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plant organogenesis

Yifeng Xu, Nathanaël Prunet, Eng-Seng Gan, Yanbin Wang, Darragh Stewart, Frank Wellmer, Jiangbo Huang, Nobutoshi Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka Tatsumi, Mikiko Kojima, Takatoshi Kiba, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Thomas P Jack, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Toshiro Ito
Proper floral patterning, including the number and position of floral organs in most plant species, is tightly controlled by the precise regulation of the persistence and size of floral meristems (FMs). In Arabidopsis , two known feedback pathways, one composed of WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) and the other composed of AGAMOUS (AG) and WUS, spatially and temporally control floral stem cells, respectively. However, mounting evidence suggests that other factors, including phytohormones, are also involved in floral meristem regulation...
May 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
Lu Liu, Chunying Li, Shiyong Song, Zhi Wei Norman Teo, Lisha Shen, Yanwen Wang, David Jackson, Hao Yu
Organogenesis in higher plants occurs in the shoot meristem, which contains pluripotent stem cells. Here, we show that two multiple C2 domain and transmembrane region proteins, FT INTERACTING PROTEIN 3 (FTIP3) and FTIP4, play an essential role in mediating proliferation and differentiation of shoot stem cells in Arabidopsis. FTIP3/4 prevent intracellular trafficking of a key regulator, SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM), to the plasma membrane in cells in the peripheral shoot meristem region. This facilitates STM recycling to the nucleus to maintain stem cells...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
Jinyi Liu, Xiaodong Fu, Yuwei Dong, Jun Lu, Min Ren, Ningning Zhou, Changquan Wang
MIKCC -type MADS-box (MIKCC ) genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in controlling floral organogenesis and flowering time in plants. Although this gene family has been well characterized in many plant species, its evolutionary and comprehensive functional analysis in rose is lacking. In this study, 58 non-redundant MIKCC uni-transcripts were extensively identified from rose transcriptomes. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes into 12 clades with their Arabidopsis and strawberry counterparts, and revealed that ABCDE model (including AP1/FUL, AP3/PI, AG, and SEP clades), and SOC1 and AGL6 clade genes have remarkably expanded in Rosa chinensis , whereas genes from the FLC and AGL17 clades were undetectable...
2018: Horticulture Research
Robin van Velzen, Rens Holmer, Fengjiao Bu, Luuk Rutten, Arjan van Zeijl, Wei Liu, Luca Santuari, Qingqin Cao, Trupti Sharma, Defeng Shen, Yuda Roswanjaya, Titis A K Wardhani, Maryam Seifi Kalhor, Joelle Jansen, Johan van den Hoogen, Berivan Güngör, Marijke Hartog, Jan Hontelez, Jan Verver, Wei-Cai Yang, Elio Schijlen, Rimi Repin, Menno Schilthuizen, M Eric Schranz, Renze Heidstra, Kana Miyata, Elena Fedorova, Wouter Kohlen, Ton Bisseling, Sandra Smit, Rene Geurts
Nodules harboring nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are a well-known trait of legumes, but nodules also occur in other plant lineages, with rhizobia or the actinomycete Frankia as microsymbiont. It is generally assumed that nodulation evolved independently multiple times. However, molecular-genetic support for this hypothesis is lacking, as the genetic changes underlying nodule evolution remain elusive. We conducted genetic and comparative genomics studies by using Parasponia species (Cannabaceae), the only nonlegumes that can establish nitrogen-fixing nodules with rhizobium...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sergio Alan Cervantes-Pérez, Annie Espinal-Centeno, Araceli Oropeza-Aburto, Juan Caballero-Pérez, Francisco Falcon, Alejandro Aragón-Raygoza, Lino Sánchez-Segura, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Andrés Cruz-Hernández, Alfredo Cruz-Ramírez
In plants, the best characterized plant regeneration process is de novo organogenesis. This type of regeneration is characterized by the formation of a multicellular structure called callus. Calli are induced via phytohormone treatment of plant sections. The callus formation in plants like Agave species with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) is poorly studied. In this study, we induced callus formation from Agave salmiana leaves and describe cell arrangement in this tissue. Moreover, we determined and analyzed the transcriptional program of calli, as well as those of differentiated root and leaf tissues, by using RNA-seq...
