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plant tissue culture

Vojtech Hudzieczek, Radim Cegan, Tomas Cermak, Nela Bacovska, Zuzana Machalkova, Karel Dolezal, Lucie Plihalova, Daniel Voytas, Roman Hobza, Boris Vyskot
Silene latifolia serves as a model species to study dioecy, the evolution of sex chromosomes, dosage compensation and sex-determination systems in plants. Currently, no protocol for genetic transformation is available for this species, mainly because S. latifolia is considered recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration and infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Using cytokinins and their synthetic derivatives, we markedly improved the efficiency of regeneration. Several agrobacterial strains were tested for their ability to deliver DNA into S...
April 12, 2018: New Biotechnology
Xiaoming Tan, Yaqin Zhou, Xiaolei Zhou, Xianghua Xia, Ying Wei, Lili He, Hongzhen Tang, Liyin Yu
The plant Dysosma versipellis is known for its antimicrobial and anticancer properties but is a rare and vulnerable perennial herb that is endemic to China. In this study, 224 isolates were isolated from various tissues of D. versipellis, and were classified into 53 different morphotypes according to culture characteristics and were identified by sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. Although nine strains were not assignable at the phylum level, 44 belonged to at least 29 genera of 15 orders of Ascomycota (93%), Basidiomycota (6%), and Zygomycota (1%)...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
S P Mudau, P A Steenkamp, L A Piater, M De Palma, M Tucci, N E Madala, I A Dubery
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are phenolic compounds biosynthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway, with hydroxycinnamoyl quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) as the key enzyme. Variation of CGAs has been noted in different plants, with globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) producing high amounts and a diverse spectrum of CGAs in its leaves. In the current study, the effect of overexpression of the hqt1 transgene from globe artichoke in tobacco was evaluated at the metabolome level. Here, metabolomic approaches based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, together with chemometric models such as principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis, were employed to evaluate altered metabolic changes due to hqt1 overexpression...
April 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ying Chen, Jinfang Huang, Zhao Qin Yeap, Xue Zhang, Shuisheng Wu, Chiew Hoong Ng, Mun Fei Yam
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal herb and has been perennially used to treat various illness. However, there were unethical sellers who adulterated wild A. roxburghii with tissue cultured and cultivated ones. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective authentication method to differentiate between these different types of A. roxburghii. In this research, the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification approach including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Second derivative infrared spectra (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectra (2D-IR) was used to develop a simple and rapid method to discriminate between wild, cultivated and tissue cultivated A...
March 24, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Xin Cheng, Ke Li, Shengsong Xu, Peizhi Li, Yu Yan, Guang Wang, Zachary Berman, Rui Guo, Jianxin Liang, Sira Traore, Xuesong Yang
Damaged cartilage has very low regenerative potential which has led to the search for novel tissue-engineering approaches to help treat cartilage defects. While various approaches have been reported, there is no perfect treatment currently. In this study we evaluated the effects of a plant extract, chlorogenic acid (CGA), as part of chondrocyte transplantation on a model of knee joint injury in chicks. First, primary cultured chondrocytes used to evaluate the effects of CGA on chondrogenesis. Then using an articular cartilage injury model of chick knee we assessed the functional recovery after transplantation of the complexes containing chondrocytes and CGA in an alginate scaffold...
