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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210088/exodermis-and-endodermis-are-the-sites-of-xanthone-biosynthesis-in-hypericum-perforatum-roots
#1
Noemi Tocci, Mariam Gaid, Filip Kaftan, Asma K Belkheir, Ines Belhadj, Benye Liu, Aleš Svatoš, Robert Hänsch, Gabriella Pasqua, Ludger Beerhues
Xanthones are specialized metabolites with antimicrobial properties, which accumulate in roots of Hypericum perforatum. This medicinal plant provides widely taken remedies for depressive episodes and skin disorders. Owing to the array of pharmacological activities, xanthone derivatives attract attention for drug design. Little is known about the sites of biosynthesis and accumulation of xanthones in roots. Xanthone biosynthesis is localized at the transcript, protein, and product levels using in situ mRNA hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence detection, and high lateral and mass resolution mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI-FT-Orbitrap MSI), respectively...
December 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204736/effect-of-bacterial-lipopolysaccharides-on-morphogenetic-activity-in-wheat-somatic-calluses
#2
Nina V Evseeva, Oksana V Tkachenko, Gennady L Burygin, Larisa Yu Matora, Yuriy V Lobachev, Sergei Yu Shchyogolev
We evaluated the effect of lipopolysaccharides from the plant-growth-promoting associative bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and from the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli K12 on the morphogenic potential of in vitro-growing somatic calluses of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29). A genetic model was used that included two near-isogenic lines of T. aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29 with different embryogenic capacities; one of these lines carries the Rht-B1 dwarfing gene, whereas the other lacks it...
December 4, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201605/culture-free-detection-of-crop-pathogens-at-the-single-cell-level-by-micro-raman-spectroscopy
#3
Qinhua Gan, Xuetao Wang, Yun Wang, Zhenyu Xie, Yang Tian, Yandu Lu
The rapid and sensitive identification of invasive plant pathogens has important applications in biotechnology, plant quarantine, and food security. Current methods are far too time-consuming and need a pre-enrichment period ranging from hours to days. Here, a micro-Raman spectroscopy-based bioassay for culture-free pathogen quarantine inspection at the single cell level within 40 min is presented. The application of this approach can readily and specifically detect plant pathogens Burkholderia gladioli pv...
November 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200988/molecular-signaling-mechanisms-behind-polyphenol-induced-bone-anabolism
#4
REVIEW
Elisa Torre
For millennia, in the different cultures all over the world, plants have been extensively used as a source of therapeutic agents with wide-ranging medicinal applications, thus becoming part of a rational clinical and pharmacological investigation over the years. As bioactive molecules, plant-derived polyphenols have been demonstrated to exert many effects on human health by acting on different biological systems, thus their therapeutic potential would represent a novel approach on which natural product-based drug discovery and development could be based in the future...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200506/leaf-expansion-in-phaseolus-transient-auxin-induced-growth-increase
#5
Christopher P Keller
Control of leaf expansion by auxin is not well understood. Evidence from short term exogenous applications and from treatment of excised tissues suggests auxin positively influences growth. Manipulations of endogenous leaf auxin content, however, suggests that, long-term, auxin suppresses leaf expansion. This study attempts to clarify the growth effects of auxin on unifoliate (primary) leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by reexamining the response to auxin treatment of both excised leaf strips and attached leaves...
August 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197621/inhibition-of-histone-deacetylase-6-hdac6-protects-against-vincristine-induced-peripheral-neuropathies-and-inhibits-tumor-growth
#6
Lawrence Van Helleputte, Mandy Kater, Dana P Cook, Caroline Eykens, Elisabeth Rossaert, Wanda Haeck, Tom Jaspers, Natasja Geens, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Conny Gysemans, Chantal Mathieu, Wim Robberecht, Philip Van Damme, Guido Cavaletti, Matthew Jarpe, Ludo Van Den Bosch
As cancer is becoming more and more a chronic disease, a large proportion of patients is confronted with devastating side effects of certain anti-cancer drugs. The most common neurological complications are painful peripheral neuropathies. Chemotherapeutics that interfere with microtubules, including plant-derived vinca-alkaloids such as vincristine, can cause these chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN). Available treatments focus on symptom alleviation and pain reduction rather than prevention of the neuropathy...
November 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188477/crispr-cas9-mediated-efficient-editing-in-phytoene-desaturase-pds-demonstrates-precise-manipulation-in-banana-cv-rasthali-genome
#7
Navneet Kaur, Anshu Alok, Shivani, Navjot Kaur, Pankaj Pandey, Praveen Awasthi, Siddharth Tiwari
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has been reported for precise genome modification in many plants. In the current study, we demonstrate a successful mutation in phytoene desaturase (RAS-PDS) of banana cv. Rasthali using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two PDS genes were isolated from Rasthali (RAS-PDS1 and RAS-PDS2), and their protein sequence analysis confirmed that both PDS comprises conserved motifs for enzyme activity. Phylogenetic analysis of RAS-PDS1 and RAS-PDS2 revealed a close evolutionary relationship with other monocot species...
