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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273182/protocol-for-efficient-regulation-of-in-vitro-morphogenesis-in-einkorn-triticum-monococcum-l-a-recalcitrant-diploid-wheat-species
#1
Dmitry Miroshnichenko, Inna Chaban, Mariya Chernobrovkina, Sergey Dolgov
Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) is A-genome diploid wheat that has a potential to become a useful model for understanding the biology and genomics in Triticeae. Unfortunately, the application of modern technologies such as genetic engineering, RNAi-based gene silencing and genome editing is not available for einkorn as there is no efficient in vitro tissue culture and plant regeneration system. In the present study an efficient and simple protocol for plant regeneration via direct or indirect somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis has been developed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272988/chlorophyllide-a-oxygenase-cao-deficiency-affects-the-levels-of-singlet-oxygen-and-formation-of-plasmodesmata-in-leaves-and-shoot-apical-meristems-of-barley
#2
Valeria A Dmitrieva, Alexandra N Ivanova, Elena V Tyutereva, Anastasiia I Evkaikina, Ekaterina A Klimova, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja
In plants, organogenesis and specification of cell layers and tissues rely on precise symplastic delivery of regulatory molecules via plasmodesmata. Accordingly, abundance and aperture of plasmodesmata at individual cell boundaries should be controlled by the plant. Recently, studies in Arabidopsis established reactive oxygen species as major regulators of plasmodesmata formation and gating. We show that in a barley mutant deficient in the synthesis of chlorophyll b, the numbers of plasmodesmata in leaves and in the shoot apical meristem are significantly higher than in the corresponding wild type, probably due to redox imbalance in the mutant...
March 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263025/poly-adp-ribose-polymerases-regulate-cell-division-and-development-in-arabidopsis-roots
#3
Caifeng Liu, Qiao Wu, Weiwei Liu, Zongyin Gu, Wenjing Wang, Ping Xu, Hong Ma, Xiaochun Ge
Root organogenesis involves cell division, differentiation and expansion. The molecular mechanisms regulating root development are not fully understood. In this study, we identified poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) as new players in root development. PARP catalyzes poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins by repeatedly adding ADP-ribose units onto proteins using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) as the donor. We found that inhibition of PARP activities by 3-aminobenzomide (3-AB) increased the growth rates of both primary and lateral roots, leading to a more developed root system...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254480/effects-of-dichloromethane-and-butanol-fractions-of-gochnatia-polymorpha-subsp-floccosum-in-maternal-reproductive-outcome-embryo-fetal-development-and-dna-integrity-in-mice
#4
Lucas Roberto Pessatto, Sarah Alves Auharek, Caroline Amélia Gonçalves, Natan de David, Antônio Carlos Duenhas Monreal, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya, AndreiaAndréia Conceição Milan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva, Maria Élida Alves Stefanello, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gochnatia polymorpha ssp. floccosa (Asteraceae) also known as ''Cambará'' is used as medicinal plant in Brazil to treat infections and inflammation. Previous studies showed that its ethanolic extract could be bioprospecting of a new anti-inflammatory phytotherapy for use during pregnancy. This work aimed to evaluate dichloromethane (DCM) and butanolic (BT) fractions from G. polymorpha on embryo-fetal development and DNA integrity in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female mice were treated with 50 and 20mg/kg of the DCM and BT fractions, respectively, during organogenesis and gestational period...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246118/gtpase-rop2-binds-and-promotes-activation-of-target-of-rapamycin-tor-in-response-to-auxin
#5
Mikhail Schepetilnikov, Joelle Makarian, Ola Srour, Angèle Geldreich, Zhenbiao Yang, Johana Chicher, Philippe Hammann, Lyubov A Ryabova
Target of rapamycin (TOR) promotes reinitiation at upstream ORFs (uORFs) in genes that play important roles in stem cell regulation and organogenesis in plants. Here, we report that the small GTPase ROP2, if activated by the phytohormone auxin, promotes activation of TOR, and thus translation reinitiation of uORF-containing mRNAs. Plants with high levels of active ROP2, including those expressing constitutively active ROP2 (CA-ROP2), contain high levels of active TOR ROP2 physically interacts with and, when GTP-bound, activates TOR in vitro TOR activation in response to auxin is abolished in ROP-deficient rop2 rop6 ROP4 RNAi plants...
February 28, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223441/rima-dependent-nuclear-accumulation-of-iyo-triggers-auxin-irreversible-cell-differentiation-in-arabidopsis
#6
Alfonso Muñoz, Silvina Mangano, Mary Paz González-García, Ramón Contreras, Michael B Sauer, Bert De Rybel, Dolf Weijers, José J Sánchez-Serrano, Maite Sanmartín, Enrique Rojo
The transcriptional regulator MINIYO (IYO) is essential and rate-limiting for initiating cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, IYO moves from the cytosol into the nucleus in cells at the meristem periphery, possibly triggering their differentiation. However, the genetic mechanisms controlling IYO nuclear accumulation were unknown and the evidence that increased nuclear IYO levels trigger differentiation remained correlative. Searching for IYO interactors, we have identified RPAP2 IYO Mate (RIMA), a homologue of yeast and human proteins linked to nuclear import of selective cargo...
