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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330280/culturable-endophytic-bacteria-associated-with-medicinal-plant-ferula-songorica-molecular-phylogeny-distribution-and-screening-for-industrially-important-traits
#1
Yong-Hong Liu, Jian-Wei Guo, Nimaichand Salam, Li Li, Yong-Guang Zhang, Jian Han, Osama Abdalla Mohamad, Wen-Jun Li
Xinjiang, a region of high salinity and drought, is a host to many arid and semi-arid plants. Many of these plants including Ferula spp. have indigenous pharmaceutical histories. As many of the medicinal properties of plants are in tandem with the associated microorganisms residing within the plant tissues, it is advisable to explore the endophytic potential of such plants. In the present study, diversity of culturable bacteria isolated from medicinal plants Ferula songorica collected from Hebukesaier, Xinjiang were analyzed...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330192/differential-display-reverse-transcription-pcr-ddrt-pcr-a-new-technology-for-molecular-detection-and-studying-one-of-the-antagonistic-factors-of-bacillus-endophyticus-strain-sa-against-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#2
Mahmoud F Moustafa, Tarek H Taha, M Helal, Sulaiman A Alrumman
Differential Display (DDRT-PCR) is a powerful technique for analyzing differences in gene expression. In-vivo expression technologies and differential display RT-PCR are providing new approaches to further examine a microbe's response to experimental conditions which more closely resemble natural microbial associations and habitats. In this study, Bacillus endophyticus strain SA isolated from the inner tissue of the stem of the cultivated plant (Salvadora persica, Asir, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) produces an antagonistic factor...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330189/defense-response-enhancement-in-strawberry-via-elicitors
#3
Gihan M H Hussein, Tahany M A Abdel-Rahman, A H Alwan
In this study, cell-suspension culture of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), cultivars Camarosa, and Sweet Charlie has been established. Embryogenic callus was induced by incubating the in vitro juvenile leaf explants on medium, containing 2-mg/l picloram at dark. Suspension culture was initiated from 4-week-old embryogenic calli in the liquid MS medium with 1-mg/l 2,4-D and 2-mg/l picloram. Suspension culture was maintained by sub-culturing each 3 weeks into a fresh medium. At week 9 after third sub-cultures, torpedo and cotyledonary embryo stages were observed...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330124/somaclonal-variations-and-their-applications-in-horticultural-crops-improvement
#4
REVIEW
Hare Krishna, Mahdi Alizadeh, Dhurendra Singh, Udayvir Singh, Nitesh Chauhan, Maliheh Eftekhari, Radha Kishan Sadh
The advancements made in tissue culture techniques has made it possible to regenerate various horticultural species in vitro as micropropagation protocols for commercial scale multiplication are available for a wide range of crops. Clonal propagation and preservation of elite genotypes, selected for their superior characteristics, require high degree of genetic uniformity amongst the regenerated plants. However, plant tissue culture may generate genetic variability, i.e., somaclonal variations as a result of gene mutation or changes in epigenetic marks...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326314/case-study-of-somaclonal-variation-in-resistance-genes-mlo-and-pme3-in-flaxseed-linum-usitatissimum-l-induced-by-nanoparticles
#5
Inese Kokina, Ilona Mickeviča, Marija Jermaļonoka, Linda Bankovska, Vjačeslavs Gerbreders, Andrejs Ogurcovs, Inese Jahundoviča
Nanoparticles influence on genome is investigated worldwide. The appearance of somaclonal variation is a cause of great concern for any micropropagation system. Somaclonal variation describes the tissue-culture-induced phenotypic and genotypic variations. This paper shows the results of somaclonal variation in two resistance genes pectin methylesterase and Mlo-like protein in all tissue culture development stages, as donor plant, calluses, and regenerants of Linum usitatissimum induced by gold and silver nanoparticles...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319334/biofunctionalized-plants-as-diverse-biomaterials-for-human-cell-culture
#6
Gianluca Fontana, Joshua Gershlak, Michal Adamski, Jae-Sung Lee, Shion Matsumoto, Hau D Le, Bernard Binder, John Wirth, Glenn Gaudette, William L Murphy
The commercial success of tissue engineering products requires efficacy, cost effectiveness, and the possibility of scaleup. Advances in tissue engineering require increased sophistication in the design of biomaterials, often challenging the current manufacturing techniques. Interestingly, several of the properties that are desirable for biomaterial design are embodied in the structure and function of plants. This study demonstrates that decellularized plant tissues can be used as adaptable scaffolds for culture of human cells...
