Read by QxMD icon Read

plant organogenesis

Natthanon Leelarasamee, Lei Zhang, Cynthia Gleason
Root-knot nematodes secrete effectors that manipulate their host plant cells so that the nematode can successfully establish feeding sites and complete its lifecycle. The root-knot nematode feeding structures, their "giant cells," undergo extensive cytoskeletal remodeling. Previous cytological studies have shown the cytoplasmic actin within the feeding sites looks diffuse. In an effort to study root-knot nematode effectors that are involved in giant cell organogenesis, we have identified a nematode effector called MiPFN3 (Meloidogyne incognita Profilin 3)...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Alicja Dolzblasz, Edyta M Gola, Katarzyna Sokołowska, Elwira Smakowska-Luzan, Adriana Twardawska, Hanna Janska
Shoot and root apical meristems (SAM and RAM, respectively) are crucial to provide cells for growth and organogenesis and therefore need to be maintained throughout the life of a plant. However, plants lacking the mitochondrial protease AtFTSH4 exhibit an intriguing phenotype of precocious cessation of growth at both the shoot and root apices when grown at elevated temperatures. This is due to the accumulation of internal oxidative stress and progressive mitochondria dysfunction. To explore the impacts of the internal oxidative stress on SAM and RAM functioning, we study the expression of selected meristem-specific ( STM , CLV3 , WOX5 ) and cell cycle-related (e...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kyounghee Lee, Ok-Sun Park, Pil Joon Seo
Tissue identity is plastically regulated in plants, and chromatin modifiers/remodelers are main players of cell fate changes. Callus formation is an intriguing example of cell fate transition. Leaf explants can form callus tissues, which resemble lateral root primordium, on callus-inducing medium (CIM). We recently demonstrated that the ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED 2 (ATXR2) protein, which deposits H3K36me3 at genomic level, regulates callus formation on CIM. Consistent with the role of ATXR2 in conferring root identity, lateral root formation was significantly reduced in atxr2-deficient mutants...
March 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jacklyn Thomas, Megan J Bowman, Andres Vega, Ha Ram Kim, Arijit Mukherjee
Auxins can induce the formation of nodule-like structures (NLS) in plant roots even in the absence of rhizobia and nitrogen-fixing bacteria can colonize these structures. Interestingly, NLS can be induced in roots of both legumes and non-legumes. However, our understanding of NLS formation in non-legumes at a molecular level is limited. This study aims to investigate NLS formation at a developmental and molecular level in Brachypodium distachyon. We treated Brachypodium roots with the synthetic auxin, 2,4-D, to induce NLS at a high frequency (> 80%) under controlled conditions...
March 6, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Aloka Kumari, Ponnusamy Baskaran, Lenka Plačková, Hana Omámiková, Jaroslav Nisler, Karel Doležal, Johannes Van Staden
The endogenous auxin and cytokinin contents of in vitro regenerated Tulbaghia simmleri maintained on applied plant growth regulators in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were investigated using UHPLC-MS analysis. The highest number of shoots (27.6 per leaf) were produced in MS medium supplemented with 2.5 μM thidiazuron. A higher number of these shoots were rooted with 10 μM 6-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbenzylamino) purine (PI-55, cytokinin antagonist). Production of somatic embryos (SEs: 16.4-4.6, globular to cotyledonary stages) improved significantly with liquid MS medium containing 2...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
A J Debnath, G Gangopadhyay, D Basu, S R Sikdar
Establishment of a suitable regeneration protocol is a pre-requisite to carry out transformation study in Sesamum indicum L. (sesame). In this paper, different parameters of regeneration were standardised to develop an efficient protocol for in vitro plant regeneration via direct adventitious shoot organogenesis using de-embryonated cotyledons of sesame as explants. Among the various treatments of MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine, thidiazuron and indole-3-acetic acid, maximum regeneration frequency (25...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Erin L McAdam, James B Reid, Eloise Foo
Leguminous plant roots can form a symbiosis with soil dwelling nitrogen-fixing rhizobia leading to the formation of a new root organ, the nodule. Successful nodulation requires co-ordination of spatially separated events in the root, including infection in the root epidermis and nodule organogenesis deep in the root cortex. We show that the hormone gibberellin plays distinct roles in these epidermal and cortical programs. We employed a unique set of genetic material in pea that includes severely gibberellin-deficient lines and della-deficient lines that enabled us to characterise all stages of infection and nodule development...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Thomas Stanislas, Matthieu Pierre Platre, Mengying Liu, Léa E S Rambaud-Lavigne, Yvon Jaillais, Olivier Hamant
BACKGROUND: In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) has two main functions, involving the production of all aerial organs on the one hand and self-maintenance on the other, allowing the production of organs during the entire post-embryonic life of the plant. Transcription factors, microRNA, hormones, peptides and forces have been involved in meristem function. Whereas phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) have been involved in almost all biological functions, including stem cell maintenance and organogenesis in animals, the processes in meristem biology to which PIPs contribute still need to be delineated...