February 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138058/basic-pentacysteine-proteins-repress-abscisic-acid-insensitive4-expression-via-direct-recruitment-of-the-polycomb-repressive-complex-2-in-arabidopsis-root-development
#7
Ying Mu, Meijuan Zou, Xuwu Sun, Baoye He, Xiumei Xu, Yini Liu, Lixin Zhang, Wei Chi
Plant transcription factors generally act in complex regulatory networks that function at multiple levels to govern plant developmental programs. Dissection of the interconnections among different classes of transcription factors can elucidate these regulatory networks and thus improve our understanding of plant development. Here, we investigated the molecular and functional relationships of the transcription factors ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) and members of the BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (BPC) family in lateral root (LR) development of Arabidopsis thaliana Genetic analysis showed that BPCs promote LR development by repressing ABI4 expression...
January 30, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111153/plant-stress-tolerance-requires-auxin-sensitive-aux-iaa-transcriptional-repressors
#8
Eilon Shani, Mohammad Salehin, Yuqin Zhang, Sabrina E Sanchez, Colleen Doherty, Renhou Wang, Cristina Castillejo Mangado, Liang Song, Iris Tal, Odelia Pisanty, Joseph R Ecker, Steve A Kay, Jose Pruneda-Paz, Mark Estelle
The Aux/IAA proteins are auxin-sensitive repressors that mediate diverse physiological and developmental processes in plants [1, 2]. There are 29 Aux/IAA genes in Arabidopsis that exhibit unique but partially overlapping patterns of expression [3]. Although some studies have suggested that individual Aux/IAA genes have specialized function, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes [4]. Furthermore, with a few exceptions, our knowledge of the factors that regulate Aux/IAA expression is limited [1, 5]...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086797/sep-class-genes-in-prunus-mume-and-their-likely-role-in-floral-organ-development
#9
Yuzhen Zhou, Zongda Xu, Xue Yong, Sagheer Ahmad, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028038/function-and-evolution-of-a-lotus-japonicus-ap2-erf-family-transcription-factor-that-is-required-for-development-of-infection-threads
#10
Koji Yano, Seishiro Aoki, Meng Liu, Yosuke Umehara, Norio Suganuma, Wataru Iwasaki, Shusei Sato, Takashi Soyano, Hiroshi Kouchi, Masayoshi Kawaguchi
Legume-rhizobium symbiosis is achieved by two major events evolutionarily acquired: root hair infection and organogenesis. Infection thread (IT) development is a distinct element for rhizobial infection. Through ITs, rhizobia are efficiently transported from infection foci on root hairs to dividing meristematic cortical cells. To unveil this process, we performed genetic screening using Lotus japonicus MG-20 and isolated symbiotic mutant lines affecting nodulation, root hair morphology, and IT development. Map-based cloning identified an AP2/ERF transcription factor gene orthologous to Medicago truncatula ERN1 LjERN1 was activated in response to rhizobial infection and depended on CYCLOPS and NSP2...
December 27, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883217/nitric-oxide-is-involved-in-methane-induced-adventitious-root-formation-in-cucumber
#11
Fang Qi, Zhixin Xiang, Ninghai Kou, Weiti Cui, Daokun Xu, Ren Wang, Dan Zhu, Wenbiao Shen
Our previous studies revealed that methane (CH4 ) induces adventitious rooting in cucumber. However, the corresponding molecular mechanism is still elusive. In this work, we discovered that CH4 triggered the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) and thereafter cucumber adventitious rooting, mimicking the inducing effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and NONOate (two NO-releasing compounds). Above mentioned responses were sensitive to NO scavenger(s), showing that the accumulation of NO and adventitious root development were respectively impaired...
March 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878992/fusca3-interacting-with-leafy-cotyledon2-controls-lateral-root-formation-through-regulating-yucca4-gene-expression-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Li Ping Tang, Chao Zhou, Shan Shan Wang, Jia Yuan, Xian Sheng Zhang, Ying Hua Su
Lateral root (LR) development is a post-embryonic organogenesis event that gives rise to most of the underground parts of higher plants. Auxin promotes LR formation, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still not well understood. We analyzed LR formation induced by FUSCA3 (FUS3), a B3 domain transcription factor, which may function by promoting auxin biosynthesis during this process. We identified FUS3-interacting proteins that function in LR formation. In addition, we searched for the common targets of both FUS3 and its interacting protein...
