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plant regeneration

R Jayashree, P A Nazeem, K Rekha, S Sreelatha, A Thulaseedharan, R Krishnakumar, R G Kala, M Vineetha, P Leda, U Jinu, P Venkatachalam
Natural rubber (cis-1, 4-polyisoprene) is being produced from bark laticifer cells of Hevea brasiliensis and the popular high latex yielding Indian rubber clones are easily prone to onset of tapping panel dryness syndrome (TPD) which is considered as a physiological syndrome affecting latex production either partially or completely. This report describes an efficient protocol for development of transgenic rubber plants by over-expression of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Co-enzyme A reductase 1 (hmgr1) gene which is considered as rate limiting factor for latex biosynthesis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
April 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Zhehao Sun, Cheng Liu, Zhen Cao, Wei Chen
High frequency ultrasonic radiation technology was developed as a novel and efficient means of regenerating spent biological activated carbon (BAC) used in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). The results of this study indicated that high frequency ultrasonic treatment could recover the spent BAC, to some extent, with the following optimal conditions: a frequency of 400 kHz, sonication power of 60 W, water temperature of 30 °C, and sonication time of 6 min. Under the above conditions, the iodine value increased from 300 mg/g to 409 mg/g, the volume of total pores and micropores increased from 0...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Florian Hahn, Marion Eisenhut, Otho Mantegazza, Andreas P M Weber
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has emerged as a powerful tool for targeted genome editing in plants and beyond. Double-strand breaks induced by the Cas9 enzyme are repaired by the cell's own repair machinery either by the non-homologous end joining pathway or by homologous recombination (HR). While the first repair mechanism results in random mutations at the double-strand break site, HR uses the genetic information from a highly homologous repair template as blueprint for repair of the break. By offering an artificial repair template, this pathway can be exploited to introduce specific changes at a site of choice in the genome...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shixue Li, Qian Zhao, Dengyun Zhu, Jingjuan Yu
The DREB (dehydration-responsive element binding)-type transcription factors are classified into six subgroups, named A-1 to A-6. The members of DREB A-1 and A-2 subgroups have been reported to be involved in response to various abiotic stresses. However, there were only a few genes belonging to A-3 to A-6 subgroups to be reported. In this study, we cloned a DREB A-4 subgroup gene from maize ( Zea mays ), ZmDREB4.1 , and analyzed its characteristics and functions. ZmDREB4.1 was expressed in roots, stems, and leaves at very low levels...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anoja Priyadarshani Attanayake, Kamani Ayoma Perera Wijewardana Jayatilaka, Lakmini Kumari Boralugoda Mudduwa, Chitra Pathirana
Effective β-cell regeneration is a recognized therapeutic strategy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Regeneration of β-cells could be achieved via exogenous natural sources as medicinal plant extracts. Medicinal plants selected for the investigation were Spondias pinnata (Linn. f.) Kurz, Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt and Gmelina arborea Roxb. The objective was to determine the β-cell regenerative potential of these plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Alloxan monohydrate was used to induce diabetes (150 mg/kg, ip)...
April 18, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Munmun Banerjee, Ranjan Kumar Basu, Sudip Kumar Das
Cu(II) adsorption in continuous column using green adsorbents like peanut and almond shell was investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunaer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Point of Zero charge (pHpzc ) determination have been used for characterization of the adsorbents. Experiments were conducted at various operating conditions to calculate the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents. Adsorption studies signify that both the adsorbents have good adsorptive capacity for Cu(II) ion...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuling Zhang, Rita Giuliani, Youjun Zhang, Yang Zhang, Wagner Luiz Araujo, Baichen Wang, Peng Liu, Qi Sun, Asaph Cousins, Gerald Edwards, Alisdair Fernie, Thomas P Brutnell, Pinghua Li
In C4 photosynthesis, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) catalyzes the regeneration of phosphoenolpyruvate in the carbon shuttle pathway. Although the biochemical function of PPDK in maize is well characterized, a genetic analysis of PPDK has not been reported. In this study, we utilize the maize transposable elements Mutator and Ds to generate multiple mutant alleles of PPDK. Loss-of-function mutants are seedling lethal even when plants were grown under 2% CO2 , and they show very low capacity for CO2 assimilation indicating C4 photosynthesis is essential in maize...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Matthew R Ryan, Timothy E Crews, Steven W Culman, Lee R DeHaan, Richard C Hayes, Jacob M Jungers, Matthew G Bakker
Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial forages. To offset relatively low grain yields, perennial grain cropping systems should be multifunctional. Growing perennial grains for several years to regenerate soil health before rotating to annual crops and growing perennial grains on sloped land and ecologically sensitive areas to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses are two strategies that can provide ecosystem services and support multifunctionality...