2018: PloS One
Chao Zhang, Xi Peng, Xiaofeng Guo, Gaijuan Tang, Fengli Sun, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi
Background: Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) is a model biofuel plant because of its high biomass, cellulose-richness, easy degradation to ethanol, and the availability of extensive genomic information. However, a little is currently known about the molecular responses of switchgrass plants to dehydration stress, especially multiple dehydration stresses. Results: Studies on the transcriptional profiles of 35-day-old tissue culture plants revealed 741 dehydration memory genes...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Imari Koike, Koichiro Shimomura, Mikihisa Umehara
Adventitious shoot formation is an important technique for the propagation of economically important crops and for the regeneration of transgenic plants. Phytohormone treatment is required for the induction of adventitious shoots in most species. Whether adventitious shoots can be induced is determined by the balance between auxin and cytokinin (CK) levels. Much effort goes into determining optimum concentrations and combinations of phytohormones in each tissue used as explants and in each plant species. In ipecac, however, adventitious shoots can be induced on internodal segments in culture medium without phytohormone treatment...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ko-Hsuan Chen, Hui-Ling Liao, A Elizabeth Arnold, Gregory Bonito, François Lutzoni
Diverse plant-associated fungi are thought to have symbiotrophic and saprotrophic states because they can be isolated from both dead and living plant tissues. However, such tissues often are separated in time and space, and fungal activity at various stages of plant senescence is rarely assessed directly in fungal community studies. We used fungal ribosomal RNA metatranscriptomics to detect active fungal communities across a natural senescence gradient within wild-collected gametophytes of Dicranum scoparium (Bryophyta) to understand the distribution of active fungal communities in adjacent living, senescing and dead tissues...
March 31, 2018: New Phytologist
Azam Shekariesfahlan, Christian Lindermayr
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in various plant physiological processes. The main effect of NO arises from its reaction with proteins. S-Nitrosation is the most studied NO-mediated protein posttranslational modification in plants. Via S-nitrosation, NO derivatives react with thiol groups (SHs) of protein cysteine residues and produce nitrosothiol groups (SNOs). From the time of discovering the biological function of NO in plants, an interesting case of study has been the detection of the endogenous S-nitrosated proteins in different plants, tissues, organelles, and various conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bita Zaferanloo, Stephanie A Pepper, Sally A Coulthard, Christopher P F Redfern, Enzo A Palombo
Interest in endophytes as natural sources for new medicines was inspired by the discovery of paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi. This study investigated the anti-cancer activity of extracts of endophytes isolated from two Australian plants, Eremophila longifolia (EL) and Eremophila maculata (EM). Endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilised leaf tissue, grown as pure cultures and identified by sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. To determine cytotoxicity, two leukaemic (MOLT-4, T-cell leukaemia; PreB-697, Pre-B leukaemia), a lung cancer cell line (A549) and a normal human fibroblast cell line were treated with endophyte extracts to assess cytotoxicity in relation to alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and alternariol (AOH)...
March 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
C F Resende, V S Pacheco, F F Dornellas, A M S Oliveira, J C E Freitas, P H P Peixoto
In this study, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigments, proline and carbohydrate contents in Pitcairnia encholirioides under ex vitro conditions of water deficit were evaluated. Results show that plants under progressive water stress, previously in vitro cultured in media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and GA3, accumulated more proline and increased peroxidase (POD) activity and the contents of photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrates. For plants previously in vitro cultured with 15 g L-1 sucrose and NAA, no differences were found for proline content and there were reductions in activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and poliphenoloxidase (PPO), and in contents of carbohydrates, with progress of ex vitro water deficit...
March 22, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Waqas Khan Kayani, Bushra Hafeez Kiani, Erum Dilshad, Bushra Mirza
Artemisinin and its analogues are naturally occurring most effective antimalarial secondary metabolites. These compounds also possess activity against various types of cancer cells, schistosomiasis, and some viral diseases. Artemisinin and its derivatives (A&D) are found in very low amounts in the only natural source i.e. Artemisia plant. To meet the global needs, plant sources have been exploited for the enhanced production of these natural products because their chemical synthesis is not profitable. The generally adopted approaches include non-transgenic (tissue and cell cultures) and transgenic together with the cell, tissue, and whole transgenic plant cultures...
March 27, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Bhushan S Bhadane, Mohini P Patil, Vijay L Maheshwari, Ravindra H Patil
The family Apocynaceae is one of the largest and important families in angiosperm. Several members of this family have medicinal properties and have been in the treatment of various ailments. Most of them are consumed as food by tribal people whereas a few plants are used as source of poison. Members of family Apocynaceae are rich in alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides, simple phenols, lactones, and hydrocarbons. Other compounds such as sterols, lignans, sugars, lignans, and lactones have been isolated and systematically studied...
