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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039016/application-of-tissue-culture-and-transformation-techniques-in-model-species-brachypodium-distachyon
#1
Bahar Sogutmaz Ozdemir, Hikmet Budak
Brachypodium distachyon has recently emerged as a model plant species for the grass family (Poaceae) that includes major cereal crops and forage grasses. One of the important traits of a model species is its capacity to be transformed and ease of growing both in tissue culture and in greenhouse conditions. Hence, plant transformation technology is crucial for improvements in agricultural studies, both for the study of new genes and in the production of new transgenic plant species. In this chapter, we review an efficient tissue culture and two different transformation systems for Brachypodium using most commonly preferred gene transfer techniques in plant species, microprojectile bombardment method (biolistics) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038910/analysis-of-somaclonal-variation-in-transgenic-and-regenerated-plants-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-using-methylation-related-metaflp-and-tmd-markers
#2
Carlos J Coronel, Ana I González, María L Ruiz, Carlos Polanco
We provide evidence that nucleotide sequence and methylation status changes occur in the Arabidopsis genome during in vitro tissue culture at a frequency high enough to represent an important source of variation. Somaclonal variation is a general consequence of the tissue culture process that has to be analyzed specifically when regenerated plants are obtained in any plant species. Currently, there are few studies about the variability comprising sequence changes and methylation status at the DNA level, generated by the culture of A...
October 16, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036435/the-wuschel-related-homeobox-5a-ptowox5a-is-involved-in-adventitious-root-development-in-poplar
#3
Jianbo Li, Jin Zhang, Huixia Jia, Bobin Liu, Pei Sun, Jianjun Hu, Lijuan Wang, Mengzhu Lu
Adventitious rooting is an essential step in vegetative propagation. Currently, the mechanism that regulates adventitious root (AR) development in woody plants is poorly understood. This work demonstrates that Populus tomentosa WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5a (PtoWOX5a) transcription factor is involved in AR development in poplar. PtoWOX5a was specifically expressed in the AR tip and lateral root tip during AR and lateral root regeneration from the stem segment. Phenotypic complementation experiments indicated that the PtoWOX5a can functionally complement AtWOX5 in quiescent center (QC) cells...
September 26, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036408/physiological-differences-between-root-suckers-and-saplings-enlarge-the-regeneration-niche-in-eucryphia-cordifolia-cav
#4
Antonio B Escandón, Roke Rojas, Loreto V Morales, Luis J Corcuera, Rafael E Coopman, Susana Paula
Many clonal plants produce vegetative recruits that remain connected to the parent plant. Such connections permit resource sharing among ramets, explaining the high survival rates of vegetative recruits during establishment under suboptimal conditions for sexual regeneration. We propose that differences in the regeneration niches of sexual and vegetative recruits reflect different physiological adjustments caused by parental supply of resources to the ramets. We conducted ecophysiological measurements in saplings and root suckers of Eucryphia cordifolia Cav...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032395/ptxd-gene-in-combination-with-phosphite-serves-as-a-highly-effective-selection-system-to-generate-transgenic-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#5
Devendra Pandeya, LeAnne M Campbell, Eugenia Nunes, Damar L Lopez-Arredondo, Madhusudhana R Janga, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Keerti S Rathore
This report demonstrates the usefulness of ptxD/phosphite as a selection system that not only provides a highly efficient and simple means to generate transgenic cotton plants, but also helps address many of the concerns related to the use of antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes in the production of transgenic crops. Two of the most popular dominant selectable marker systems for plant transformation are based on either antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes. Due to concerns regarding their safety and in order to stack multiple traits in a single plant, there is a need for alternative selectable marker genes...
October 14, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031208/phytoecdysteroids-from-ajuga-iva-act-as-potential-antidiabetic-agent-against-alloxan-induced-diabetic-male-albino-rats
#6
Jin-Jun Wang, Hao Jin, Shao-Ling Zheng, Peng Xia, Yong Cai, Xiao-Jie Ni
The present study investigated the protective effect of phytoecdysteroids extracted from the Ajuga iva plant on body weight changes, blood glucose, insulin total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, pancreatic histopathology and hexokinase-I expression in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes was induced following 15day intraperitoneal administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as a sham group, and group II served as the diabetic control...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028546/enzymatic-characterization-and-crystal-structure-analysis-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-dehydroascorbate-reductase-and-their-implications-for-oxidative-stress
#7
Hsin-Yang Chang, Shu-Tseng Lin, Tzu-Ping Ko, Shu-Mei Wu, Tsen-Hung Lin, Yu-Ching Chang, Kai-Fa Huang, Tse-Min Lee
Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) is a key enzyme for glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of dehydroascorbate (DHA) to recycled ascorbate (AsA) in plants, and plays a major role against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we proposed that the increase of AsA regeneration via enhanced DHAR activity modulates the ascorbate-glutathione cycle activity against photooxidative stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In the present work, we use site-directed mutagenesis and crystal structure analysis to elucidate the molecular basis of how C...