February 7, 2018: BMC Biology
Micah E Stevens, Keith E Woeste, Paula M Pijut
Cutting propagation plays a large role in the forestry and horticulture industries where superior genotypes need to be clonally multiplied. Integral to this process is the ability of cuttings to form adventitious roots. Recalcitrance to adventitious root development is a serious hurdle for many woody plant propagation systems including black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), an economically valuable species. The inability of black walnut to reliably form adventitious roots limits propagation of superior genotypes...
January 25, 2018: Tree Physiology
Nan Li, Han Wu, Qiangqiang Ding, Huihui Li, Zhifei Li, Jing Ding, Yi Li
Anthocyanins are naturally occurring secondary metabolites, responsible for the color of many plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana MYB90/PAP2 (production of anthocyanin pigment 2) was introduced into tomato to study its effect on anthocyanin accumulation. The transgenic tomato displayed much greater anthocyanin accumulation than wild type in all plant organs, but the organs were not fully purple in color except for the stamen. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and an anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene SlAN1 was significantly increased in the transgenic line, suggesting that ectopic expression of AtPAP2 increases the expression of anthocyanin-related structural and regulatory genes to enhance anthocyanin content...
January 26, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Liping Chen, Yuan Zhao, Shujuan Xu, Zeyong Zhang, Yunyuan Xu, Jingyu Zhang, Kang Chong
Plants modify their development to adapt to their environment, protecting themselves from detrimental conditions such as chilling stress by triggering a variety of signaling pathways; however, little is known about how plants coordinate developmental patterns and stress responses at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that interacting transcription factors OsMADS57 and OsTB1 directly target the defense gene OsWRKY94 and the organogenesis gene D14 to trade off the functions controlling/moderating rice tolerance to cold...
January 24, 2018: New Phytologist
Benoit Landrein, Pau Formosa-Jordan, Alice Malivert, Christoph Schuster, Charles W Melnyk, Weibing Yang, Colin Turnbull, Elliot M Meyerowitz, James C W Locke, Henrik Jönsson
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is responsible for the generation of all the aerial parts of plants. Given its critical role, dynamical changes in SAM activity should play a central role in the adaptation of plant architecture to the environment. Using quantitative microscopy, grafting experiments, and genetic perturbations, we connect the plant environment to the SAM by describing the molecular mechanism by which cytokinins signal the level of nutrient availability to the SAM. We show that a systemic signal of cytokinin precursors mediates the adaptation of SAM size and organogenesis rate to the availability of mineral nutrients by modulating the expression of WUSCHEL, a key regulator of stem cell homeostasis...