March 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317537/diversity-in-the-botryosphaeriales-looking-back-looking-forward
#7
REVIEW
Bernard Slippers, Pedro Willem Crous, Fahimeh Jami, Johannes Zacharias Groenewald, Michael John Wingfield
The Botryosphaeriales are amongst the most widespread, common and important fungal pathogens of woody plants. Many are also known to exist as endophytes in healthy plant tissues. This special issue highlights a number of key themes in the study of this group of fungi. In particular, there have been dramatic taxonomic changes over the past decade; from one family to nine (including two in this special issue) and from 10 to 33 genera known from culture. It is also clear from many studies that neither morphology nor single locus sequence data are sufficient to define taxa...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314907/structural-characterization-of-a-putative-chitin-synthase-gene-in-phytophthora-spp-and-analysis-of-its-transcriptional-activity-during-pathogenesis-on-potato-and-soybean-plants
#8
Lauren Hinkel, Manuel D Ospina-Giraldo
Although chitin is a major component of the fungal cell wall, in oomycetes (fungal-like organisms), this compound has only been found in very little amounts, mostly in the cell wall of members of the genera Achlya and Saprolegnia. In the oomycetes Phytophthora infestans and P. sojae the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated; however, the gene putatively encoding chitin synthase (CHS), the enzyme that synthesizes chitin, is present in their genomes. The evolutionary significance of the CHS gene in P. infestans and P...
March 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303127/functional-characterization-of-endophytic-fungal-community-associated-with-oryza-sativa-l-and-zea-mays-l
#9
Momota Potshangbam, S Indira Devi, Dinabandhu Sahoo, Gary A Strobel
In a natural ecosystem, the plant is in a symbiotic relationship with beneficial endophytes contributing huge impact on its host plant. Therefore, exploring beneficial endophytes and understanding its interaction is a prospective area of research. The present work aims to characterize the fungal endophytic communities associated with healthy maize and rice plants and to study the deterministic factors influencing plant growth and biocontrol properties against phytopathogens, viz, Pythium ultimum, Sclerotium oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pyricularia oryzae...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302485/novel-calcified-gum-arabic-porous-nano-composite-scaffold-for-bone-tissue-regeneration
#10
M Hadavi, S Hasannia, Sh Faghihi, F Mashayekhi, H H Zadeh, S B Mostofi
The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical and biological properties of a nanocomposite scaffold containing both mineral and polysaccharide constituents. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA) was synthesized from dead abra ovata shells using wet chemical methods and was used in different ratios in concert with gum Arabic, a branched plant polysaccharide. N-HA/gum nanocomposite was fabricated with freeze-drying process and characterized by FTIR and SEM for chemical structure and morphology. Porosity was estimated using liquid substitution method...
March 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299323/addressing-challenges-to-enhance-the-bioactives-of-withania-somnifera-through-organ-tissue-and-cell-culture-based-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Pritika Singh, Rupam Guleri, Amrita Angurala, Kuldeep Kaur, Kulwinder Kaur, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa, Pratap Kumar Pati
Withania somnifera is a highly valued medicinal plant in traditional home medicine and is known for a wide range of bioactivities. Its commercial cultivation is adversely affected by poor seed viability and germination. Infestation by various pests and pathogens, survival under unfavourable environmental conditions, narrow genetic base, and meager information regarding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are some of the other existing challenges in the crop. Biotechnological interventions through organ, tissue, and cell culture provide promising options for addressing some of these issues...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282614/inhibition-of-drp1-protects-against-senecionine-induced-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-primary-hepatocytes-and-in-mice
#12
Xiao Yang, Hua Wang, Hong-Min Ni, Aizhen Xiong, Zhengtao Wang, Hiromi Sesaki, Wen-Xing Ding, Li Yang
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a group of compounds found in various plants and some of them are widely consumed in the world as herbal medicines and food supplements. PAs are potent hepatotoxins that cause irreversible liver injury in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms by which PAs induce liver injury are not clear. In the present study, we determined the hepatotoxicity and molecular mechanisms of senecionine, one of the most common toxic PAs, in primary cultured mouse and human hepatocytes as well as in mice...
March 2, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278648/phytochemical-and-biological-study-of-callus-cultures-of-tulbaghia-violacea-harv-cultivated-in-egypt
#13
Hanaa H Eid, Ghada F Metwally
As in vitro plant cultures are used extensively to produce bioactive metabolites, our goal was to establish calli from Tulbaghia violacea Harv. flowers and assess the tissue phytochemically and biologically. Murashige & Skoog medium(MS) + 22.6 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid +2.2 μM benzylaminopurine induced callus from flowers. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS) analyses of n-hexane extracts of calli(HC) and flowers(HF) revealed 33 and 32 components(92.6 and 98.5%, respectively). Hydrocarbons were predominant in HC (55...
