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plant organogenesis

Lauren A E Erland, Christina E Turi, Praveen K Saxena
Serotonin is an ancient indoleamine that was presumably part of the life cycle of the first prokaryotic life forms on Earth millions of years ago where it functioned as a powerful antioxidant to combat the increasingly oxygen rich atmosphere. First identified as a neurotransmitter signaling molecule in mammals, it is ubiquitous across all forms of life. Serotonin was discovered in plants many years after its discovery in mammals; however, it has now been confirmed in almost all plant families, where it plays important roles in plant growth and development, including functions in energy acquisition, seasonal cycles, modulation of reproductive development, control of root and shoot organogenesis, maintenance of plant tissues, delay of senescence, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses...
October 11, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Lorenzo Giusti, Erica Mica, Edoardo Bertolini, Anna Maria De Leonardis, Primetta Faccioli, Luigi Cattivelli, Cristina Crosatti
Plant stress response is a complex molecular process based on transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of many stress-related genes. microRNAs are the best-studied class of small RNAs known to play key regulatory roles in plant response to stress, besides being involved in plant development and organogenesis. We analyzed the leaf miRNAome of two durum wheat cultivars (Cappelli and Ofanto) characterized by a contrasting water use efficiency, exposed to heat stress, and mild and severe drought stress...
October 12, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Melissa Yit Yee Kam, Li Chin Chai, Chiew Foan Chin
Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A...
2016: SpringerPlus
Christoffer Johnsson, Urs Fischer
Unlike animals, plants often have an indefinite genetic potency to form new organs throughout their entire lifespan. Growth and organogenesis are driven by cell divisions in meristems at distinct sites within the plant. Since the meristems contributing to axial thickening in dicots (cambia) are separated from places where axes elongate (apical meristems); there is a need of communication to coordinate growth. In their behavior, some meristematic cells resemble animal stem cells whose daughter cells either maintain the capacity to divide over a long period of time or undergo differentiation...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Chao Li, Yan Wang, Liang Xu, Shanshan Nie, Yinglong Chen, Dongyi Liang, Xiaochuan Sun, Benard K Karanja, Xiaobo Luo, Liwang Liu
The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kalpana Nanjareddy, Lourdes Blanco, Manoj Kumar Arthikala, Xochitl Alvarado-Affantranger, Carmen Quinto, Federico Sanchez, Miguel Lara
The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth and life span in yeast, animals and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR's role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the Phaseolus vulgaris-Rhizobium symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested Phaseolus tissues, with higher expression levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules...
October 3, 2016: Plant Physiology
Javier Raya-González, Crisanto Velázquez-Becerra, Salvador Barrera-Ortiz, José López-Bucio, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are natural inhabitants of roots, colonize diverse monocot and dicot species, and affect several functional traits such as root architecture, adaptation to adverse environments, and protect plants from pathogens. N,N-dimethyl-hexadecylamine (C16-DMA) is a rhizobacterial amino lipid that modulates the postembryonic development of several plants, likely as part of volatile blends. In this work, we evaluated the bioactivity of C16-DMA and other related N,N-dimethyl-amines with varied length and found that inhibition of primary root growth was related to the length of the acyl chain...
September 30, 2016: Protoplasma
Magdolna Gombos, Zoltán Zombori, Mária Szécsényi, Györgyi Sándor, Hajnalka Kovács, János Györgyey
An unambiguous nomenclature is proposed for the twenty-eight-member LOB domain transcription factor family in Brachypodium . Expression analysis provides unique transcript patterns that are characteristic of a wide range of organs and plant parts. LOB (lateral organ boundaries)-domain proteins define a family of plant-specific transcription factors involved in developmental processes from embryogenesis to seed production. They play a crucial role in shaping the plant architecture through coordinating cell fate at meristem to organ boundaries...
September 29, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Lyuqin Chen, Beibei Sun, Lin Xu, Wu Liu
Wounding is the first event that occurs in plant regeneration. However, wound signaling in plant regeneration is barely understood. Using a simple system of de novo root organogenesis from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants, we analyzed the genes downstream of wound signaling. Leaf explants may produce at least two kinds of wound signals to trigger short-term and long-term wound signaling. Short-term wound signaling is primarily involved in controlling auxin behavior and the fate transition of regeneration-competent cells, while long-term wound signaling mainly modulates the cellular environment at the wound site and maintains the auxin level in regeneration-competent cells...
September 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yingpeng Hua, Ting Zhou, Guangda Ding, Qingyong Yang, Lei Shi, Fangsen Xu
Allotetraploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L. AnAnCnCn, 2n=4x=38) is highly susceptible to boron (B) deficiency, a widespread limiting factor that causes severe losses in seed yield. The genetic variation in the sensitivity to B deficiency found in rapeseed genotypes emphasizes the complex response architecture. In this research, a B-inefficient genotype, 'Westar 10' ('W10'), responded to B deficiencies during vegetative and reproductive development with an over-accumulation of reactive oxygen species, severe lipid peroxidation, evident plasmolysis, abnormal floral organogenesis, and widespread sterility compared to a B-efficient genotype, 'Qingyou 10' ('QY10')...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Adeyemi O Aremu, Lenka Plačková, Aleš Pěnčík, Ondřej Novák, Karel Doležal, Johannes Van Staden
In the current study, we evaluated the effect of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) individually or in combination with different cytokinins (CKs) including benzyladenine (BA), meta-topolin (mT) and isopentenyladenine (iP) on organogenesis, auxin and CK content in Eucomis autumnalis subspecies autumnalis (EA) and Eucomis zambesiaca (EZ). These species were used as model plants due to their ornamental and medicinal properties. Three leaf explants were inoculated in screw-cap jars containing 30mL Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 5μM NAA alone or in combination with 5μM CK (BA, mT or iP)...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Marwa Mostafa Mostafa, Mohammad Nassef, Amr Badr
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Salmonella and Escherichia coli are different types of bacteria that cause food poisoning in humans. In the elderly, infants and people with chronic conditions, it is very dangerous if Salmonella or E. coli gets into the bloodstream and then they must be treated by phage therapy. Treating Salmonella and E. coli by phage therapy affects the gut flora. This research paper presents a system for detecting the effects of virulent E. coli and Salmonella bacteriophages on human gut...
