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plant tissue culture

Momoko Ikeuchi, Michitaro Shibata, Bart Rymen, Akira Iwase, Anne-Maarit Bågman, Lewis Watt, Duncan Coleman, David S Favero, Tatsuya Takahashi, Sebastian E Ahnert, Siobhan M Brady, Keiko Sugimoto
Wounding triggers organ regeneration in many plant species, and application of plant hormones, such as auxin and cytokinin, enhances their regenerative capacities in tissue culture. Recent studies have identified several key players mediating wound- and/or plant hormone-induced cellular reprogramming, but the global architecture of gene regulatory relationships underlying plant cellular reprogramming is still far from clear. In this study, we uncovered a gene regulatory network (GRN) associated with plant cellular reprogramming by using an enhanced yeast one-hybrid (eY1H) screen systematically to identify regulatory relationships between 252 transcription factors (TFs) and 48 promoters...
February 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Eman M Khalaf, Manish N Raizada
The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ignacio E Maldonado-Mendoza, Maria J Harrison
Plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase their tolerance to arsenic-polluted soils. This study aims to investigate the genes involved in the AMF molecular response to arsenic pollution. Genes encoding proteins involved in arsenic metabolism were identified and their expression assessed by PCR or RT-qPCR. The As-inducible gene GiArsA (R. irregularis ABC ATPase component of the ArsAB arsenite efflux pump) and two new genes, an arsenate/arsenite permease component of ArsAB (RiArsB) and a methyltransferase type 11 (RiMT-11) were induced when arsenate was added to two-compartment in vitro monoxenic cultures of R...
February 2018: Fungal Biology
Ahmad A Omar, Mayara M Murata, Hesham A El-Shamy, James H Graham, Jude W Grosser
Genetic engineering approaches offer an alternative method to the conventional breeding of Citrus sp. 'W. Murcott' mandarin (a hybrid of 'Murcott' and an unknown pollen parent) is one of the most commercially important cultivars grown in many regions around the world. Transformation of 'W. Murcott' mandarin was achieved by direct DNA uptake using a protoplast transformation system. DNA construct (pAO3), encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and the cDNA of Xa21, a Xanthomonas resistance gene from rice, was used to transform protoplasts of 'W...
February 14, 2018: Transgenic Research
Luz Marcela Yepes, Elizabeth J Cieniewicz, Björn Krenz, Heather McLane, Jeremy R Thompson, Keith L Perry, Marc Fuchs
Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) has a monopartite single-stranded DNA genome and is the type species of the genus Grablovirus in the family Geminiviridae. To address the etiological role of GRBV in the recently recognized red blotch disease of grapevine, infectious GRBV clones were engineered from the genome of each of the two previously identified phylogenetic clades for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated inoculations of tissue culture-grown Vitis spp. plants. Following agroinoculation and one or two dormancy cycles, systemic GRBV infection was detected by multiplex PCR in V...
February 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Neeraj Purushotham, Eirian Jones, Jana Monk, Hayley Ridgway
The role of plant endophytic Actinobacteria remains poorly understood with no reports of these communities in New Zealand native plants. This first investigation of endophytic Actinobacteria in New Zealand targeted the culturally significant medicinal shrub Pseudowintera colorata (horopito) as a model plant. Community analysis in plant tissues collected from ten geographically distinct sites showed that tissue type had the strongest influence on diversity and richness of endophytic Actinobacteria. More denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were obtained from stems (n = 18) compared to roots (n = 13)...