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
Jian-Mei Long, Chao-Yang Liu, Meng-Qi Feng, Yun Liu, Xiao-Meng Wu, Wen-Wu Guo
As a highly conserved plant miRNA, miR156 has been intensively investigated for its versatile roles in plant development. Herein we report a novel role of miR156 in regulating somatic embryogenesis (SE) of citrus, one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. SE is an important way of regeneration, but SE potential of the preserved citrus embryogenic callus always declined during long-term sub-culturing, becoming a key obstacle for citrus biotechnology. In our study, either overexpression of csi-miR156a or individual knock-down of the two target genes CsSPL3 and CsSPL14 significantly enhanced SE competence of citrus callus, indicating that the effect of miR156-SPLs module was established for the initial phases of SE induction...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Laura Finnegan, Karine E Pigeon, Jerome Cranston, Mark Hebblewhite, Marco Musiani, Lalenia Neufeld, Fiona Schmiegelow, Julie Duval, Gordon B Stenhouse
Across the boreal forest of Canada, habitat disturbance is the ultimate cause of caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) declines. Habitat restoration is a focus of caribou recovery efforts, with a goal to finding ways to reduce predator use of disturbances, and caribou-predator encounters. One of the most pervasive disturbances within caribou ranges in Alberta, Canada are seismic lines cleared for energy exploration. Seismic lines facilitate predator movement, and although vegetation on some seismic lines is regenerating, it remains unknown whether vegetation regrowth is sufficient to alter predator response...
2018: PloS One
Yu-Hsiu Yen, Chi-Ming Pu, Chen-Wei Liu, Ya-Chun Chen, Yu-Chen Chen, Chan-Jung Liang, Jung-Hsien Hsieh, Hui-Fu Huang, Yuh-Lien Chen
Curcumin, a constituent of the turmeric plant, has antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects, but its effects on wound healing are unclear. We created back wounds in 72 mice and treated them with or without topical curcumin (0.2 mg/mL) in Pluronic F127 gel (20%) daily for 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12 days. Healing in wounds was evaluated from gross appearance, microscopically by haematoxylin and eosin staining, by immunohistochemistry for tumour necrosis factor alpha and alpha smooth muscle actin, and by polymerase chain reaction amplification of mRNA expression levels...
April 16, 2018: International Wound Journal
Vojtech Hudzieczek, Radim Cegan, Tomas Cermak, Nela Bacovska, Zuzana Machalkova, Karel Dolezal, Lucie Plihalova, Daniel Voytas, Roman Hobza, Boris Vyskot
Silene latifolia serves as a model species to study dioecy, the evolution of sex chromosomes, dosage compensation and sex-determination systems in plants. Currently, no protocol for genetic transformation is available for this species, mainly because S. latifolia is considered recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration and infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Using cytokinins and their synthetic derivatives, we markedly improved the efficiency of regeneration. Several agrobacterial strains were tested for their ability to deliver DNA into S...
April 12, 2018: New Biotechnology
Kurt B Petersen, Martin Burd
Heterospory was a pivotal evolutionary innovation for land plants, but it has never been clear why it evolved. We used the geographic distributions of 114 species of the heterosporous lycophyte Selaginella to explore the functional ecology of microspore and megaspore size, traits that would be correlated with many aspects of a species' regeneration niche. We characterized habitats at a global scale using leaf area index (LAI), a measure of foliage density and thus shading, and net primary productivity (NPP), a measure of growth potential...
