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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324998/introducing-turgor-driven-growth-dynamics-into-functional-structural-plant-models
#1
Jonas R Coussement, Tom De Swaef, Peter Lootens, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Kathy Steppe
Background and Aims: In many scenarios the availability of assimilated carbon is not the constraining factor of plant growth. Rather, organ growth appears driven by sink activity in which water availability plays a determinant role. Current functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) mainly focus on plant-carbon relations and largely disregard the importance of plant water status in organogenesis. Consequently, incorporating a turgor-driven growth concept, coupling carbon and water dynamics in an FSPM, presents a significant improvement towards capturing plant development in a more mechanistic manner...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278928/exploring-plant-tissue-culture-in-withania-somnifera-l-dunal-in-vitro-propagation-and-secondary-metabolite-production
#2
Shasmita, Manoj K Rai, Soumendra K Naik
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves...
December 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259612/desiccation-treatment-and-endogenous-iaa-levels-are-key-factors-influencing-high-frequency-somatic-embryogenesis-in-cunninghamia-lanceolata-lamb-hook
#3
Xiaohong Zhou, Renhua Zheng, Guangxin Liu, Yang Xu, Yanwei Zhou, Thomas Laux, Yan Zhen, Scott A Harding, Jisen Shi, Jinhui Chen
Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook (Chinese fir) is an important tree, commercially and ecologically, in southern China. The traditional regenerating methods are based on organogenesis and cutting propagation. Here, we report the development of a high-frequency somatic embryogenesis (SE) regeneration system synchronized via a liquid culture from immature zygotic embryos. Following synchronization, PEM II cell aggregates were developmentally equivalent in appearance to cleaved zygotic embryos. Embryo and suspensor growth and subsequent occurrence of the apical and then the cotyledonary meristems were similar for zygotic and SE embryo development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241560/rna-sequencing-and-analysis-of-three-lupinus-nodulomes-provide-new-insights-into-specific-host-symbiont-relationships-with-compatible-and-incompatible-bradyrhizobium-strains
#4
J Keller, J Imperial, T Ruiz-Argüeso, K Privet, O Lima, S Michon-Coudouel, M Biget, A Salmon, A Aïnouche, F Cabello-Hurtado
Nitrogen fixation in the legume root-nodule symbiosis has a critical importance in natural and agricultural ecosystems and depends on the proper choice of the symbiotic partners. However, the genetic determinism of symbiotic specificity remains unclear. To study this process, we inoculated three Lupinus species (L. albus, L. luteus, L. mariae-josephae), belonging to the under-investigated tribe of Genistoids, with two Bradyrhizobium strains (B. japonicum, B. valentinum) presenting contrasted degrees of symbiotic specificity depending on the host...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218056/respiratory-burst-oxidase-homolog-gene-a-is-crucial-for-rhizobium-infection-and-nodule-maturation-and-function-in-common-bean
#5
Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Jesús Montiel, Rosana Sánchez-López, Noreide Nava, Luis Cárdenas, Carmen Quinto
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) regulate numerous plant cell processes, including the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Rapid and transient ROS production was reported after Phaseolus vulgaris root hairs were treated with Nod factors, indicating the presence of a ROS-associated molecular signature in the symbiosis signaling pathway. Rboh is a multigene family containing nine members (RbohA-I) in P. vulgaris. RNA interference of RbohB suppresses ROS production and attenuates rhizobial infection thread (IT) progression in P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187569/dynamics-of%C3%A2-lotus-japonicus%C3%A2-ethylene-production-in-response-to-compatible-nod-factor
#6
Dugald Elgin Reid, Huijun Liu, Simon Kelly, Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Terry Mun, Stig U Andersen, Guilhem J Desbrosses, Jens Stougaard
Establishment of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in legumes is regulated by the plant hormone ethylene, but it has remained unclear whether and how its biosynthesis is regulated by the symbiotic pathway. We established a sensitive ethylene detection system for Lotus japonicus and found that ethylene production increased as early as six hours after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. This ethylene response was dependent on Nod factor production by compatible rhizobia. Analyses of nodulation mutants showed that perception of Nod factor was required for ethylene emission, while downstream transcription factors including CYCLOPS, NIN and ERN1 were not required for this response...
November 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166855/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-flower-leaf-and-bulb-scale-of-lilium-oriental-hybrid-sorbonne-and-putative-control-network-for-scent-genes
#7
Fang Du, Junmiao Fan, Ting Wang, Yun Wu, Donald Grierson, Zhongshan Gao, Yiping Xia
BACKGROUND: Lily is an economically important plant, with leaves and bulbs consisting of overlapping scales, large ornamental flowers and a very large genome. Although it is recognized that flowers and bulb scales are modified leaves, very little is known about the genetic control and biochemical differentiation underlying lily organogenesis and development. Here we examined the differentially expressed genes in flower, leaf and scale of lily, using RNA-sequencing, and identified organ-specific genes, including transcription factors, genes involved in photosynthesis in leaves, carbohydrate metabolism in bulb scales and scent and color production in flowers...
