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plant tissue culture

Suvi T Häkkinen, Elisabeth Moyano, Rosa M Cusidó, Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey
Plants remain a major source of new drugs, leads and fine chemicals. Cell cultures deriving from plants offer a fascinating tool to study plant metabolic pathways and offer large scale production systems for valuable compounds - commercial examples include compounds such as paclitaxel. The major constraint with undifferentiated cell cultures is that they are generally considered to be genetically unstable and cultured cells tend to produce low yields of secondary metabolites especially over time. Hairy roots, a tumor tissue caused by infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a relevant alternative for plant secondary metabolite production for being fast growing, able to grow without phytohormones, and displaying higher stability than undifferentiated cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhifen Zhang, John J Finer
Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is typically conducted by inoculating plant tissues with an Agrobacterium suspension containing approximately 10(8)-10(9) bacteria mL(-1), followed by a 2-3-d co-culture period. Use of longer co-culture periods could potentially increase transformation efficiencies by allowing more time for Agrobacterium to interact with plant cells, but bacterial overgrowth is likely to occur, leading to severe tissue browning and reduced transformation and regeneration. Low bacterial inoculum levels were therefore evaluated as a means to reduce the negative outcomes associated with long co-culture...
2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
José Marrugo-Negrete, José Durango-Hernández, José Pinedo-Hernández, Germán Enamorado-Montes, Sergi Díez
The use of metal-accumulating plants for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils is gaining more attention. Mercury (Hg)-contaminated soils from historical gold mines represent a potential risk to human health and the environment. Therefore, Jatropha curcas plant, that has shown its tolerance to these environments, is a species of particular interest to implement phytoremediation techniques in gold mining sites. In this work, the behavior of J. curcas was assessed in different hydroponic cultures fortified with Hg at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80μgHg/mL (T5, T10, T20, T40 and T80, respectively)...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Zhineng Li, Shaohua Zeng, Yanbang Li, Mingyang Li, Erik Souer
Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales), a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68, 54, and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) in Arabidopsis, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Massoume Amini, Ali Deljou, Haidar Saify Nabiabad
Developmental deficiency of somatic embryos and regeneration to plantlets, especially in the case of transformation, are major problems of somatic embryo regeneration in alfalfa. One of the ways to overcome these problems is the use of natural plant regulators and nutrients in the culture medium of somatic embryos. For investigating the influence of Cuscuta campestris extract on the efficiency of plant regeneration and transformation, chimeric tissue type plasminogen activator was transferred to explants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and transgenic plants were recovered using medium supplemented with different concentration of the extract...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Tanaka Kenta, Jessica E M Edwards, Roger K Butlin, Terry Burke, W Paul Quick, Peter Urwin, Matthew P Davey
Whilst genotype-environment interaction is increasingly receiving attention by ecologists and evolutionary biologists, such studies need genetically homogeneous replicates-a challenging hurdle in outcrossing plants. This could potentially be overcome by using tissue culture techniques. However, plants regenerated from tissue culture may show aberrant phenotypes and "somaclonal" variation. Here we examined the somaclonal variation due to tissue culturing using the response to cold treatment of the photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm' and ΦPSII, representing maximum efficiency of photosynthesis for dark- and light-adapted leaves, and the actual electron transport operating efficiency, respectively, which are reliable indicators of photoinhibition and damage to the photosynthetic electron transport system)...
October 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Amit Lakhanpal, Ernest Brahn
Biologics as therapeutic interventions for human disease represent both a distinctly modern novelty and an echo of ancient, or at least old, medical practice. The similarity lies in the sense that in both the synthetic effort occurs in living organisms (an extract of a plant, animal tissue, or a cell culture) while the difference is apparent in the bioengineering required in modern methods and the corresponding flexibility to customize the therapeutic product. Although the concept of looking to living systems as a source of medically useful compounds either for research or for actual patient care has never vanished, the development of biochemistry and advances in medicinal chemistry made production by total synthesis the standard for a safe, reliable, and commercial drug production at sufficient scale...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
M Contreras, P D Loeza, J Villegas, R Farias, G Santoyo
The aim of this study was to explore the diversity of culturable bacterial communities residing in blackberry plants (Rubus fruticosus). Bacterial endophytes were isolated from plant roots, and their 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and sequenced. Our results show that the roots of R. fruticosus exhibit low colony forming units of bacterial endophytes per gram of fresh tissue (6 x 10(2) ± 0.5 x 10(2)). We identified 41 endophytic bacterial species in R. fruticosus by BLAST homology search and a subsequent phylogenetic analysis, belonging to the classes Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Alfaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Evangeline E Fernandes, Anubha V Pulwale, Gauri A Patil, Alpana S Moghe
BACKGROUND: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Andika Gunadi, Raman Bansal, John J Finer, Andy Michel
BACKGROUND: Studies on plant-insect interactions of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura), can be influenced by environmental fluctuations, status of the host plant and variability in microbial populations. Maintenance of aphids on in vitro-grown plants minimizes environmental fluctuations, provides uniform host materials and permits the selective elimination of aphid-associated microbes for more standardized controls in aphid research. RESULTS: Aphids were reared on sterile, in vitro-grown soybean seedlings, germinated on plant tissue culture media amended with a mixture of antimicrobials...