February 21, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278222/nuclear-genome-stability-in-long-term-cultivated-callus-lines-of-fagopyrum-tataricum-l-gaertn
#14
Alexander Betekhtin, Magdalena Rojek, Joanna Jaskowiak, Anna Milewska-Hendel, Jolanta Kwasniewska, Yulia Kostyukova, Ewa Kurczynska, Natalya Rumyantseva, Robert Hasterok
Long-term cultivated Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. (Tartary buckwheat) morphogenic and non-morphogenic callus lines are interesting systems for gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for the genetic stability and instability of a plant tissue culture. In this work, we used histological sections and transmission electron microscopy to identify and describe the morphology of the nuclei of all of the analysed callus lines. We demonstrated that the embryogenic callus cells had prominent round nuclei that did not contain heterochromatin clumps in contrast to the non-morphogenic callus lines, in which we found nuclei that had multiple lobes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273182/protocol-for-efficient-regulation-of-in-vitro-morphogenesis-in-einkorn-triticum-monococcum-l-a-recalcitrant-diploid-wheat-species
#15
Dmitry Miroshnichenko, Inna Chaban, Mariya Chernobrovkina, Sergey Dolgov
Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) is A-genome diploid wheat that has a potential to become a useful model for understanding the biology and genomics in Triticeae. Unfortunately, the application of modern technologies such as genetic engineering, RNAi-based gene silencing and genome editing is not available for einkorn as there is no efficient in vitro tissue culture and plant regeneration system. In the present study an efficient and simple protocol for plant regeneration via direct or indirect somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis has been developed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270078/a-preliminary-study-of-the-action-of-virtosomes-from-non-dividing-cells-on-tumour-cell-replication-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Mariano Garcia-Arranz, Damian Garcia-Olmo, Luz Vega-Clemente, Maurice Stroun
BACKGROUND: A DNA-RNA-lipoprotein complex, termed a virtosome, is released spontaneously from healthy human, other mammalian, avian, amphibian and plant cells in a regulated and energy-dependent manner. Studies on human and mouse lymphocytes, hepatocytes, NIH 3T3 cells and mouse tumour cell lines have shown that virtosomes may be acting as inter-cellular messengers. In particular, virtosomes from non-dividing cells blocked 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA in tumour cell lines. OBJECTIVE: Study of the effect of virtosomes on tumors "in vivo" and "in vitro" Methods and Results...
February 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265985/analytical-determination-of-auxins-and-cytokinins
#17
Petre I Dobrev, Klára Hoyerová, Jan Petrášek
Parallel determination of auxin and cytokinin levels within plant organs and tissues represents an invaluable tool for studies of their physiological effects and mutual interactions. Thanks to their different chemical structures, auxins, cytokinins and their metabolites are often determined separately, using specialized procedures of sample purification, extraction, and quantification. However, recent progress in the sensitivity of analytical methods of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) allows parallel analysis of multiple compounds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259128/directed-regulation-of-multienzyme-complexes-of-2-oxo-acid-dehydrogenases-using-phosphonate-and-phosphinate-analogs-of-2-oxo-acids
#18
REVIEW
A V Artiukhov, A V Graf, V I Bunik
2-Oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes are important metabolic checkpoints functioning at the intercept of sugar and amino acid degradation. This review presents a short summary of architectural, catalytic, and regulatory principles of the complexes structure and function, based on recent advances in studies of well-characterized family members. Special attention is given to use of synthetic phosphonate and phosphinate analogs of 2-oxo acids as selective and efficient inhibitors of the cognate complexes in biological systems of bacterial, plant, and animal origin...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257158/dna-methylation-of-retrotransposons-dna-transposons-and-genes-in-sugar-beet-beta-vulgaris-l
#19
Falk Zakrzewski, Martin Schmidt, Mieke Van Lijsebettens, Thomas Schmidt
The methylation of cytosines shapes the epigenetic landscape of plant genomes, coordinates transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, represses activity of transposable elements (TEs), affects gene expression, and, hence, can influence the phenotype. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris), an important crop that accounts for 30% of the worldwide sugar needs, has a relatively small genome size (758 Mbp) consisting of approximately 485 Mbp repetitive DNA (64%) in particular, satellite DNA, retrotransposons, and DNA transposons...
March 3, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243724/in-vitro-gene-expression-and-mrna-translocation-from-transformed-walnut-juglans-regia-rootstocks-expressing-dsred-fluorescent-protein-to-wild-type-scions
#20
Xiaochen Liu, Sriema L Walawage, Charles A Leslie, Abhaya M Dandekar, David M Tricoli, Hengkang Hu, Youjun Huang, Jiaqi Zhang, Chuanmei Xv, Jianqin Huang, Qixiang Zhang
An in vitro grafting method was developed for examining gene translocation from rootstock to scion in walnut. Results showed the DsRED gene itself was not translocated but expressed mRNA was. Grafting is widely used in plants, especially in fruit and nut crops. Selected rootstocks can control scion growth and physiological traits, including shortening of the juvenile phase and controlling tree size. Rootstocks also can provide improved soil adaptation and pathogen resistance. Development of genetically modified (GM) fruit crops has progressed recently, but commercial cultivation is still limited due to the time required for evaluation and issues with deregulation...
February 27, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
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