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plant regeneration

Nerea Ubierna, Anthony Gandin, Asaph B Cousins
Mesophyll conductance (gm) limits rates of C3 photosynthesis but little is known about its role in C4 photosynthesis. If gm were to limit C4 photosynthesis, it would likely be at low CO2 concentrations (pCO2). However, data on C4-gm across ranges of pCO2 are scarce. We describe the response of C4-gm to short-term variation in pCO2, at three temperatures in Setaria viridis, and at 25 °C in Zea mays. Additionally, we quantified the effect of finite gm calculations of leakiness (ϕ) and the potential limitations to photosynthesis imposed by stomata, mesophyll, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) across pCO2...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mohammad Faisal, Naseem Ahmad, Mohammad Anis, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Ahmad A Qahtan
An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for Ruta graveolens Linn. using shoot tip meristems derived from a 4-month-old field grown plant. In vitro shoot regeneration and proliferation was accomplished on Murashige and Skoogs (MS) semi-solid medium in addition to different doses of cytokinins viz.6- benzyl adenine (BA), Kinetin (Kn) or 2-isopetynyl adenine (2iP), singly or in combination with auxins viz. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Kai Chen, Kevin S Burgess, Xiang-Yun Yang, Ya-Huang Luo, Lian-Ming Gao, De-Zhu Li
The diversity of traits associated with plant regeneration is often shaped by functional trade-offs where plants typically do not excel at every function because resources allocated to one function cannot be allocated to another. By analyzing correlations among seed traits, empirical studies have shown that there is a trade-off between seedling development and the occupation of new habitats, although only a small range of taxa have been tested; whether such trade-off exists in a biodiverse and complex landscape remains unclear...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Momoko Ikeuchi, Michitaro Shibata, Bart Rymen, Akira Iwase, Anne-Maarit Bågman, Lewis Watt, Duncan Coleman, David S Favero, Tatsuya Takahashi, Sebastian E Ahnert, Siobhan M Brady, Keiko Sugimoto
Wounding triggers organ regeneration in many plant species, and application of plant hormones, such as auxin and cytokinin, enhances their regenerative capacities in tissue culture. Recent studies have identified several key players mediating wound- and/or plant hormone-induced cellular reprogramming, but the global architecture of gene regulatory relationships underlying plant cellular reprogramming is still far from clear. In this study, we uncovered a gene regulatory network (GRN) associated with plant cellular reprogramming by using an enhanced yeast one-hybrid (eY1H) screen systematically to identify regulatory relationships between 252 transcription factors (TFs) and 48 promoters...
February 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Andreas Wuensch, Franziska Trusch, Nurul A Iberahim, Pieter van West
Oomycetes are eukaryotic pathogens infecting animals and plants. Amongst them Saprolegnia parasitica is a fish pathogenic oomycete causing devastating losses in the aquaculture industry. To secure fish supply, new drugs are in high demand and since fish experiments are time consuming, expensive and involve animal welfare issues the search for adequate model systems is essential. Galleria mellonella serves as a heterologous host model for bacterial and fungal infections. This study extends the use of G. mellonella for studying infections with oomycetes...
February 2018: Fungal Biology
Suvendu Manna, Prosenjit Saha, Debasis Roy, Basudam Adhikari, Papita Das
Fluoride has both detrimental and beneficial effects on living beings depending on the concentration and consumption periods. The study presented in this article investigated the feasibility of using neem oil phenolic resin treated lignocellulosic bio-sorbents for fluoride removal from water through fixed bed column study. Results indicated that treated bio-sorbents could remove fluoride both from synthetic and groundwater with variable bed depth, flow rate, fluoride concentration and column diameter. Data obtained from this study indicated that columns with the thickest bed, lowest flow rate, and fluoride concentration showed best column performance...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Mack Moyo, Adeyemi O Aremu, Lenka Plačková, Lucie Plíhalová, Aleš Pěnčík, Ondřej Novák, Jan Holub, Karel Doležal, Johannes Van Staden
Clonal propagation plays a critical integral role in the growth and success of a global multi-billion dollar horticulture industry through a constant supply of healthy stock plants. The supply chain depends on continuously improving the micropropagation process, thus, understanding the physiology of in vitro plants remains a core component. We evaluated the influence of exogenously applied cytokinins (CKs, N6 -benzyladenine = BA, isopentenyladenine = iP, meta-topolin = mT, 6-(3-hydroxybenzylamino)-9-(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)purine = mTTHP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS)-supplemented media on organogenic response and accumulation of endogenous CK and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolites...