March 25, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Hui-Qin Xing, Jian-Cang Ma, Bing-Liang Xu, Shu-Wu Zhang, Jin Wang, Li Cao, Xue-Mei Yang
Fungi are an integral component of the plant microbiome. However, the composition and variation in the fungal communities (mycobiota) associated with seeds are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mycobiota of 11 maize seed samples with storage times ranging from 6 months to 12 years. Mycobiota were characterized by a culture-based approach, and fungal species were identified through rDNA-ITS sequence analyses. From a total of 169 pure fungal isolates obtained from both the seed surface and internal tissues, we identified 16 distinct species (belonging to 10 genera) associated with maize seeds, all but one of which were ascomycetes...
March 23, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Vincenzo Lattanzio, Sofia Caretto, Vito Linsalata, Giovanni Colella, Giovanni Mita
Stimulated production of secondary phenolic metabolites and proline was studied by using cell cultures of artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] submitted to nutritional stress. Artichoke cell cultures accumulated phenolic secondary metabolites in a pattern similar to that seen in artichoke leaves and heads (capitula). This paper shows that both callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress accumulated phenolic compounds and proline, at the same time their biomass production was negatively affected by nutrient deficiency...
March 16, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ying Feng, Yingjie Wu, Jie Zhang, Qian Meng, Qiong Wang, Luyao Ma, Xiaoxiao Ma, Xiaoe Yang
SaNRAMP3 gene cloned from a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was ectopicly expressed in Brassica juncea, a fast-growing and high-biomass crop plant. In a tissue culture experiment, transgenic plants were grown on MS medium with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 μM Cd. It was shown that, at the same Cd treatment, the Cd tolerance of transgenic plants had no significant difference with those of wild-type plants (WT). However, the shoot Cd content and accumulation were improved significantly while the root Cd content and accumulation were descended significantly by SaNRAMP3 gene expression, which obviously enhanced the Cd root-to-shoot translocation factor (TF)...
March 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mahesh Rangu, Zhujia Ye, Sarabjit Bhatti, Suping Zhou, Yong Yang, Tara Fish, Theodore W Thannhauser
In this paper, we report on aluminum (Al)-induced root proteomic changes in switchgrass. After growth in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 400 μM of Al, plants began to show signs of physiological stress such as a reduction in photosynthetic rate. At this time, the basal 2-cm long root tips were harvested and divided into two segments, each of 1-cm in length, for protein extraction. Al-induced changes in proteomes were identified using tandem mass tags mass spectrometry (TMT-MS)-based quantitative proteomics analysis...
March 22, 2018: Proteomes
Rajendran Manikandan, Sankarasubramanian Harish, Gandhi Karthikeyan, Thiruvengadam Raguchander
The vascular wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici is an important soil borne pathogen causes severe yield loss. The molecular characterization and their interaction with its host is necessary to develop a protection strategy. 20 isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) were isolated from wilt infected tomato plants across Tamil Nadu. They were subjected to cultural, morphological, molecular and virulence studies. The results revealed that all the isolates produced both micro and macro conidia with different size, number of cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sameh S M Soliman, Manish N Raizada
Fungal Taxol acquired lots of attention in the last few decades mainly because of the hope that fungi could be manipulated more easily than yew trees to scale up the production level of this valuable anticancer drug. Several researchers have studied diverse factors to enhance fungal Taxol production. However, up to date fungal Taxol production has never been enhanced to the commercial level. We have hypothesized that optimization of fungal Taxol production may require clear understanding of the fungal habitat in its original host plant...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
David Z Silberstein, Kalimuthu Karuppanan, Hnin Hnin Aung, Ching-Hsien Chen, Carroll E Cross, Karen A McDonald
Proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have long been implicated in playing key roles in host tissue injury at sites of inflammatory processes dominated by macrophage activations and/or neutrophil infiltrations. Imbalances between proteases/antiproteases and ROS/antioxidants are recognized to contribute to amplification of inflammatory-based host tissue injury. This has been especially well-documented in such respiratory tract diseases as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome...
March 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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