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plant regeneration

Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Scott C Lenaghan, C Neal Stewart
Over the last decade there has been a resurgence in the use of plant protoplasts that range from model species to crop species, for analysis of signal transduction pathways, transcriptional regulatory networks, gene expression, genome-editing, and gene-silencing. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the regeneration of plants from protoplasts, which has generated even more interest in the use of these systems for plant genomics. In this work, a protocol has been developed for automation of protoplast isolation and transformation from a 'Bright Yellow' 2 (BY-2) tobacco suspension culture using a robotic platform...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jaafar Juju Nakasha, Uma Rani Sinniah, Nurashikin Kemat, Kumara Swamy Mallappa
BACKGROUND: Chlorophytum borivilianum is an industrially valued medicinal crop. Propagation through seeds is not feasible because of low germination percentage and long dormancy period. Therefore, callus culture and plant regeneration can be an alternative to improve this crop production. Also, callus can serve as an alternative source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different phytohormones on callus induction, subculture cycle, and regeneration studies of callus in C...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Jong Youn Kim, Dong Hwi Kim, Young Chang Kim, Kee Hong Kim, Jung Yeon Han, Yong Eui Choi
BACKGROUND: The low survival rate of in vitro regenerated Panax ginseng plantlets after transfer to soil is the main obstacle for their successful micropropagation and molecular breeding. In most cases, young plantlets converted from somatic embryos are transferred to soil. METHODS: In vitro thickened taproots, which were produced after prolonged culture of ginseng plantlets, were transferred to soil. RESULTS: Taproot thickening of plantlets occurred near hypocotyl and primary roots...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Agnieszka Ilczuk, Ewelina Jacygrad
Cornus alba L. (white dogwood) is an important ornamental shrub having a wide range of applications such as reforestation programs and soil retention systems. The vegetative propagation of dogwood by cuttings may be slow, difficult, and cultivar dependent; therefore, an improved micropropagation method was developed. Nodal stem segments of C. alba cultivars 'Aurea' and 'Elegantissima' were cultured on media enriched with six different sources of macronutrients. Media were supplemented with either N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) in combination with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)...
2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
Zhifen Zhang, John J Finer
Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is typically conducted by inoculating plant tissues with an Agrobacterium suspension containing approximately 10(8)-10(9) bacteria mL(-1), followed by a 2-3-d co-culture period. Use of longer co-culture periods could potentially increase transformation efficiencies by allowing more time for Agrobacterium to interact with plant cells, but bacterial overgrowth is likely to occur, leading to severe tissue browning and reduced transformation and regeneration. Low bacterial inoculum levels were therefore evaluated as a means to reduce the negative outcomes associated with long co-culture...
2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
Jan Plue, Floriane Colas, Alistair G Auffret, Sara A O Cousins
Persistent seed banks are a key plant regeneration strategy, buffering environmental variation to allow population and species persistence. Understanding seed bank functioning within herb layer dynamics is therefore important. However, rather than assessing emergence from the seed bank in herb layer gaps, most studies evaluate the seed bank functioning via a greenhouse census. We hypothesize that greenhouse data may not reflect seed bank driven emergence in disturbance gaps due to methodological differences...
October 14, 2016: Plant Biology
Marcos O Valduga, Rafael D Zenni, Jean R S Vitule
Non-native tree plantations represent 7% of the world's forests and 1.24% of the Brazilian vegetation. Planted areas are expected to increase in the near future; thus, it is important to systematize existing knowledge on the ecological effects of plantations to aid forest management and biodiversity conservation. Here, we conducted a systematic review of the ecological literature associated with planted Pinus and Eucalyptus species in Brazil. We compared publication metrics with geographical distribution of species, ecosystems, biomes, studied taxa, and ecological impacts...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
René Heppner, Nicola Weichert, Angelika Schierhorn, Udo Conrad, Markus Pietzsch
Spider dragline is used by many members of the Araneae family not only as a proteinogenic safety thread but also for web construction. Spider dragline has been shown to possess high tensile strength in combination with elastic behavior. This high tensile strength can be attributed to the presence of antiparallel β-sheets within the thread; these antiparallel β-sheets are why the protein is classified as a silk. Due to the properties of spider silk and its technical and medical uses, including its use as a suture material and as a scaffold for tissue regeneration, spider dragline is a focus of the biotechnology industry...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Melissa Yit Yee Kam, Li Chin Chai, Chiew Foan Chin
Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A...