November 29, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181650/reconstitutive-approach-for-investigating-plant-vascular-development
#8
Yuki Kondo
Plants generate various tissues and organs via a strictly regulated developmental program. The plant vasculature is a complex tissue system consisting of xylem and phloem tissues with a layer of cambial cells in between. Multiple regulatory steps are involved in vascular development. Although molecular and genetic studies have uncovered a variety of key factors controlling vascular development, studies of the actual functions of these factors have been limited due to the inaccessibility of the plant vasculature...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180813/pollen-magnetofection-for-genetic-modification-with-magnetic-nanoparticles-as-gene-carriers
#9
Xiang Zhao, Zhigang Meng, Yan Wang, Wenjie Chen, Changjiao Sun, Bo Cui, Jinhui Cui, Manli Yu, Zhanghua Zeng, Sandui Guo, Dan Luo, Jerry Q Cheng, Rui Zhang, Haixin Cui
Genetic modification plays a vital role in breeding new crops with excellent traits. Almost all the current genetic modification methods require regeneration from tissue culture, involving complicated, long and laborious processes. In particular, many crop species such as cotton are difficult to regenerate. Here, we report a novel transformation platform technology, pollen magnetofection, to directly produce transgenic seeds without regeneration. In this system, exogenous DNA loaded with magnetic nanoparticles was delivered into pollen in the presence of a magnetic field...
November 27, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172102/influence-of-salicylic-acid-pretreatment-on-seeds-germination-and-some-defence-mechanisms-of-zea-mays-plants-under-copper-stress
#10
Šárka Moravcová, Jiří Tůma, Zuzana Kovalíková Dučaiová, Piotr Waligórski, Monika Kula, Diana Saja, Aneta Słomka, Wojciech Bąba, Marta Libik-Konieczny
The study was focused on the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on maize seeds germination and on some physiological and biochemical processes in maize plants growing in the hydroponic culture under copper (Cu) stress. A significant influence of SA pretreatment on the advanced induction of the maize seeds metabolic activity and the level of the endogenous SA in germinated seeds and developing roots have been stated. Although, the ability of maize seeds to uptake SA and accumulate it in the germinated roots was confirmed, the growth inhibition of Cu-stressed maize seedlings was not ameliorated by SA seeds pretreatment...
November 14, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158641/development-of-an-efficient-and-reproducible-regeneration-system-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#11
Rakesh Kumar, Harohalli Masthigowda Mamrutha, Amandeep Kaur, Karnam Venkatesh, Anita Grewal, Raj Kumar, Vinod Tiwari
The availability of reproducible regeneration system through tissue culture is a major bottleneck in wheat improvement program. The present study has considered to develop an efficient callus induction and regeneration system using mature and immature embryos as explants in recently released agronomically superior spring wheat varieties. An efficient sterilization process was standardized using 0.1% HgCl2 and 70% ethanol for both seeds and embryos. The maximum possible combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) were evaluated for their effect on different wheat regeneration processes through tissue culture starting from callus to root induction...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153051/confirmation-that-the-novel-cercozoa-phytocercomonas-venanatans-is-the-cause-of-the-disease-chlorotic-streak-in-sugarcane
#12
Kathryn Susan Braithwaite, Chuong Nguyen Ngo, Barry J Croft
A cercomonad, tentatively named Phytocercomonas venanatans Ngo, Braithwaite and Bass, is confirmed as the cause of the sugarcane disease chlorotic streak. This was achieved by establishing aseptic liquid cultures of the pathogen isolated from internal pieces of sugarcane stalk tissue. Actively motile cultures of the pathogen were inoculated into sugarcane roots, stalks and leaf whorls. Infected plants subsequently developed the characteristic symptoms of chlorotic streak. Infection was confirmed by PCR screening of plant tissues and by reisolation of the pathogen into aseptic culture followed by PCR and microscopic confirmation...
November 20, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148171/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-pht1-phosphate-transporters-in-wheat-in-controlled-environments-and-in-the-field
#13
A Grün, P Buchner, M R Broadley, M J Hawkesford
Phosphorus (P) is an important macronutrient with critical functions in plants. Phosphate (Pi) transporters which mediate Pi acquisition and Pi translocation within the plant are key factors in Pi deficiency responses. However, their relevance for adaptation to long-term Pi limitation under agronomic conditions, particularly in wheat, remains unknown. Here, we describe the identification of the complete Pi transporter gene family (Pht1) in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Gene expression profiles were compared for hydroponic and field-grown plant tissues of wheat at multiple developmental stages...