February 15, 2018: New Biotechnology
Ahmad A Omar, Mayara M Murata, Hesham A El-Shamy, James H Graham, Jude W Grosser
Genetic engineering approaches offer an alternative method to the conventional breeding of Citrus sp. 'W. Murcott' mandarin (a hybrid of 'Murcott' and an unknown pollen parent) is one of the most commercially important cultivars grown in many regions around the world. Transformation of 'W. Murcott' mandarin was achieved by direct DNA uptake using a protoplast transformation system. DNA construct (pAO3), encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and the cDNA of Xa21, a Xanthomonas resistance gene from rice, was used to transform protoplasts of 'W...
February 14, 2018: Transgenic Research
Qiu Li, Yiming Niu, Panfei Xing, Chunming Wang
Background: Functional polysaccharides can be derived from plants (including herbs), animals and microorganisms. They have been widely used in a broad of biomedical applications, such as immunoregulatory agents or drug delivery vehicles. In the past few years, increasing studies have started to develop natural polysaccharides-based biomaterials for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Main body: We discuss in this article the emerging applications of natural polysaccharides-particularly those derived from Chinese medicine-for wound healing...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Ayumi Matsuo, Hiroshi Tomimatsu, Yushin Sangetsu, Yoshihisa Suyama, Akifumi Makita
Despite the advantage of plant clonality in patchy environments, studies focusing on genet demography in relation to spatially heterogeneous environments remain scarce. Regeneration of bamboos in forest understoreys after synchronous die-off provides an opportunity for assessing how they come to proliferate across heterogeneous light environments. In a Japanese forest, we examined genet demography of a population of Sasa kurilensis over a 7-year period starting 10 years after die-off, shortly after which some genets began spreading horizontally by rhizomes...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Markus Ellersdorfer
The technical feasibility of an ammonium recovery process ('ion-exchanger-loop-stripping') for sludge liquor from municipal wastewater treatment plants is examined. The proposed process combines ion-exchange on natural zeolites with simultaneous air stripping of ammonia to produce an industrial NOx-removal agent. Column experiments with continuously recycled NH4Cl-solutions and a real sludge liquor sample were conducted to determine basic ion-exchange kinetics of the applied clinoptilolite. Mass balances of consecutive loading/regeneration cycles show the positive influence of NaCl-pretreatment as well as simultaneous air stripping on the NH4+-exchange capacities...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Taiza da Cunha Soares, Carliane Rebeca Coelho da Silva, Julita Maria Frota Chagas Carvalho, José Jaime Vasconcelos Cavalcanti, Liziane Maria de Lima, Péricles de Albuquerque Melo Filho, Liv Soares Severino, Roseane Cavalcanti Dos Santos
Substantial progress is being reported in the techniques for plant transformation, but successful regeneration of some genotypes remains a challenging step in the attempts to transform some recalcitrant species. GhSERK1 gene is involved on embryo formation, and its overexpression enhances the embryogenic competence. In this study we validate a short GhSERK1 probe in order to identify embryogenic cotton genotypes using RT-qPCR and blotting assays. Cotton genotypes with contrasting somatic embryogenic capacity were tested using in vitro procedures...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Mercedes Pérez-Recalde, Ignacio E Ruiz Arias, Élida B Hermida
BACKGROUND: Millions of people in the world suffer from chronic wounds of different etiologies such as diabetic foot and leg ulcers, without solutions nowadays. Molecules obtained from plants offer an alternative to aid wound healing. Strong evidence about essential oils (EO) anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties is thoroughly described in literature and their chemical compositions are well characterized. More recently, EO effects in experimental wounds have begun to be analyzed...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Zheng Zhou, Hexin Tan, Qing Li, Junfeng Chen, Shouhong Gao, Yun Wang, Wansheng Chen, Lei Zhang
The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated) system is a powerful genome editing tool that has been used in many species. In this study, we focused on the phenolic acid metabolic pathway in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit the rosmarinic acid synthase gene (SmRAS) in the water-soluble phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. The single guide RNA (sgRNA) was designed to precisely edit the most important SmRAS gene, which was selected from 11 family members through a bioinformatics analysis...