November 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158642/insights-into-nuclear-dna-content-hydrogen-peroxide-and-antioxidative-enzyme-activities-during-transverse-thin-cell-layer-organogenesis-and-ex-vitro-acclimatization-of-malaxis-wallichii-a-threatened-medicinal-orchid
#8
Biswajit Bose, Suman Kumaria, Hiranjit Choudhury, Pramod Tandon
Malaxis wallichii (Lindl.) Deb, a small, perennial, monopodial, terrestrial orchid, is endemic to tropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1200-2000 m asl. The pseudobulbs are important ingredients of century old drug 'Ashtavarga' and a polyherbal energetic tonic 'Chyavanprash'. An efficient genetically stable in vitro propagation protocol using transverse thin cell layer culture system was established for M. wallichii. In the present report, meta-topolin alone proved to be three times more beneficial compared to other routinely used cytokinins in inducing highest number of shoot buds, plant height and growth of regenerated shoots...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073502/the-growth-of-a-stable-stationary-structure-coordinating-cell-behavior-and-patterning-at-the-shoot-apical-meristem
#9
REVIEW
Jekaterina Truskina, Teva Vernoux
Plants are characterized by their ability to produce new organs post-embryonically throughout their entire life cycle. In particular development of all above-ground organs relies almost entirely on the function of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). The SAM performs a dual role by maintaining a pool of undifferentiated cells and simultaneously driving cell differentiation to initiate organogenesis. Both processes require strict coordination between individual cells which leads to formation of reproducible morphological and molecular patterns within SAM...
October 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032167/evaluation-of-embryotoxic-and-teratogenic-effects-of-the-oil-extracted-from-caryocar-brasiliense-cambess-pulp-in-rats
#10
Giseli Karenina Traesel, Fernando Freitas de Lima, Ariany Carvalho Dos Santos, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho Souza, Daniela Torres Cantadori, Carlos Roberto Kretschmer, Vinicius João Navarini, Silvia Aparecida Oesterreich
The objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal, embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of Caryocar brasiliense pulp oil (OPCB), oil widely used in Brazilian cuisine and traditional medicine. Pregnant Wistar female rats were used in this study for three treatment groups (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) and a control group. The OPCB was administered orally throughout the period of organogenesis of females (6th until the 15th day of gestation). The pregnant females were gross necropsied on d20, followed by maternal and fetus examination, to evaluate the teratogenicity, reproductive and developmental performance of OPCB...
October 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992121/auxin-and-above-ground-meristems
#11
Ying Wang, Yuling Jiao
In contrast to animals, plants maintain life-long post-embryonic organogenesis from specialized tissues termed meristems. Shoot meristems give rise to all aerial tissues and are precisely regulated to balance stem cell renewal and differentiation. The phytohormone auxin has a dynamic and differential distribution within shoot meristems and during shoot meristem formation. Polar auxin transport and local auxin biosynthesis lead to auxin maxima and minima to direct cell fate specification, which are critical for meristem formation, lateral organ formation, and lateral organ patterning...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980679/cellular-behavior-controlled-by-bio-inspired-and-geometry-tunable-nanohairs
#12
Chaejeong Heo, Chanho Jeong, Hyeon Seong Im, Jong Uk Kim, Juhyun Woo, Ji Yeon Lee, Byeonghak Park, Minah Suh, Tae-Il Kim
A cicada wing has a biocidal feature of rupturing the membrane of cells, while the cactus spine can transmit a water drop to the stem of the plant. Both of these properties have evolved from their respective unique structures. Here, we endeavor to develop geometry-controllable nanohairs that mimic the cicada's wing-like vertical hairs and the cactus spine-like stooped hairs, and to quantitatively characterize the cell migration behavior of the hairy structures. It was found that the neuroblastoma cells are highly sensitive to the variation of surfaces: flat, vertical, and stooped nanohairs (100 nm diameter and 900 nm height)...
November 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968512/breakout-lateral-root-emergence-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
REVIEW
Dorothee Stoeckle, Martha Thellmann, Joop Em Vermeer
Lateral roots are determinants of plant root system architecture. Besides providing anchorage, they are a plant's means to explore the soil environment for water and nutrients. Lateral roots form post-embryonically and initiate deep within the root. On its way to the surface, the newly formed organ needs to grow through three overlying cell layers; the endodermis, cortex and epidermis. A picture is emerging that a tight integration of chemical and mechanical signalling between the lateral root and the surrounding tissue is essential for proper organogenesis...