February 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Somaye Hashempoor, Matin Ghaheri, Danial Kahrizi, Nastaran Kazemi, Saare Muhammadi, Seyed Mehdi Safavi, Tayebeh Ghorbani, Elham Rahmanian, Malihe Heshmatpanaah
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is one of the most important herbal sweetener plants from Asteracea family that have a lot of Steviol glycosides. Among different methods, tissue culture is the best way with high efficiency that is useful for studying stress tolerance mechanisms to obtain drought tolerance of stevia. For this purpose, different concentrations of mannitol (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/l) were used as various treatments in the culture medium of stevia. According to the results, the highest level of UGT85C2 gene expression (1...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Danial Kahrizi, Matin Ghaheri, Zahra Yari, Khirollah Yari, Sohbat Bahraminejad
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is one of two species that contains steviol glycosides. Among steviol glycosides that extracted from leaves, stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two major and the sweetest glycosides that are about 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose with zero calories. The best method for stevia propagation is tissue culture. So, for investigation of nutrients in medium, we studied the effect of different concentrations of MS media (MS, 0.5 MS, 0.25 MS, 0 MS) on morphological traits, UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 genes expression and accumulation of steviol glycosides in stevia leaves...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Fatemeh Esmaeili, Matin Ghaheri, Danial Kahrizi, Mohsen Mansouri, Seyed Mehdi Safavi, Tayebeh Ghorbani, Sarre Muhammadi, Elham Rahmanian, Siavash Vaziri
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is one of the most important biologically sourced and low-calorie sweeteners that contains a lots of Steviol glycosides. Tissue culture is the best method for propagation of stevia and micro nutrients can affect both morphological traits and steviol glycosides production. In the present study, we investigated the effect of different concentrations of glutamine (10, 20, 30 and 40 g/l) on expression of UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 genes and stevioside and rebaudioside A accumulation in the leaves of stevia under in vitro conditions...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Jeum Kyu Hong, Su Jeong Jang, Young Hee Lee, Yeon Sook Jo, Jae Gill Yun, Hyesu Jo, Chang-Jin Park, Hyo Joong Kim
Peroxyacetic acid mixture Perosan, composed of peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid, was evaluated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt by Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum. Perosan drastically suppressed in vitro growth of R. pseudosolanacearum in liquid cultures in dose- and incubation time-dependent manners. Higher perosan doses (0.1 and 1%) caused lowered pH and phytotoxicity to detached leaves of two tomato cultivars Cupirang and Benekia 220 in aqueous solution. Treatment with 0...
February 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Elizabeth Burke Watson, Katelyn Szura, Elisabeth Powell, Nicole Maher, Cathleen Wigand
In aquatic ecosystems, biological indicators are used in concert with nutrient concentration data to identify habitat impairments related to cultural eutrophication. This approach has been less commonly implemented in coastal areas due to the dominance of physical conditions in structuring biological assemblage data. Here, we describe the use of the stable isotopic composition of (Say), the eastern mudsnail, as an indicator of cultural eutrophication for 40 locations in coastal estuaries in New York. We found N enrichment in mudsnail tissue where watersheds had high population densities, land use patterns were more urbanized, and when sampling sites were adjacent to wastewater treatment plant discharges...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ali-Akbar Mozafari, Ali Ghadakchi Asl, Nasser Ghaderi
Grape softwood cuttings of Khoshnaw cultivar were cultured using tissue-culture methods to study the effect of iron nanoparticles and potassium silicate under salinity conditions during the 2015-2016 growing season. The treatments consisted of salinity stress (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl), nanoparticles of iron (0, 0.08, and 0.8 ppm), and potassium silicate (0, 1, 2 mM). The results also showed that the application of iron nanoparticles and potassium silicate significantly increased the total protein content and reduced proline, enzymatic antioxidant activity and hydrogen peroxide...
February 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Majambu Mbikay, Janice Mayne, Francine Sirois, Olesya Fedoryak, Angela Raymond, Jennifer Noad, Michel Chrétien
SCOPE: Hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulate the clearance of plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C): LDLR promotes it, and PCSK9 opposes it. These proteins also expressed in pancreatic β cells. Using cultured hepatocytes, we previously showed that the plant flavonoid quercetin-3-glucoside (Q3G) inhibited PCSK9 secretion, stimulated LDLR expression, and enhanced LDL-C uptake. Here, we examined whether Q3G supplementation could reverse the hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia of mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, and how it affected hepatic and pancreatic LDLR and PCSK9 expression...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Masato Saito, Yuki Kondo, Hiroo Fukuda
Vascular development is a good model for studying cell differentiation in plants. Two conductive tissues, the xylem and phloem, are derived from common stem cells known as procambial/cambial cells. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 proteins (GSK3s) play crucial roles in maintaining procambial/cambial cells by suppressing their differentiation into xylem or phloem cells. We previously designed an in vitro culture system for analyzing vascular cell differentiation named VISUAL (Vascular cell Induction culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves)...
