that changes a predominantly rustic culture into a modern one...
April 6, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377783/expression-of-foreign-genes-demonstrates-the-effectiveness-of-pollen-mediated-transformation-in-zea-mays
#16
Liyan Yang, Guimei Cui, Yixue Wang, Yaoshan Hao, Jianzhong Du, Hongmei Zhang, Changbiao Wang, Huanhuan Zhang, Shu-Biao Wu, Yi Sun
Plant genetic transformation has arguably been the core of plant improvement in recent decades. Efforts have been made to develop in planta transformation systems due to the limitations present in the tissue-culture-based methods. Herein, we report an improved in planta transformation system, and provide the evidence of reporter gene expression in pollen tube, embryos and stable transgenicity of the plants following pollen-mediated plant transformation with optimized sonication treatment of pollen. The results showed that the aeration at 4°C treatment of pollen grains in sucrose prior to sonication significantly improved the pollen viability leading to improved kernel set and transformation efficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376412/effect-of-exogenously-applied-molybdenum-on-its-absorption-and-nitrate-metabolism-in-strawberry-seedlings
#17
Li Liu, Wei Xiao, Ling Li, Dong-Mei Li, Dong-Sheng Gao, Cui-Ying Zhu, Xi-Ling Fu
Molybdenum (Mo)-an essential element of plants-is involved in nitrogen (N) metabolism. Plants tend to accumulate more nitrate and show lower nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) under Mo-deficient conditions. Improving NUE in fruits reduces the negative effect of large applications of chemical fertilizer, but the mechanisms underlying how Mo enhances NUE remain unclear. We cultivated strawberry seedlings sprayed with 0, 67.5, 135, 168.75, or 202.5 g Mo·ha(-1) in a non-soil culture system. The Mo concentration in every plant tissue analyzed increased gradually as Mo application level rose...
March 23, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373739/phylogeny-and-taxonomy-of-the-scab-and-spot-anthracnose-fungus-elsino%C3%A3-myriangiales-dothideomycetes
#18
X L Fan, R W Barreto, J Z Groenewald, J D P Bezerra, O L Pereira, R Cheewangkoon, L Mostert, C M Tian, P W Crous
Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë-host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371610/short-exogenous-peptides-regulate-expression-of-cle-knox1-and-grf-family-genes-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#19
L I Fedoreyeva, T A Dilovarova, V V Ashapkin, Yu Ts Martirosyan, V Kh Khavinson, P N Kharchenko, B F Vanyushin
Exogenous short biologically active peptides epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly), bronchogen (Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu), and vilon (Lys-Glu) at concentrations 10(-7)-10(-9) M significantly influence growth, development, and differentiation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus cultures. Epitalon and bronchogen, in particular, both increase growth of calluses and stimulate formation and growth of leaves in plant regenerants. Because the regulatory activity of the short peptides appears at low peptide concentrations, their action to some extent is like that of the activity of phytohormones, and it seems to have signaling character and epigenetic nature...
April 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370633/silencing-a-phloretin-specific-glycosyltransferase-perturbs-both-general-phenylpropanoid-biosynthesis-and-plant-development
#20
Andrew P Dare, Yar-Khing Yauk, Sumathi Tomes, Tony K McGhie, Ria S Rebstock, Janine M Cooney, Ross G Atkinson
The polyphenol profile of apple (Malus x domestica) is dominated by the dihydrochalcone glycoside phloridzin, however, its physiological role is yet to be elucidated. Biosynthesis of phloridzin occurs as a side-branch of the main phenylpropanoid pathway with the final step mediated by the phloretin-specific glycosyltransferase UGT88F1. Unexpectedly, given that UGTs are sometimes viewed as 'decorating enzymes', UGT88F1 knockdown lines were severely dwarfed with greatly reduced internode lengths, narrow lanceolate leaves, and changes in leaf and fruit cellular morphology...
April 2, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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