September 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889966/safety-evaluation-of-supratherapeutic-dose-of-maytenus-ilicifolia-mart-ex-reissek-extracts-on-fertility-and-neurobehavioral-status-of-male-and-pregnant-rats
#14
Assis Ecker, Carla Giane Loss, Stephen A Adefegha, Aline Augusti Boligon, Silvane Souza Roman
Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek is a plant commonly used in folklore medicine in the management of gastric diseases in South America. This study explores the effects of a supratherapeutic dose of aqueous and ethanol extracts of M. ilicifolia (1360 mg/kg) on fertility and neurobehavioral status in male and pregnant rats. A battery of sensory-motor developmental endpoints was carried out to assess impairments on pups of dams orally treated with the aqueous extract of M. ilicifolia during the organogenesis period of pregnancy (GD 9 through GD 14)...
September 7, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878500/genome-wide-identification-of-saur-genes-in-watermelon-citrullus-lanatus
#15
Na Zhang, Xing Huang, Yaning Bao, Bo Wang, Hongxia Zeng, Weishun Cheng, Mi Tang, Yuhua Li, Jian Ren, Yuhong Sun
The early auxin responsive SAUR family is an important gene family in auxin signal transduction. We here present the first report of a genome-wide identification of SAUR genes in watermelon genome. We successfully identified 65 ClaSAURs and provide a genomic framework for future study on these genes. Phylogenetic result revealed a Cucurbitaceae-specific SAUR subfamily and contribute to understanding of the evolutionary pattern of SAUR genes in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrates the existed expression of 11 randomly selected SAUR genes in watermelon tissues...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865805/de-novo-root-regeneration-from-leaf-explants-wounding-auxin-and-cell-fate-transition
#16
REVIEW
Lin Xu
Root organogenesis after tissue damage is a type of plant regeneration known as de novo root regeneration (DNRR). The DNRR process is widely exploited in agricultural technologies, such as cuttings for vegetative propagation. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular framework of DNRR, mainly focusing on rooting from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants. The framework comprises three successive phases, that is, early signaling, auxin accumulation, and cell fate transition, and involves two types of cells with different functions: the converter cell that converts the early signals as the input into auxin flux as the output; and the regeneration-competent cell that undergoes fate transition guided by auxin...
August 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794929/high-frequency-direct-shoot-organogenesis-of-leaf-explants-and-a-comparative-evaluation-of-phytochemicals-antioxidant-potential-of-wild-vs-in-vitro-plant-extracts-of-lysimachia-laxa
#17
Sanjoy Gupta, Tapan Seal, A A Mao, Soneswar Sarma
The present studies were attempted to develop direct shoot organogenesis from in vitro grown leaf explants of Lysimachia laxa and comparative evaluation of phytochemical and antioxidant potential of in vitro raised and wild plants extracts. The fresh leaves of this species are used for deworming gastrointestinal worm infection in traditional medicine. Overexploitation of this species and poor regeneration has led to rapid decline in wild population, therefore, present investigation was attempted to develop an efficient rapid mass propagation protocol for this species...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755350/temporary-immersion-system-for-date-palm-micropropagation
#18
Ahmed Othmani, Chokri Bayoudh, Amel Sellemi, Noureddine Drira
The temporary immersion system (TIS) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. TIS usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. The latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. These systems are providing the most satisfactory conditions for date palm regeneration via shoot organogenesis and allow a significant increase of multiplication rate (5...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755335/direct-organogenesis-and-indirect-somatic-embryogenesis-by-in-vitro-reversion-of-mature-female-floral-buds-to-a-vegetative-state
#19
Eman M M Zayed
This protocol describes in vitro plant regeneration from mature female inflorescence explants of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by reversion of floral state (reproductive phase) to the vegetative state. The mature female inflorescence (fully developed) is cultured on MS induction medium containing 10 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3 mg/L 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP), and 2 mg/L paclobutrazol (PBZ) or 2 mg/L abscisic acid (ABA). The basal part of the petals has meristematic cells, which can be induced to initiate callus or direct shoot formation depending on the plant growth regulator amendments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755334/optimized-direct-organogenesis-from-shoot-tip-explants-of-date-palm
#20
Rehab Sidky
In vitro propagation is an available alternative to produce uniform and good-quality planting material to establish large-scale date palm cultivation in a short time. This study was carried out to achieve organogenesis and multiplication directly from shoot tips without callus formation, thus avoiding any possibility of undesirable genetic variability among the regenerated plants. The shoot tips explants are cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 1 mg/L naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA), 2...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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