November 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145415/plant-organ-cultures-as-masked-mycotoxin-biofactories-deciphering-the-fate-of-zearalenone-in-micropropagated-durum-wheat-roots-and-leaves
#14
Laura Righetti, Enrico Rolli, Gianni Galaverna, Michele Suman, Renato Bruni, Chiara Dall'Asta
"Masked mycotoxins" senso strictu are conjugates of mycotoxins resulting from metabolic pathways activated by the interplay between pathogenic fungi and infected plants. Zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp, was the first masked mycotoxin ever described in the literature, but its biotransformation has been studied to a lesser extent if compared to other compounds such as deoxynivalenol. We presented herein the first application of organ and tissue culture techniques to study the metabolic fate of zearalenone in durum wheat, using an untargeted HR-LCMS approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145070/arsenic-forms-and-their-combinations-induce-differences-in-phenolic-accumulation-in-ulmus-laevis-pall
#15
Kinga Drzewiecka, Monika Gąsecka, Paweł Rutkowski, Zuzanna Magdziak, Piotr Goliński, Mirosław Mleczek
Total phenolics and the profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids were investigated in the roots and leaves of Ulmus laevis cultured on the medium with inorganic and organic arsenic - As(III), As(V) and DMA(V) at 0.06mM and their equimolar combinations. Further, the accumulation of salicylic acid (free and glucoside-bound) and lipid oxidation were assayed following a three-month long experiment. As treatment caused elevated production of phenolics, which was higher in photosynthetic tissue than in roots for all As forms and their combinations, and their overall content was correlated with the accumulation of organic As in roots and As(III) in leaves...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138622/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-penicillium-amestolkiae-elv609-extract-treated-cotton-fabric-for-diabetic-wound-care
#16
Nur Amiera Syuhada Binti Rozman, Nurhanis Syafiqah Binti Mohd Nor Hamin, Leong Chean Ring, Tan Wen Nee, Mahfuzah Binti Mustapha, Tong Woei Yenn
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder which affects millions of population worldwide. Global estimates published in 2010 reported the world diabetic prevalence as 6.4%, affecting 285 million adults. Foot ulceration and wound infection are major forms of disabilities arising from diabetic diseases. This study was aimed to develop a natural antimicrobial finishing on medical grade textile that meets American Association of Textiles Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) standard. The textile samples were finished with the ethanolic extract of Penicillium amestolkiae elv609, an endophytic fungus isolated from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (common name: cat's whiskers)...
September 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128943/effects-of-biochar-on-phytotoxicity-and-translocation-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-in-ni-fe-bimetallic-nanoparticle-treated-soil
#17
Juan Wu, Yunqiang Yi, Zhanqiang Fang, Eric Pokeung Tsang
In this study, soil culture experiments were conducted to explore the effects of biochar-supported Ni/Fe nanoparticles on the accumulation and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil-plant system and its phytotoxicity to Brassica chinensis. Compared with those in BDE209 contaminated soils (S 1) and Ni/Fe nanoparticle-treated soil (S 3), the plant biomass, root, and shoot lengths in biochar-supported Ni/Fe nanoparticle-treated soil (S 4) were increased by 23 mg, 1.35 cm, and 2.08 cm and 27...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119365/pectin-methylesterase-inhibitor-pmei-family-can-be-related-to-male-sterility-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-ssp-pekinensis
#18
Chong Tan, Zhiyong Liu, Shengnan Huang, Chengyu Li, Jie Ren, Xiaoyan Tang, Wenjie Liu, Shenling Peng, Hui Feng
Pectin-related genes play significant roles in pollen development and pollen tube growth, and their allelic variations are one of the major reasons for the abnormal development of male gametophyte. Currently, little is known about the role of the PMEI family in male sterility of plants. In this study, 97 putative PMEI genes were identified in Brassica rapa genome. By a phylogenetic analysis, the PMEI family was divided into 10 clades with highly conserved structural characteristics. The publically available RNA-seq data on different tissues of B...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110195/a-transposition-active-phyllostachys-edulis-long-terminal-repeat-ltr-retrotransposon
#19
Mingbing Zhou, Linlin Liang, Heikki Hänninen
Due to infrequent sexual reproduction, moso bamboo breeding by hybridization is extremely technically difficult. Insertional mutagenesis based on endogenous active transposons may thus serve as an alternative method to create new germplasm of moso bamboo. In the present study, using LTR-STRUC, a full-length intact long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon was identified in the moso bamboo genome and was named PHRE2 (Phyllostachys edulis retrotransposon 2). The 5' and 3' LTR sequences of PHRE2 were highly (98...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109915/mechanisms-of-oat-avena-sativa-l-acclimation-to-phosphate-deficiency
#20
Ewa Żebrowska, Marta Milewska, Iwona Ciereszko
Background: Deficiency of available forms of phosphorus is common in most soils and causes reduction of crop plants growth and yield. Recently, model plants responses to phosphate (Pi) deficiency have been intensively studied. However, acclimation mechanisms of cereals like oat (Avena sativa L.), to low Pi stress remains not fully understood. Oat plants have been usually cultured on poor soils, with a low nutrient content, but their responses to such conditions are not well known, therefore the main goal of the study was to investigate the mechanisms that enable oat plants to grow under low Pi conditions...
2017: PeerJ
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