October 3, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023036/callus-induction-from-various-organs-of-dragon-fruit-apple-and-tomato-on-some-mediums
#8
Rumiyati, Sismindari, Endang Semiarti, Asri Fajar Milasari, Dheatika Karina Sari, Nia Fitriana, Sekar Galuh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), apple (Malus sylvestris Mill.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are high potential sources of antioxidant compounds such as phenolics. The compounds have the capability of protecting cells and tissues against free radicals. Secondary metabolite produced by callus cell culture from plant organs also acts as a source of antioxidants. This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of sucrose and 2,4-D in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for callus induction from different plant organ explants...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018470/phakopsora-euvitis-causes-unusual-damage-to-leaves-and-modifies-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-grapevine
#9
Antonio F Nogueira Júnior, Rafael V Ribeiro, Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória, Marli K M Soares, Júlia B Rasera, Lilian Amorim
Asian grapevine rust (Phakopsora euvitis) is a serious disease, which causes severe leaf necrosis and early plant defoliation. These symptoms are unusual for a strict biotrophic pathogen. This work was performed to quantify the effects of P. euvitis on photosynthesis, carbohydrates, and biomass accumulation of grapevine. The reduction in photosynthetic efficiency of the green leaf tissue surrounding the lesions was quantified using the virtual lesion concept (β parameter). Gas exchange and responses of CO2 assimilation to increasing intercellular CO2 concentration were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016959/low-boron-tolerance-strategies-involving-the-pectin-mediated-cell-wall-mechanical-properties-in-brassica-napus
#10
Ting Zhou, Yingpeng Hua, Baocai Zhang, Xiuqing Zhang, Yihua Zhou, Lei Shi, Fangsen Xu
Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for the growth and development of plants. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is a staple oleaginous crop, which is greatly susceptible to B deficiency. Significant differences in the tolerance to low-B stresses are observed in rapeseed genotypes, whereas the underlying mechanism remains unclear, particularly at the single-cell level. Here, we provide novel insights into the pectin-mediated cell wall (CW) mechanical properties implicated in the differential tolerance to low-B in rapeseed genotypes...
September 15, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016906/yucca9-mediated-auxin-biosynthesis-and-polar-auxin-transport-synergistically-regulate-regeneration-of-root-systems-following-root-cutting
#11
Dongyang Xu, Jiahang Miao, Emi Yumoto, Takao Yokota, Masashi Asahina, Masaaki Watahiki
Recovery of the root system following physical damage is an essential issue for plant survival. An injured root system is able to regenerate by increases in lateral root (LR) number and acceleration of root growth. The horticultural technique of root pruning (root cutting) is an application of this response and is a common garden technique for controlling plant growth. Although root pruning is widely used, the molecular mechanisms underlying the subsequent changes in the root system are poorly understood. In this study, root pruning was employed as a model system to study the molecular mechanisms of root-system regeneration...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016889/argonaute10-inhibits-in-vitro-shoot-regeneration-via-repression-of-mir165-166-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Tao Xue, Xuehuan Dai, Ruipu Wang, Junzhu Wang, Zhenhua Liu, Fengning Xiang
Many plant cells retain their totipotency when cultured in vitro. The regulation of shoot regeneration from in vitro culture involves a number of gene products, but the nature of the associated post-transcriptional events remains largely unknown. Here, the post transcriptional regulator ARGONAUTE10 (AGO10), a protein which is specifically expressed in the explant during the period when pro-SAMs are forming, has been known to inhibit shoot regeneration. In in vitro cultured explants of the loss-of-function mutant ago10, a much larger than normal number of shoot apical meristems was formed, and in these, the stem-cell marker genes WUS, CLV3 and STM were all strongly expressed...
August 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991254/the-draft-genome-of-tropical-fruit-durian-durio-zibethinus
#13
Bin Tean Teh, Kevin Lim, Chern Han Yong, Cedric Chuan Young Ng, Sushma Ramesh Rao, Vikneswari Rajasegaran, Weng Khong Lim, Choon Kiat Ong, Ki Chan, Vincent Kin Yuen Cheng, Poh Sheng Soh, Sanjay Swarup, Steven G Rozen, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick Tan
Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a Southeast Asian tropical plant known for its hefty, spine-covered fruit and sulfury and onion-like odor. Here we present a draft genome assembly of D. zibethinus, representing the third plant genus in the Malvales order and first in the Helicteroideae subfamily to be sequenced. Single-molecule sequencing and chromosome contact maps enabled assembly of the highly heterozygous durian genome at chromosome-scale resolution. Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits...
October 9, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985449/how-does-climate-change-affect-regeneration-of-mediterranean-high-mountain-plants-an-integration-and-synthesis-of-current-knowledge
#14
REVIEW
L Giménez-Benavides, A Escudero, R García-Camacho, A García-Fernández, J M Iriondo, C Lara-Romero, J Morente-López
Mediterranean mountains are extraordinarily diverse and hold a high proportion of endemic plants but they are particularly vulnerable to climate change and most species distribution models project drastic changes in community composition. Retrospective studies and long-term monitoring also highlight that Mediterranean high-mountain plants are suffering severe range contractions. The aim of this work is to review the current knowledge of climate change impacts on the process of plant regeneration by seed in Mediterranean high-mountain plants, by combining available information from observational and experimental studies...