January 30, 2018: Phytochemistry
Zahra Bahadori, Hamid Reza Kalhor, Seyed Javad Mowla
Keratinocyte Growth Factor (KGF) is a paracrine-acting, epithelial mitogen that plays a prominent role in the regeneration of damaged epithelial tissues. In spite of different attempts to produce recombinant human KGF in many organisms, including bacteria, mammalian cells, plant cells and insect cells; production of recombinant form suffers from lower yields and recovery relative to other recombinant proteins of similar size and properties. Due to many advantages of Pichia pastoris expression systems for producing industrial enzymes and pharmaceutical proteins, in this study P...
April 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Karina L Speziale, Sergio A Lambertucci, Gabriela Gleiser, José L Tella, Fernando Hiraldo, Marcelo A Aizen
The exponential growth of the human population often causes the overexploitation of resources and disruption of ecological interactions. Here, we propose that the antagonist effect of humans on exploited species might be alleviated with the advent of a second predator species. We focused on the complex interactions between an endangered conifer (Araucaria araucana) and two seed exploiters: the Austral parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus) and human seed collectors. We tested the importance of partial seed consumption by parakeets as an escape from human seed harvesting...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Liya Mathew, Andrew McLachlan, Rubina Jibran, David J Burritt, Ranjith Pathirana
Cryopreservation is a reliable and cost-effective method for the long-term preservation of clonally propagated species. The number of vegetatively propagated species conserved by cryopreservation is increasing through development of vitrification-based methods; droplet vitrification in particular is becoming the preferred method for many species, as it ensures fast freezing and thawing rates. This research investigated if cold, antioxidant and osmotic pre-treatments could maintain the structural integrity of cells, thence aid in developing a droplet vitrification protocol for kiwifruit using Actinidia chinensis var...
February 5, 2018: Protoplasma
Solomon Habtemariam
Both caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid (danshensu) are synthesized through two distinct routs of the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway. In many plants, especially the rosemary and sage family of Lamiaceae, these two compounds are joined through an ester linkage to form rosmarinic acid (RA). A further structural diversity of RA derivatives in some plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a form of RA dimer, salvianolic acid-B (SA-B), that further give rise to diverse salvianolic acid derivatives...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaowen Huang, Jianchun Wang, Tenghao Li, Jianmei Wang, Min Xu, Weixing Yu, Abdel El Abed, Xuming Zhang
Artificial photosynthesis (APS) mimics natural photosynthesis (NPS) to store solar energy in chemical compounds for applications such as water splitting, CO2 fixation and coenzyme regeneration. NPS is naturally an optofluidic system since the cells (typical size 10 to 100 µm) of green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria enable light capture, biochemical and enzymatic reactions and the related material transport in a microscale, aqueous environment. The long history of evolution has equipped NPS with the remarkable merits of a large surface-area-to-volume ratio, fast small molecule diffusion and precise control of mass transfer...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Fahad Al-Qurainy, Mohammad Nadeem, Salim Khan, Saleh Alansi, Mohamed Tarroum, Abdulhafed A Al-Ameri, Abdel-Rhman Z Gaafar, Aref Alshameri
Reseda pentagyna is the only endemic species among the seven species of the genera Reseda found in Saudi Arabia. Probably no information is available on regeneration by conventional method of regeneration through seeds or cuttings. Therefore, alternative method of tissue culture was attempted to regenerate and multiply the plant. High shoot regeneration (14.44 shoots/explant) was obtained after four weeks, when shoot cuttings cultured on MS containing BA at 1.0 µM. Other cytokinins e.g., Kn, 2iP and TDZ found to be less effective in bud induction and shoot multiplication...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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