January 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Perumal Venkatachalam, Udayabhanu Jinu, Palanivel Sangeetha, Natesan Geetha, Shivendra Vikram Sahi
Influence of cytokinins, silver nitrate (AgNO3) and auxins on plant regeneration from cucumber was investigated. The cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS medium augmented with various concentrations (0.5-2.5 mg l-1) of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN) for shoot bud induction. BAP at 1.5 mg l-1 was found to be the best concentration for induction of high frequency of multiple shoots (98.4%). Interestingly, maximum percent of multiple shoot regeneration (100%) as well as number of shoot buds (54...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Jonas R Coussement, Tom De Swaef, Peter Lootens, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Kathy Steppe
Background and Aims: In many scenarios the availability of assimilated carbon is not the constraining factor of plant growth. Rather, organ growth appears driven by sink activity in which water availability plays a determinant role. Current functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) mainly focus on plant-carbon relations and largely disregard the importance of plant water status in organogenesis. Consequently, incorporating a turgor-driven growth concept, coupling carbon and water dynamics in an FSPM, presents a significant improvement towards capturing plant development in a more mechanistic manner...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Botany
Shasmita, Manoj K Rai, Soumendra K Naik
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves...
December 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiaohong Zhou, Renhua Zheng, Guangxin Liu, Yang Xu, Yanwei Zhou, Thomas Laux, Yan Zhen, Scott A Harding, Jisen Shi, Jinhui Chen
Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook (Chinese fir) is an important tree, commercially and ecologically, in southern China. The traditional regenerating methods are based on organogenesis and cutting propagation. Here, we report the development of a high-frequency somatic embryogenesis (SE) regeneration system synchronized via a liquid culture from immature zygotic embryos. Following synchronization, PEM II cell aggregates were developmentally equivalent in appearance to cleaved zygotic embryos. Embryo and suspensor growth and subsequent occurrence of the apical and then the cotyledonary meristems were similar for zygotic and SE embryo development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
J Keller, J Imperial, T Ruiz-Argüeso, K Privet, O Lima, S Michon-Coudouel, M Biget, A Salmon, A Aïnouche, F Cabello-Hurtado
Nitrogen fixation in the legume root-nodule symbiosis has a critical importance in natural and agricultural ecosystems and depends on the proper choice of the symbiotic partners. However, the genetic determinism of symbiotic specificity remains unclear. To study this process, we inoculated three Lupinus species (L. albus, L. luteus, L. mariae-josephae), belonging to the under-investigated tribe of Genistoids, with two Bradyrhizobium strains (B. japonicum, B. valentinum) presenting contrasted degrees of symbiotic specificity depending on the host...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Jesús Montiel, Rosana Sánchez-López, Noreide Nava, Luis Cárdenas, Carmen Quinto
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) regulate numerous plant cell processes, including the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Rapid and transient ROS production was reported after Phaseolus vulgaris root hairs were treated with Nod factors, indicating the presence of a ROS-associated molecular signature in the symbiosis signaling pathway. Rboh is a multigene family containing nine members ( RbohA-I ) in P. vulgaris . RNA interference of RbohB suppresses ROS production and attenuates rhizobial infection thread (IT) progression in P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dugald Reid, Huijun Liu, Simon Kelly, Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Terry Mun, Stig U Andersen, Guilhem Desbrosses, Jens Stougaard
Establishment of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in legumes is regulated by the plant hormone ethylene, but it has remained unclear whether and how its biosynthesis is regulated by the symbiotic pathway. We established a sensitive ethylene detection system for Lotus japonicus and found that ethylene production increased as early as 6 hours after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti This ethylene response was dependent on Nod factor production by compatible rhizobia. Analyses of nodulation mutants showed that perception of Nod factor was required for ethylene emission, while downstream transcription factors including CYCLOPS, NIN, and ERN1 were not required for this response...
February 2018: Plant Physiology
Fang Du, Junmiao Fan, Ting Wang, Yun Wu, Donald Grierson, Zhongshan Gao, Yiping Xia
BACKGROUND: Lily is an economically important plant, with leaves and bulbs consisting of overlapping scales, large ornamental flowers and a very large genome. Although it is recognized that flowers and bulb scales are modified leaves, very little is known about the genetic control and biochemical differentiation underlying lily organogenesis and development. Here we examined the differentially expressed genes in flower, leaf and scale of lily, using RNA-sequencing, and identified organ-specific genes, including transcription factors, genes involved in photosynthesis in leaves, carbohydrate metabolism in bulb scales and scent and color production in flowers...
November 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"