October 6, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975033/divergent-regeneration-competent-cells-adopt-a-common-mechanism-for-callus-initiation-in-angiosperms
#15
Bo Hu, Guifang Zhang, Wu Liu, Jianmin Shi, Hua Wang, Meifang Qi, Jiqin Li, Peng Qin, Ying Ruan, Hai Huang, Yijing Zhang, Lin Xu
In tissue culture, the formation of callus from detached explants is a key step in plant regeneration; however, the regenerative abilities in different species are variable. While nearly all parts of organs of the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana are ready for callus formation, mature regions of organs in monocot rice (Oryza sativa) and other cereals are extremely unresponsive to tissue culture. Whether there is a common molecular mechanism beyond these different regenerative phenomena is unclear. Here we show that the Arabidopsis and rice use different regeneration-competent cells to initiate callus, whereas the cells all adopt WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 11 (WOX11) and WOX5 during cell fate transition...
June 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973038/functional-indicators-of-response-mechanisms-to-nitrogen-deposition-ozone-and-their-interaction-in-two-mediterranean-tree-species
#16
Lina Fusaro, Adriano Palma, Elisabetta Salvatori, Adriana Basile, Viviana Maresca, Elham Asadi Karam, Fausto Manes
The effects of nitrogen (N) deposition, tropospheric ozone (O3) and their interaction were investigated in two Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus ornus L. (deciduous) and Quercus ilex L. (evergreen), having different leaf habits and resource use strategies. An experiment was conducted under controlled condition to analyse how nitrogen deposition affects the ecophysiological and biochemical traits, and to explore how the nitrogen-induced changes influence the response to O3. For both factors we selected realistic exposures (20 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 80 ppb h for nitrogen and O3, respectively), in order to elucidate the mechanisms implemented by the plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968406/novel-potato-plants-with-enhanced-cadmium-resistance-and-antioxidative-defence-generated-after-in-vitro-cell-line-selection
#17
Seyedardalan Ashrafzadeh, David W M Leung
It is of interest to apply plant tissue culture to generate plants resistant to toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on plant growth. Callus cultures were initiated from leaf explants of micropropagated potato plantlets (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Iwa) for in vitro selection comprising 18 different Cd treatments varying in Cd exposure timing and duration. Plantlets regenerated from two different lines of Cd-selected calli, L9 and L11, were found to exhibit enhanced resistance to 218 μM Cd compared to control (source plantlets for leaf explants used to initiate callus cultures for Cd resistance)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963662/a-study-on-removing-nitrogen-from-paddy-field-rainfall-runoff-by-an-ecological-ditch-zeolite-barrier-system
#18
Xiaoling Wang, Jiansheng Li, Songmin Li, Xiaotong Zheng
Ecological ditches and zeolite have been widely applied in the removal of farmland nonpoint source pollution separately; little research has been done on the effects of combining the two methods. Specifically, few studies have focused on the in situ regeneration of zeolite. A 2-year field experiment using an ecological ditch-zeolite barrier system was conducted in a paddy field of summer rice-winter wheat rotation in the Taihu Lake area. The system consisted of two zeolite barriers positioned at one third and two thirds of the length of the ditch...
September 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962105/construction-and-assessment-of-bio-engineered-intervertebral-discs
#19
Hongfei Xiang, Yazhou Lin, Nana Shen, Yan Wang, Xiaolin Wu, Guoqing Zhang, Xuexiao Ma, Bohua Chen
The present study assessed the value of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) transformed by nucleus pulposus cells (NPs) for engineering of intervertebral discs. BM-MSCs and fetal NPs were cultured, planted onto polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid co-polymer (PLGA) and observed under inverted and scanning electron microscopes. PLGA scaffolds with adherent or suspended BM-MSCs and NPs were implanted into intervertebral discs of New Zealand white rabbits. Intervertebral signal intensity was evaluated by Thompson grading after 12 weeks...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960381/dna-methyltransferase1-mediated-shoot-regeneration-is-regulated-by-cytokinin-induced-cell-cycle-in-arabidopsis
#20
Hui Liu, Hui Zhang, Yu Xiu Dong, Yu Jin Hao, Xian Sheng Zhang
DNA methylation plays a critical role in diverse biological processes of plants. Arabidopsis DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1) represses shoot regeneration by inhibiting WUSCHEL (WUS) expression, which is essential for shoot initiation. However, the upstream signals regulating MET1 expression during this process are unclear. We analyzed the signals regulating MET1 expression using a number of established strategies, such as genetic analysis, confocal microscopy, quantitative real-time PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation...
September 27, 2017: New Phytologist
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