January 27, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Fahad Al-Qurainy, Mohammad Nadeem, Salim Khan, Saleh Alansi, Mohamed Tarroum, Abdulhafed A Al-Ameri, Abdel-Rhman Z Gaafar, Aref Alshameri
Reseda pentagyna is the only endemic species among the seven species of the genera Reseda found in Saudi Arabia. Probably no information is available on regeneration by conventional method of regeneration through seeds or cuttings. Therefore, alternative method of tissue culture was attempted to regenerate and multiply the plant. High shoot regeneration (14.44 shoots/explant) was obtained after four weeks, when shoot cuttings cultured on MS containing BA at 1.0 µM. Other cytokinins e.g., Kn, 2iP and TDZ found to be less effective in bud induction and shoot multiplication...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Jun Lu, Jinxin Li, Shihui Wang, Lu Yao, Wenxia Liang, Juan Wang, Wenyuan Gao
In this paper, we reviewed the advances in ginsenoside biosynthesis and metabolic regulation. To begin with, the application of elicitors in ginsenoside biosynthesis was discussed. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) and analogues have the best effect on accumulation of ginsenoside compared with other elicitors, and few biotic elicitors are applied in Panax genus plants tissue culture. In addition, so far, more than 40 genes encoding ginsenoside biosynthesis related enzymes have been cloned and identified from Panax genus, such as UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGT) genes UDPG, UGTAE2, UGT94Q2, UGTPg100 and UGTPg1...
January 29, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Rui-Zi Li, Jun Lin, Xia-Xia Wang, Xiao-Min Yu, Can-Li Chen, Yue-Feng Guan
Anoectochilus roxburghii is a traditional Chinese medicine and natural health products. In the modern cultivation system, A. roxburghii is micropropagated in tissue culture, and the plants are transferred to soil cultivation for months. However, it remains unclear about the necessity of soil cultivation for the accumulation of health beneficial compounds. In this paper, we performed nontargeted metabolomic analysis using GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, on A. roxburghii plants at tissue culture stage or after 3 months of soil cultivation...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yuqing Niu, Bei Hu, Xiaoquan Li, Houbin Chen, Tomáš Takáč, Jozef Šamaj, Chunxiang Xu
Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the most destructive soil-borne diseases. In this study, young tissue-cultured plantlets of banana (Musa spp. AAA) cultivars differing in Foc susceptibility were used to reveal their differential responses to this pathogen using digital gene expression (DGE). Data were evaluated by various bioinformatic tools (Venn diagrams, gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses) and immunofluorescence labelling method to support the identification of gene candidates determining the resistance of banana against Foc...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yoshihiro Hase, Katsuya Satoh, Satoshi Kitamura, Yutaka Oono
Ionizing radiation including heavy-ion beams has been widely used in mutation breeding. Dry seeds, seedlings, and cultured tissues are often used for mutagenesis; however, little is known about the differences in induced mutations among them. Here, we examined the characteristics of mutations using randomly chosen Arabidopsis M2 plants derived from dry seeds and seedlings irradiated with carbon ions. The mutation frequency was 1.4-1.9 times higher in dry-seed irradiation than in seedling irradiation. This difference was mainly due to the three-times higher frequency of insertions and deletions (InDels) in dry-seed irradiation than in seedling irradiation...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Perumal Venkatachalam, Udayabhanu Jinu, Palanivel Sangeetha, Natesan Geetha, Shivendra Vikram Sahi
Influence of cytokinins, silver nitrate (AgNO3) and auxins on plant regeneration from cucumber was investigated. The cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS medium augmented with various concentrations (0.5-2.5 mg l-1) of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN) for shoot bud induction. BAP at 1.5 mg l-1 was found to be the best concentration for induction of high frequency of multiple shoots (98.4%). Interestingly, maximum percent of multiple shoot regeneration (100%) as well as number of shoot buds (54...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
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