April 26, 2018: Developmental Biology
Wu Liu, Lin Xu
Root evolution has resulted in the extant bifurcating roots in lycophytes, adventitious/lateral roots in euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants), and primary roots in seed plants. Here, we hypothesize a role for intermediate-clade-WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (IC-WOX) genes in root evolution. IC-WOX might not be specifically involved in lycophyte bifurcation rooting. In the fern Ceratopteris richardii, IC-WOX is expressed in adventitious/lateral root founder cells. In the seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are two IC-WOX subclades, AtWOX11/12 and AtWOX8/9, in adventitious and primary root founder cells, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Ghasem Asgari-Targhi, Alireza Iranbakhsh, Zahra Oraghi Ardebili
Concerning environmental issues of metal based-nanomaterials and increasing demand for nano-based products; various strategies have been employed to find eco-friendly natural nano-compounds, among which nano-polymer chitosan is mostly considered. Herein, the various aspects of the way in which bulk or nano-chitosan may modify growth, morphogenesis, micropropagation, and physiology of Capsicum annuum L. were considered. Culture medium was manipulated with different concentrations of bulk chitosan or synthesized chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nano-particle...
April 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Marcin Nadzieja, Simon Kelly, Jens Stougaard, Dugald Reid
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes requires nodule organogenesis to be coordinated with infection by rhizobia. The plant hormone auxin influences symbiotic infection, but the precise timing of auxin accumulation and the genetic network governing it remain unclear. We used a Lotus japonicus optimised variant of the DII-based auxin accumulation sensor and identify a rapid accumulation of auxin in the epidermis, specifically in the root hair cells. This auxin accumulation occurs in the infected root hairs during rhizobia invasion, while Nod factor application induces this response across a broader range of root hairs...
April 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Laura Arribas-Hernández, Simon Bressendorff, Mathias Henning Hansen, Christian Poulsen, Susanne Erdmann, Peter Brodersen
Methylation of N6-adenosine (m6A) in mRNA is an important post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes. m6A provides a binding site for effector proteins ("readers") that influence pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA degradation or translational efficiency. YT521-B homology (YTH) domain proteins are important m6A readers with established functions in animals. Plants contain more YTH domain proteins than other eukaryotes, but their biological importance remains unknown. Here, we show that the cytoplasmic Arabidopsis thaliana YTH domain proteins EVOLUTIONARILY CONSERVED C-TERMINAL REGION2/3 (ECT2/3) are required for the correct timing of leaf formation and for normal leaf morphology...
April 11, 2018: Plant Cell
Yue Jin, Zixuan Chen, Jun Yang, Kirankumar S Mysore, Jiangqi Wen, Jirong Huang, Nan Yu, Ertao Wang
Legume plants form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which are regulated by a set of common symbiotic signaling pathway genes. Central to the signaling pathway is the activation of the DMI3/IPD3 protein complex by Ca2+ oscillations, and the initiation of nodule organogenesis and mycorrhizal symbiosis. DMI3 is essential for rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis; however, ipd3 mutants have been shown to be impaired only in infection thread formation but not in root nodule organogenesis in Medicago truncatula ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Imari Koike, Koichiro Shimomura, Mikihisa Umehara
Adventitious shoot formation is an important technique for the propagation of economically important crops and for the regeneration of transgenic plants. Phytohormone treatment is required for the induction of adventitious shoots in most species. Whether adventitious shoots can be induced is determined by the balance between auxin and cytokinin (CK) levels. Much effort goes into determining optimum concentrations and combinations of phytohormones in each tissue used as explants and in each plant species. In ipecac, however, adventitious shoots can be induced on internodal segments in culture medium without phytohormone treatment...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mohamad Abu-Abied, Eduard Belausov, Sapir Hagay, Valera Peremyslov, Valerian Dolja, Einat Sadot
The interplay between myosin- and auxin-mediated processes was investigated by following root development in the triple myosin knockout mutant xi-k xi-1 xi-2 (3KO). It was found that the 3KO plants generated significantly more lateral and adventitious roots than the wild type plants or rescued plant line expressing functional myosin XI-K:YFP (3KOR). Using the auxin-dependent reporter DR5:venus, a significant change in the auxin gradient toward the root tip was found in 3KO plants, which correlated with the loss of polar localization of the auxin transporter PIN1 in the stele and with the increased number of the stele cells with oblique cell walls...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Huan Liu, Chi Zhang, Jun Yang, Nan Yu, Ertao Wang
Leguminous plants can establish symbiotic associations with diazotropic rhizobia to form nitrogen-fixating nodules, which are classified as determinate or indeterminate based on the persistence of nodule meristem. The formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules requires coordinating rhizobial infection and root nodule organogenesis. The formation of infection thread and the extent of nodule formation are largely under plant control but vary with environmental conditions and the physiological state of the host plants...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Ya Lin Sang, Zhi Juan Cheng, Xian Sheng Zhang
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: High cellular plasticity confers remarkable regeneration capacity to plants. Based on the activity of stem cells and their regulators, higher plants are capable of regenerating new individuals. De novo organogenesis exemplifies the regeneration of the whole plant body and is exploited widely in agriculture and biotechnology. In this Tansley insight article, we summarize recent advances that facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying de novo organogenesis...
