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plant regeneration

Ross Alastair Johnson, Phillip Conklin, Michelle Tjahjadi, Victor Missirian, Ted Toal, Siobhan M Brady, Anne B Britt
In Arabidopsis, DNA damage-induced programmed cell death is limited to the meristematic stem cell niche and its early descendants. The significance of this cell-type specific programmed cell death is unclear. Here we demonstrate in roots that it is the programmed destruction of the mitotically-compromised stem cell niche that triggers its regeneration, enabling growth recovery. In contrast to wild-type plants, sog1 plants, which are defective in damage-induced programmed cell death, maintain the cell identities and stereotypical structure of the stem cell niche after irradiation, but these cells fail to undergo cell division, terminating root growth...
December 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye
BACKGOUND: Ethnobatanical survey associates Sapium ellipticum (SE) with antidiabetic usage among other medicinal functions in different parts of Africa. More importantly, previous studies on the plant extract in our laboratory showed that SE has significant effects on the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In view of these, the anti-diabetic potential of the plant leaf extract in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rat model (Wistar strain) was examined...
December 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ryoichi Yano, Satoko Nonaka, Hiroshi Ezura
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important Cucurbitaceae crop produced world-wide, exhibiting wide genetic variations and comprising both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit types. The muskmelon cultivar "Earl's favorite Harukei-3 (Harukei-3)" known for its sweetness and rich aroma is used for breeding of high-grade muskmelon in Japan. We conducted RNA-seq transcriptome studies in 30 different tissues of the 'Harukei-3' melon. These included root, stems, leaves, flowers, regenerating callus, and ovaries, in addition to the flesh and peel sampled at 7 stages of fruit development...
December 4, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jong-Jin Park, Chang Geun Yoo, Amy Flanagan, Yunqiao Pu, Smriti Debnath, Yaxin Ge, Arthur J Ragauskas, Zeng-Yu Wang
Background: The development of genome editing technologies offers new prospects in improving bioenergy crops like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Switchgrass is an outcrossing species with an allotetraploid genome (2n = 4x = 36), a complexity which forms an impediment to generating homozygous knock-out plants. Lignin, a major component of the plant cell wall and a contributor to cellulosic feedstock's recalcitrance to decomposition, stands as a barrier to efficient biofuel production by limiting enzyme access to cell wall polymers during the fermentation process...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Muralikrishna Narra, Raghu Ellendula, Srinivas Kota, Bharathkumar Kalva, Yashodhara Velivela, Sadanandam Abbagani
Here, we report the optimized conditions for biolistic particle delivery-mediated genetic transformation of bitter melon using petiole segments. In this study, DNA-coated gold particles of 0.6 µm were used for optimizing the parameters of transformation and eventually regeneration of bitter melon putative transgenics. Initially, biolistic parameters namely helium pressure and macrocarrier to target tissue distance, were optimized using binary vector pBI121 carrying both β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (npt II) as a reporter and as a selectable marker gene, respectively...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Nina V Evseeva, Oksana V Tkachenko, Gennady L Burygin, Larisa Yu Matora, Yuriy V Lobachev, Sergei Yu Shchyogolev
We evaluated the effect of lipopolysaccharides from the plant-growth-promoting associative bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and from the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli K12 on the morphogenic potential of in vitro-growing somatic calluses of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29). A genetic model was used that included two near-isogenic lines of T. aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29 with different embryogenic capacities; one of these lines carries the Rht-B1 dwarfing gene, whereas the other lacks it...
December 4, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Elisa Torre
For millennia, in the different cultures all over the world, plants have been extensively used as a source of therapeutic agents with wide-ranging medicinal applications, thus becoming part of a rational clinical and pharmacological investigation over the years. As bioactive molecules, plant-derived polyphenols have been demonstrated to exert many effects on human health by acting on different biological systems, thus their therapeutic potential would represent a novel approach on which natural product-based drug discovery and development could be based in the future...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
Naholi D Alejandri-Ramírez, Elva C Chávez-Hernández, Jose L Contreras-Guerra, Jose L Reyes, Tzvetanka D Dinkova
Somatic embryogenesis represents an alternative developmental process used to achieve genetic transformation and to approach key questions in maize development. It is known that embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration are accompanied by microRNA expression changes. However, small RNA (sRNA) populations have not been explored during the proliferative callus subculture establishment and their impact on maintaining the dedifferentiated status and embryogenic potential is far from being completely understood...