2016: SpringerPlus
Reetika Singh, Sarvesh Pratap Kashyap, Nishi Kumari, Major Singh
Somatic embryogenic system was developed in Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. using rachis as explants from a mature tree. Explants showed callus initiation on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with TDZ (1-Phenyl-3-(1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-yl) urea), zeatin or 6-benzylaminopurine. Induction of somatic embryogenesis was achieved on both MS basal medium and MS medium supplemented with 8.88 µM 6-benzylaminopurine. Hundred percent embryogenesis was observed on MS medium supplemented with 8.88 µM 6-benzylaminopurine with maximum intensity of embryogenesis (51...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Massoume Amini, Ali Deljou, Haidar Saify Nabiabad
Developmental deficiency of somatic embryos and regeneration to plantlets, especially in the case of transformation, are major problems of somatic embryo regeneration in alfalfa. One of the ways to overcome these problems is the use of natural plant regulators and nutrients in the culture medium of somatic embryos. For investigating the influence of Cuscuta campestris extract on the efficiency of plant regeneration and transformation, chimeric tissue type plasminogen activator was transferred to explants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and transgenic plants were recovered using medium supplemented with different concentration of the extract...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Tanaka Kenta, Jessica E M Edwards, Roger K Butlin, Terry Burke, W Paul Quick, Peter Urwin, Matthew P Davey
Whilst genotype-environment interaction is increasingly receiving attention by ecologists and evolutionary biologists, such studies need genetically homogeneous replicates-a challenging hurdle in outcrossing plants. This could potentially be overcome by using tissue culture techniques. However, plants regenerated from tissue culture may show aberrant phenotypes and "somaclonal" variation. Here we examined the somaclonal variation due to tissue culturing using the response to cold treatment of the photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm' and ΦPSII, representing maximum efficiency of photosynthesis for dark- and light-adapted leaves, and the actual electron transport operating efficiency, respectively, which are reliable indicators of photoinhibition and damage to the photosynthetic electron transport system)...
October 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Michael Jacques Lathuillière, Cecile Bulle, Mark S Johnson
The incorporation of soil moisture regenerated by precipitation, or green water, into life cycle assessment has been of growing interest given the global importance of this resource for terrestrial ecosystems and food production. This paper proposes a new impact assessment model to relate land and water use in seasonally dry, semi-arid, and arid regions where precipitation and evapotranspiration are closely coupled. We introduce the Precipitation Reduction Potential mid-point impact representing the change in downwind precipitation as a result of a land transformation and occupation activity...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, Shivasharanappa Nayakavadi, Vadivelan R, Farhan Zameer, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Nagendra Prasad Mn
Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana pseudostem, is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. The present study was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of antihyperglycaemia exerted by the ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE) and its isolated compounds viz., stigmasterol (C1) and β-sitosterol (C2), in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EE (100 and 200 mg per kg b...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Xiaoyan Lu, Cai Ji, Wei Tong, Xueping Lian, Ying Wu, Xiaohui Fan, Yue Gao
Triterpenoid Toosendanin (TSN) exhibits a plenty of pharmacological effects in human and great values in agriculture. However, the hepatotoxicity caused by TSN or Melia-family plants containing TSN used in traditional Chinese medicine has been reported, and the mechanisms of TSN-induced liver injury (TILI) still remain largely unknown. In this study, the dose- and time-dependent effects of TSN on mice liver were investigated by an integrated microRNA-mRNA approach as well as the general toxicological assessments...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mariette Andersson, Helle Turesson, Alessandro Nicolia, Ann-Sofie Fält, Mathias Samuelsson, Per Hofvander
Altered starch quality with full knockout of GBSS gene function in potato was achieved using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, through transient transfection and regeneration from isolated protoplasts. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) has shown great progress in introducing precisely targeted mutations. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 has received increased focus compared to other SDM techniques, since the method is easily adapted to different targets. Here, we demonstrate that transient application of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing in protoplasts of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum) yielded mutations in all four alleles in a single transfection, in up to 2 % of regenerated lines...
October 3, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Evangeline E Fernandes, Anubha V Pulwale, Gauri A Patil, Alpana S Moghe
BACKGROUND: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
M A Morales Mora, C Pretelín Vergara, M A Leiva, S A Martínez Delgadillo, E R Rosa-Domínguez
Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) of flue gas from an ammonia plant (AP) and the environmental performance of the carbon capture utilization (CCU) technology for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) system in Mexico was performed as case study. The process simulations (PS) and life cycle assessment (LCA) were used as supporting tools to quantify the CO2 capture and their environmental impacts, respectively. Two scenarios were considered: 1) the AP with its shift and CO2 removal unit and 2) Scenario 1 plus PCC of the flue gas from the AP primary reformer (AP-2CO2) and the global warming (GW) impact...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Lei Hu, Yi Li, Wenlong Zhang
The removal of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) during wastewater reclamation is a great concern. However, the existing advanced treatment processes are inefficient for the removal of PFCs from secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because other coexistent pollutants with less environmental significance are removed simultaneously. Therefore, research on high-selectivity, low-cost removal methods is needed. The S-MIP-TiO2 nanotube (NT) photocatalysts were fabricated, characterized and tested for removal of PFCs from wastewater for the first time...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kuen-Jin Tsai, Chih-Yu Lin, Chen-Yun Ting, Ming-Che Shih
Ethylene is an essential hormone in plants that is involved in low oxygen and reoxygenation responses. As a key transcription factor in ethylene signaling, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) activates targets that trigger various responses. However, most of these targets are still poorly characterized. Through analyses of our microarray data and the published Arabidopsis EIN3 ChIP-seq dataset, we inferred the putative targets of EIN3 during anoxia-reoxygenation. Among them, GDH2, which encodes one subunit of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), was chosen for further studies for its role in TCA cycle replenishment...
September 27, 2016: Plant Physiology
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