April 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Cecilia E S Dalotto, Rafael B Sühs, Michele S Dechoum, Francisco I Pugnaire, Nivaldo Peroni, Tânia T Castellani
Positive interactions in plant communities are under-reported in subtropical systems most likely because they are not identified as stressful environments. However, environmental factors or disturbance can limit plant growth in any system and lead to stressful conditions. For instance, salinity and low nutrient and water availability generate a gradient of stressful conditions in coastal systems depending on distance to shore. In a tropical coastal system in SE Brazil, we aimed to assess whether Guapira opposita , a shrub common in restinga environments, acted as nurse involved in ecological succession and which factors influenced its facilitation process...
April 2018: AoB Plants
D Landuyt, M P Perring, R Seidl, F Taubert, H Verbeeck, K Verheyen
The understorey harbours a substantial part of vascular plant diversity in temperate forests and plays an important functional role, affecting ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and overstorey regeneration. Global change, however, is putting these understorey communities on trajectories of change, potentially altering and reducing their functioning in the future. Developing mitigation strategies to safeguard the diversity and functioning of temperate forests in the future is challenging and requires improved predictive capacity...
April 2018: Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics
Rachel F Begheyn, Steven A Yates, Timothy Sykes, Bruno Studer
Immature pollen can be induced to switch developmental pathways from gametogenesis to embryogenesis and subsequently regenerate into homozygous, diploid plants. Such androgenic production of doubled haploids is particularly useful for species where inbreeding is hampered by effective self-incompatibility systems. Therefore, increasing the generally low androgenic capacity of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) germplasm would enable the efficient production of homozygous plant material, so that a more effective exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding schemes can be realized...
April 6, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Ying Li, Die Hu, Yi Li, Bo Yang, Qian Yu, Lei Ge
Regeneration is a complicated progress in plants and animals. Most multicellular organisms can regenerate new tissue when wounded, and plants excel most animals in their ability to regenerate whole new growth module from adult tissues. Regeneration in Arabidopsis includes two steps. Firstly, the explants from differentiated plant tissues such as roots or hypocotyls are induced to generate callus, then the shoots regenerate upon the callus. The phytohormone auxin and cytokinin play important parts in this process...
April 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Michel Oelschlägel, Juliane Zimmerling, Dirk Tischler
Styrene is one of the most produced and processed chemicals worldwide and is released into the environment during widespread processing. But, it is also produced from plants and microorganisms. The natural occurrence of styrene led to several microbiological strategies to form and also to degrade styrene. One pathway designated as side-chain oxygenation has been reported as a specific route for the styrene degradation among microorganisms. It comprises the following enzymes: styrene monooxygenase (SMO; NADH-consuming and FAD-dependent, two-component system), styrene oxide isomerase (SOI; cofactor independent, membrane-bound protein) and phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PAD; NAD+ -consuming) and allows an intrinsic cofactor regeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fitsum Getachew, Albert Vandenberg, Judit Smits
BACKGROUND: Faba bean (Vicia faba) vicine/convicine (V-C) aglycones (divicine/isouramil) provoke an acute hemolytic anemia called favism in individuals with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme defect in their red blood cells. Geneticists/plant breeders are working with faba bean to decrease V-C levels to improve public acceptance of this high protein pulse crop. Here, we present a fast and simple ex-vivo in vitro bioassay for V-C toxicity testing of faba bean or faba bean food products...
April 2, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Imari Koike, Koichiro Shimomura, Mikihisa Umehara
Adventitious shoot formation is an important technique for the propagation of economically important crops and for the regeneration of transgenic plants. Phytohormone treatment is required for the induction of adventitious shoots in most species. Whether adventitious shoots can be induced is determined by the balance between auxin and cytokinin (CK) levels. Much effort goes into determining optimum concentrations and combinations of phytohormones in each tissue used as explants and in each plant species. In ipecac, however, adventitious shoots can be induced on internodal segments in culture medium without phytohormone treatment...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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