September 28, 2016: Pest Management Science
Chien-Hui Syu, Po-Hsuan Chien, Chia-Chen Huang, Pei-Yu Jiang, Kai-Wei Juang, Dar-Yuan Lee
Limited information is available on the effects of gallium (Ga) and indium (In) on the growth of paddy rice. The Ga and In are emerging contaminants and widely used in high-tech industries nowadays. Understanding the toxicity and accumulation of Ga and In by rice plants is important for reducing the effect on rice production and exposure risk to human by rice consumption. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of Ga and In on the growth of rice seedlings and examines the accumulation and distribution of those elements in plant tissues...
September 24, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Wisnu Adi Wicaksono, E Eirian Jones, Jana Monk, Hayley J Ridgway
Leptospermum scoparium or mānuka is a New Zealand native medicinal plant that produces an essential oil with antimicrobial properties. This is the first study to investigate the structure and bioactivity of endophytic bacteria in mānuka by using a combination of cultivation-independent (DGGE) and dependent approaches. A total of 23 plants were sampled across three sites. Plants were considered either immature (3-8 years) or mature (>20 years). The endophyte community structure and richness was affected by plant tissue and bacterial communities became more stable and uniform as plant maturity increased...
2016: PloS One
Huan Wang, Zhongling Yang, Shuo Du, Lin Ma, Yao Liao, Yujie Wang, Ian Toth, Jiaqin Fan
Identifying phytopathogen proteins that are differentially expressed in the course of establishing an infection is important to better understand the infection process. In vitro approaches, using plant extracts added to culture medium, have been used to identify such proteins but the biological relevance of these findings for in planta infection are often uncertain until confirmed by in vivo studies. Here, we compared proteins of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain PccS1 differentially expressed in LB medium supplemented with extracts of the ornamental plant Zantedeschia elliotiana cultivar 'Black magic' (in vitro) and in plant tissues (in vivo) by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Tackmin Kwon
The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in plants depends on the virulence of Agrobacterium strains, the plant tissue culture conditions, and the susceptibility of host plants. Understanding the molecular interactions between Agrobacterium and host plant cells is crucial when manipulating the susceptibility of recalcitrant crop plants and protecting orchard trees from crown gall disease. It was discovered that Arabidopsis voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (atvdac1) mutant has drastic effects on Agrobacterium-mediated tumorigenesis and growth developmental phenotypes, and that these effects are dependent on a Ws-0 genetic background...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Ira Vashisht, Tarun Pal, Hemant Sood, Rajinder S Chauhan
Transcriptional regulation of picrosides biosynthesis, the iridoid glycosides of an endangered medicinal herb, Picrorhiza kurroa, is completely unknown. P. kurroa plants obtained from natural habitat accumulate higher picrosides than in-vitro cultured plants, which necessitates identification of transcription factors (TFs) regulating their differential biosynthesis. The current study investigates complete spectrum of different TF classes in P. kurroa transcriptomes and discerns their association with picrosides biosynthesis...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
J Marla Toyne, Warren B Church, Jose Luis Coronado Tello, Ricardo Morales Gamarra
OBJECTIVES: Inca imperial strategies of political and territorial expansion varied across conquered regions depending on local ecology and cultural resistance, and Chachapoya peoples in Peru's forested northeastern Andes were renowned for their rebellions against the invaders. The cliff tombs of Los Pinchudos (AD 1470-1535) present opportunities to use stable isotopes to: (1) explore dietary and mobility patterns from a mortuary community interred at a site attributed to the poorly-known Chachapoya culture during the period of Inca domination, and (2) explore the origins of the individuals as either local or foreign (Inca)...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Zongli Chu, Junying Chen, Haixia Xu, Zhongdong Dong, Feng Chen, Dangqun Cui
Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Youssef Rouphael, Elvira Rea, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Michael Bitterlich, Dietmar Schwarz, Giuseppe Colla
Low-pH and aluminum (Al) stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition, and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. "Ekron") either non-grafted or grafted onto "P360" (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C) or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nicolas Kral, Alexandra Hanna Ougolnikova, Giovanni Sena
In plants, shoot and root regeneration can be induced in the distinctive conditions of tissue culture (in vitro) but is also observed in intact individuals (in planta) recovering from tissue damage. Roots, for example, can regenerate their fully excised meristems in planta, even in mutants with impaired apical stem cell niches. Unfortunately, to date a comprehensive understanding of regeneration in plants is still missing. Here, we provide evidence that an imposed electric field can perturb apical root regeneration in Arabidopsis...
June 2016: Regeneration
Hon S Ip, Jeffrey M Lorch, David S Blehert
Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders...
2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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