November 30, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jitka Klimešová, Štepán Janecek, Alena Bartušková, Michael Bartoš, Jan Altman, Jirí Doležal, Vojtech Lanta, Vít Latzel
Background and Aims: Below-ground carbohydrate storage is considered an adaptation of plants aimed at regeneration after disturbance. A theoretical model by Iwasa and Kubo was empirically tested which predicted (1) that storage of carbohydrates scales allometrically with leaf biomass and (2) when the disturbance regime is relaxed, the ratio of storage to leaf biomass increases, as carbohydrates are not depleted by disturbance. Methods: These ideas were tested on nine herbaceous species from a temperate meadow and the disturbance regime was manipulated to create recently abandoned and mown plots...
November 28, 2017: Annals of Botany
Navneet Kaur, Anshu Alok, Shivani, Navjot Kaur, Pankaj Pandey, Praveen Awasthi, Siddharth Tiwari
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has been reported for precise genome modification in many plants. In the current study, we demonstrate a successful mutation in phytoene desaturase (RAS-PDS) of banana cv. Rasthali using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two PDS genes were isolated from Rasthali (RAS-PDS1 and RAS-PDS2), and their protein sequence analysis confirmed that both PDS comprises conserved motifs for enzyme activity. Phylogenetic analysis of RAS-PDS1 and RAS-PDS2 revealed a close evolutionary relationship with other monocot species...
November 29, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Tània San Pedro, Najet Gammoudi, Rosa Peiró, Antonio Olmos, Carmina Gisbert
BACKGROUND: Somatic embryogenesis is the preferred method for cell to plant regeneration in Vitis vinifera L. However, low frequencies of plant embryo conversion are commonly found. In a previous work we obtained from cut-seeds of a grapevine infected with the Grapevine leafroll associated viruses 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3), high rates of direct regeneration, embryo plant conversion and sanitation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of this procedure for regeneration of other grapevine varieties which include some infected with one to three common grapevine viruses (GLRaV-3, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV))...
November 29, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Xiao Fei Rong, Ya Lin Sang, Liang Wang, Wen Jing Meng, Chun Hao Zou, Yu Xiu Dong, Xiao Min Bie, Zhi Juan Cheng, Xian Sheng Zhang
Plants are known for their capacity to regenerate organs, such as shoot, root and floral organs. Recently, a number of studies contributed to understanding mechanisms of shoots and roots regeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying floral organ regeneration are largely unknown. In this study, we established a carpel regeneration system in which two types of carpels were induced by exogenous cytokinin. For typeI, all the floral organs in the regenerated inflorescence were transformed into carpels. For type II, carpels were generated directly from callus...
November 24, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xiang Zhao, Zhigang Meng, Yan Wang, Wenjie Chen, Changjiao Sun, Bo Cui, Jinhui Cui, Manli Yu, Zhanghua Zeng, Sandui Guo, Dan Luo, Jerry Q Cheng, Rui Zhang, Haixin Cui
Genetic modification plays a vital role in breeding new crops with excellent traits. Almost all the current genetic modification methods require regeneration from tissue culture, involving complicated, long and laborious processes. In particular, many crop species such as cotton are difficult to regenerate. Here, we report a novel transformation platform technology, pollen magnetofection, to directly produce transgenic seeds without regeneration. In this system, exogenous DNA loaded with magnetic nanoparticles was delivered into pollen in the presence of a magnetic field...