November 23, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872633/a-factor-linking-floral-organ-identity-and-growth-revealed-by-characterization-of-the-tomato-mutant-unfinished-flower-development-ufd
#13
Sandra Poyatos-Pertíñez, Muriel Quinet, Ana Ortíz-Atienza, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Clara Pons, Estela Giménez, Trinidad Angosto, Antonio Granell, Juan Capel, Rafael Lozano
Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864511/root-nodule-symbiosis-in-lotus-japonicus-drives-the-establishment-of-distinctive-rhizosphere-root-and-nodule-bacterial-communities
#14
Rafal Zgadzaj, Ruben Garrido-Oter, Dorthe Bodker Jensen, Anna Koprivova, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Simona Radutoiu
Lotus japonicus has been used for decades as a model legume to study the establishment of binary symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that trigger root nodule organogenesis for bacterial accommodation. Using community profiling of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we reveal that in Lotus, distinctive nodule- and root-inhabiting communities are established by parallel, rather than consecutive, selection of bacteria from the rhizosphere and root compartments. Comparative analyses of wild-type (WT) and symbiotic mutants in Nod factor receptor5 (nfr5), Nodule inception (nin) and Lotus histidine kinase1 (lhk1) genes identified a previously unsuspected role of the nodulation pathway in the establishment of different bacterial assemblages in the root and rhizosphere...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797357/reprogramming-of-dna-methylation-is-critical-for-nodule-development-in-medicago-truncatula
#15
Carine Satgé, Sandra Moreau, Erika Sallet, Gaëlle Lefort, Marie-Christine Auriac, Céline Remblière, Ludovic Cottret, Karine Gallardo, Céline Noirot, Marie-Françoise Jardinaud, Pascal Gamas
The legume-Rhizobium symbiosis leads to the formation of a new organ, the root nodule, involving coordinated and massive induction of specific genes. Several genes controlling DNA methylation are spatially regulated within the Medicago truncatula nodule, notably the demethylase gene, DEMETER (DME), which is mostly expressed in the differentiation zone. Here, we show that MtDME is essential for nodule development and regulates the expression of 1,425 genes, some of which are critical for plant and bacterial cell differentiation...
October 31, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784768/transcription-factors-wox11-12-directly-activate-wox5-7-to-promote-root-primordia-initiation-and-organogenesis
#16
Xiaomei Hu, Lin Xu
De novo organogenesis, which gives rise to adventitious roots and shoots, is a type of plant regeneration for survival after wounding. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two main cell fate transition steps are required to establish the root primordium during de novo root organogenesis from leaf explants. The first step from regeneration-competent cells to root founder cells involves activation of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX11 (WOX11) and WOX12 (WOX11/12) expression by auxin. However, the molecular mechanism controlling the second step of fate transition from root founder cells to root primordium is poorly understood...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742596/serotonin-an-ancient-molecule-and-an-important-regulator-of-plant-processes
#17
Lauren A E Erland, Christina E Turi, Praveen K Saxena
Serotonin is an ancient indoleamine that was presumably part of the life cycle of the first prokaryotic life forms on Earth millions of years ago where it functioned as a powerful antioxidant to combat the increasingly oxygen rich atmosphere. First identified as a neurotransmitter signaling molecule in mammals, it is ubiquitous across all forms of life. Serotonin was discovered in plants many years after its discovery in mammals; however, it has now been confirmed in almost all plant families, where it plays important roles in plant growth and development, including functions in energy acquisition, seasonal cycles, modulation of reproductive development, control of root and shoot organogenesis, maintenance of plant tissues, delay of senescence, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses...
October 11, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734229/micrornas-differentially-modulated-in-response-to-heat-and-drought-stress-in-durum-wheat-cultivars-with-contrasting-water-use-efficiency
#18
Lorenzo Giusti, Erica Mica, Edoardo Bertolini, Anna Maria De Leonardis, Primetta Faccioli, Luigi Cattivelli, Cristina Crosatti
Plant stress response is a complex molecular process based on transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of many stress-related genes. microRNAs are the best-studied class of small RNAs known to play key regulatory roles in plant response to stress, besides being involved in plant development and organogenesis. We analyzed the leaf miRNAome of two durum wheat cultivars (Cappelli and Ofanto) characterized by a contrasting water use efficiency, exposed to heat stress, and mild and severe drought stress...
October 12, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730019/the-biology-and-in-vitro-propagation-of-the-ornamental-aquatic-plant-aponogeton-ulvaceus
#19
Melissa Yit Yee Kam, Li Chin Chai, Chiew Foan Chin
Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717460/cambial-stem-cells-and-their-niche
#20
REVIEW
Christoffer Johnsson, Urs Fischer
Unlike animals, plants often have an indefinite genetic potency to form new organs throughout their entire lifespan. Growth and organogenesis are driven by cell divisions in meristems at distinct sites within the plant. Since the meristems contributing to axial thickening in dicots (cambia) are separated from places where axes elongate (apical meristems); there is a need of communication to coordinate growth. In their behavior, some meristematic cells resemble animal stem cells whose daughter cells either maintain the capacity to divide over a long period of time or undergo differentiation...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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