October 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Elisabetta Di Giacomo, Carole Laffont, Francesca Sciarra, Maria Adelaide Iannelli, Florian Frugier, Giovanna Frugis
We investigated the role of KNOX genes in legume root nodule organogenesis. Class 1 KNOX homeodomain transcription factors (TFs) are involved in plant shoot development and leaf shape diversity. Class 2 KNOX genes are less characterized, even though an antagonistic function relative to class 1 KNOXs was recently proposed. In silico expression data and further experimental validation identified in the Medicago truncatula model legume three class 2 KNOX genes, belonging to the KNAT3/4/5-like subclass (Mt KNAT3/4/5-like), as expressed during nodulation from early stages...
September 1, 2016: New Phytologist
Ciera C Martinez, Daniel Koenig, Daniel H Chitwood, Neelima R Sinha
The spatiotemporal localization of the plant hormone auxin acts as a positional cue during early leaf and flower organogenesis. One of the main contributors to auxin localization is the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1). Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that PIN1 genes are split into two sister clades; PIN1 and the relatively uncharacterized Sister-Of-PIN1 (SoPIN1). In this paper we identify entire-2 as a loss-of-function SlSoPIN1a (Solyc10g078370) mutant in Solanum lycopersicum. The entire-2 plants are unable to specify proper leaf initiation leading to a frequent switch from the wild type spiral phyllotactic pattern to distichous and decussate patterns...
August 20, 2016: Developmental Biology
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Sumita Jha
This review provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of the in vitro culture of Tylophora species, which have medicinal properties. Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. is a climbing perennial vine with medicinal properties. The tissue culture and genetic transformation of T. indica, which has been extensively studied, is reviewed. Micropropagation using nodal explants has been reported in 25 % of all publications. Leaf explants from field-grown plants has been the explant of choice of independent research groups, which reported direct and callus-mediated organogenesis as well as callus-mediated somatic embryogenesis...
November 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Yue Jin, Huan Liu, Dexian Luo, Nan Yu, Wentao Dong, Chao Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Huiling Dai, Jun Yang, Ertao Wang
Legumes form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Formation of these two symbioses is regulated by a common set of signalling components that act downstream of recognition of rhizobia or mycorrhizae by host plants. Central to these pathways is the calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK)-IPD3 complex which initiates nodule organogenesis following calcium oscillations in the host nucleus. However, downstream signalling events are not fully understood...
2016: Nature Communications
Naden T Krogan, Danielle Marcos, Aaron I Weiner, Thomas Berleth
The regulatory effect auxin has on its own transport is critical in numerous self-organizing plant patterning processes. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms linking auxin signal transduction and auxin transport is still fragmentary, and important regulatory genes remain to be identified. To track a key link between auxin signaling and auxin transport in development, we established an Arabidopsis thaliana genetic background in which fundamental patterning processes in both shoot and root were essentially abolished and the expression of PIN FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux facilitators was dramatically reduced...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Qiaoxia Li, Qingdi Huo, Juan Wang, Jing Zhao, Kun Sun, Chaoying He
BACKGROUND: Some plants develop a breeding system that produces both chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. RESULTS: In the present study, we observed that Viola philippica develops CH flowers with short daylight, whereas an extended photoperiod induces the formation of intermediate CL and CL flowers. In response to long daylight, the respective number and size of petals and stamens was lower and smaller than those of normally developed CH flowers, and a minimum of 14-h light induced complete CL flowers that had no petals but developed two stamens of reduced fertility...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Md Nur Kabidul Azam, Md Mizanur Rahman, Samanta Biswas, Md Nasir Ahmed
Cancer is a group of diseases which is categorized to differentiate into diverse cell types and move around in the body to sites of organogenesis that is key to the process of tumor genesis. All types of cancer fall into the group of malignant neoplastic diseases. In Bangladesh, cancer is now one of the foremost killer diseases and its personal, social, and economic bearing are huge. Plant-derived natural compounds (vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, paclitaxel, camptothecin, topotecan, and irinotecan) are useful for the treatment of cancer...
2016: International Scholarly Research Notices
Yassin Refahi, Géraldine Brunoud, Etienne Farcot, Alain Jean-Marie, Minna Pulkkinen, Teva Vernoux, Christophe Godin
Exploration of developmental mechanisms classically relies on analysis of pattern regularities. Whether disorders induced by biological noise may carry information on building principles of developmental systems is an important debated question. Here, we addressed theoretically this question using phyllotaxis, the geometric arrangement of plant aerial organs, as a model system. Phyllotaxis arises from reiterative organogenesis driven by lateral inhibitions at the shoot apex. Motivated by recurrent observations of disorders in phyllotaxis patterns, we revisited in depth the classical deterministic view of phyllotaxis...
2016: ELife
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