November 27, 2017: Nature Plants
Timothy J Philpott, Jason S Barker, Cindy E Prescott, Sue J Grayston
Fine root litter is the principal source of carbon stored in forest soils and a dominant source of carbon for fungal decomposers. Differences in decomposer capacity between fungal species may be important determinants of fine-root decomposition rates. Variable-retention harvesting (VRH) provides refuge for ectomycorrhizal fungi, but its influence on fine-root decomposers is unknown, as are the effects of functional shifts in these fungal communities on carbon cycling. We compared fungal communities decomposing fine-roots (in litter bags) under VRH, clearcut, and uncut stands at two sites (6- and 13-years post-harvest), and two decay stages (43-days and 1 year after burial), in Douglas-fir forests in coastal British Columbia, Canada...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Bhawana Negi, Prafull Salvi, Deepesh Bhatt, Manoj Majee, Sandeep Arora
Ascorbic acid is a ubiquitous water soluble antioxidant that plays a critical role in plant growth and environmental stress tolerance. It acts as a free radical scavenger as well as a source of reducing power for several cellular processes. Because of its pivotal role in regulating plant growth under optimal as well as sub-optimal conditions, it becomes obligatory for plants to maintain a pool of reduced ascorbic acid. Several cellular processes help in maintaining the reduced ascorbic acid pool, by regulating its synthesis and regeneration processes...
2017: PloS One
Sergio Tosoni, Hsin-Yi Tiffany Chen, Antonio Ruiz Puigdollers, Gianfranco Pacchioni
Biomass refers to plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed. As an energy source, lignocellulosic biomass (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) can be converted into various forms of biofuel using thermal, chemical and biochemical methods. Chemical conversion implies the use of solid catalysts, usually oxide materials. In this context, reducible oxides are considered to be more active than non-reducible oxides. But why? Using density functional theory DFT + U calculations with the inclusion of dispersion forces, we describe the properties of anatase TiO2, a reducible oxide, and tetragonal ZrO2, a non-reducible oxide, the (101) surfaces in this context...
January 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Ricardo G César, Vanessa S Moreno, Gabriel D Coletta, Robin L Chazdon, Silvio F B Ferraz, Danilo R A de Almeida, Pedro H S Brancalion
Mixed tree plantings and natural regeneration are the main restoration approaches for recovering tropical forests worldwide. Despite substantial differences in implementation costs between these methods, little is known regarding how they differ in terms of ecological outcomes, which is key information for guiding decision-making and cost-effective restoration planning. Here, we compared the early ecological outcomes of natural regeneration and tree plantations for restoring the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in agricultural landscapes...
November 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Saher Shahid, Razia Tajwar, Muhammad Waheed Akhtar
A novel, family GH10 enzyme, Xyn10B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by binding to regenerated amorphous cellulose. It had higher binding on Avicel as compared to insoluble xylan due to the presence of cellulose-binding domains, CBM3 and CBM2. This enzyme was optimally active at 70 °C and pH 6.0. It was stable up to 70 °C while the CD spectroscopy analysis showed thermal unfolding at 80 °C. Xyn10B was found to be a trifunctional enzyme having endo-xylanase, arabinofuranosidase and acetyl xylan esterase activities...
November 23, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Tara Canelo, Álvaro Gaytán, Guillermo González-Bornay, Raul Bonal
Insect herbivory decreases plant fitness by constraining plant growth, survival and reproductive output. Most studies on the effects of herbivory in trees rely on correlational inter-individual comparisons and could thus be affected by confounding factors linked to both herbivory and plant performance. Using the Mediterranean Holm oak (Quercus ilex) as study model, we followed an experimental approach in which leaf-feeding insects (mainly Lepidoptera caterpillars) were excluded from some shoots in all study trees...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Jérôme Grimplet, Diana Pimentel, Patricia Agudelo-Romero, Jose Miguel Martinez-Zapater, Ana Margarida Fortes
LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) constitute a family of plant-specific transcription factors with key roles in the regulation of plant organ development, pollen development, plant regeneration, pathogen response, and anthocyanin and nitrogen metabolisms. However, the role of LBDs in fruit ripening and in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) development and stress responses is poorly documented. By performing a model curation of LBDs in the latest genome annotation 50 genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LBD genes can be grouped into two classes mapping on 16 out of the 19 V...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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