March 25, 2018: New Phytologist
Akihito Fukudome, Jared S Goldman, Scott A Finlayson, Hisashi Koiwa
De novo shoot organogenesis (DNSO) is a post-embryonic development program that has been widely exploited by plant biotechnology. DNSO is a hormonally regulated process, where auxin and cytokinin (CK) coordinate suites of genes encoding transcription factors, general transcription factors, and RNA metabolism machinery genes. Here we report that silencing Arabidopsis thaliana carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 4 (CPL4RNA i ), which increases phosphorylation level of RNA polymerase II (pol II) CTD, altered lateral root development and DNSO efficiency of the host plants...
March 24, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Rocio Olmo, Javier Cabrera, Carmen Fenoll, Carolina Escobar
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.) are a major pest for the agriculture worldwide. RKNs induce specialized feeding cells (giant cells; GCs) inside galls which are de novo formed pseudo-organs in the roots that share similarities with other developmental processes as lateral root (LR) and callus formation or grafting involving new vascular development or pericycle proliferation. Hence, it is pertinent to study the molecular mechanisms directing the plant-nematode interaction. In this respect, ALF4 is a key gene during lateral root (LR) formation, vascular vessels reconnection in grafting, hormone-induced callus formation or de novo root organogenesis from leaf explants...
March 24, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Véronique Hugouvieux, Catarina S Silva, Agnès Jourdain, Arnaud Stigliani, Quentin Charras, Vanessa Conn, Simon J Conn, Cristel C Carles, François Parcy, Chloe Zubieta
The MADS transcription factors (TF) constitute an ancient family of TF found in all eukaryotes that bind DNA as obligate dimers. Plants have dramatically expanded the functional diversity of the MADS family during evolution by adding protein-protein interaction domains to the core DNA-binding domain, allowing the formation of heterotetrameric complexes. Tetramerization of plant MADS TFs is believed to play a central role in the evolution of higher plants by acting as one of the main determinants of flower formation and floral organ specification...
March 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Natthanon Leelarasamee, Lei Zhang, Cynthia Gleason
Root-knot nematodes secrete effectors that manipulate their host plant cells so that the nematode can successfully establish feeding sites and complete its lifecycle. The root-knot nematode feeding structures, their "giant cells," undergo extensive cytoskeletal remodeling. Previous cytological studies have shown the cytoplasmic actin within the feeding sites looks diffuse. In an effort to study root-knot nematode effectors that are involved in giant cell organogenesis, we have identified a nematode effector called MiPFN3 (Meloidogyne incognita Profilin 3)...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Alicja Dolzblasz, Edyta M Gola, Katarzyna Sokołowska, Elwira Smakowska-Luzan, Adriana Twardawska, Hanna Janska
Shoot and root apical meristems (SAM and RAM, respectively) are crucial to provide cells for growth and organogenesis and therefore need to be maintained throughout the life of a plant. However, plants lacking the mitochondrial protease AtFTSH4 exhibit an intriguing phenotype of precocious cessation of growth at both the shoot and root apices when grown at elevated temperatures. This is due to the accumulation of internal oxidative stress and progressive mitochondria dysfunction. To explore the impacts of the internal oxidative stress on SAM and RAM functioning, we study the expression of selected meristem-specific ( STM , CLV3 , WOX5 ) and cell cycle-related (e...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kyounghee Lee, Ok-Sun Park, Pil Joon Seo
Tissue identity is plastically regulated in plants, and chromatin modifiers/remodelers are main players of cell fate changes. Callus formation is an intriguing example of cell fate transition. Leaf explants can form callus tissues, which resemble lateral root primordium, on callus-inducing medium (CIM). We recently demonstrated that the ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED 2 (ATXR2) protein, which deposits H3K36me3 at genomic level, regulates callus formation on CIM. Consistent with the role of ATXR2 in conferring root identity, lateral root formation was significantly reduced in atxr2-deficient mutants...
March 4, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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