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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078067/%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-reduces-tnf-induced-apoptosis-in-c2c12-myoblasts-by-regulating-expression-of-apoptotic-proteins
#1
Felicia Carotenuto, Dario Coletti, Paolo Di Nardo, Laura Teodori
Impaired regeneration and consequent muscle wasting is a major feature of muscle degenerative diseases. Nutritional interventions such as adjuvant strategy for preventing these conditions are recently gaining increasing attention. Ingestion of n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested as having a positive impact on muscle diseases. We recently demonstrated that a diet enriched with plant derived n3-fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), exerts potent beneficial effects in preserving skeletal muscle regeneration in models of muscle dystrophy...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076653/recent-advances-in-primate-nutritional-ecology
#2
Nicoletta Righini
Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076357/soil-leaf-and-root-ecological-stoichiometry-of-caragana-korshinskii-on-the-loess-plateau-of-china-in-relation-to-plantation-age
#3
Quanchao Zeng, Rattan Lal, Yanan Chen, Shaoshan An
Caragana korshinskii, a leguminous shrub, a common specie, is widely planted to prevent soil erosion on the Loess Plateau. The objective of this study was to determine how the plantation ages affected soil, leaf and root nutrients and ecological stoichiometry. The chronosequence ages of C. korshinskii plantations selected for this study were 10, 20 and 30 years. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (STN) of C. korshinskii plantations significantly increased with increase in the chronosequence age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067326/topography-associated-thermal-gradient-predicts-warming-effects-on-woody-plant-structural-diversity-in-a-subtropical-forest
#4
Siyan He, Yonglin Zhong, Yudan Sun, Zhiyao Su, Xiaorong Jia, Yanqiu Hu, Qing Zhou
Understanding global warming effects on forest ecosystems will help policy-makers and forest managers design forest management and biodiversity conservation strategies. We examined the change in woody plant structural diversity in response to topography-associated thermal gradients in a subtropical forest with diverse abundance patterns. We found that energy distribution in a warming trend across slopes had significant effects on woody plant structural diversity. Except for total basal area of the adult trees, plant structural diversity significantly decreased with the increase of heat load...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063181/climatic-warming-strengthens-a-positive-feedback-between-alpine-shrubs-and-fire
#5
James S Camac, Richard J Williams, Carl-Henrik Wahren, Ary A Hoffmann, Peter A Vesk
Climate change is expected to increase fire activity and woody plant encroachment in arctic and alpine landscapes. However, the extent to which these increases interact to affect the structure, function and composition of alpine ecosystems is largely unknown. Here we use field surveys and experimental manipulations to examine how warming and fire affect recruitment, seedling growth and seedling survival in four dominant Australian alpine shrubs. We found that fire increased establishment of shrub seedlings by as much as 33-fold...
January 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063128/improved-production-of-doubled-haploids-of-winter-and-spring-triticale-hybrids-via-combination-of-colchicine-treatments-on-anthers-and-regenerated-plants
#6
Aurelia Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Hanna Pudelska, Jolanta Woźna, Tomasz Pniewski
Double haploids (DH), obtained during androgenesis in vitro or by genome diploidisation in regenerated haploids, are one type of basic materials used in triticale breeding programmes. The aim of this study was to improve DH production by a combination of colchicine treatment methods on a sample of five winter and five spring triticale hybrids. Colchicine was applied in vitro either in the C17 medium to induce embryo-like structures (ELS) or in the 190-2 medium for green plant (GP) development. Regenerants which remained haploid were immersed in a colchicine solution either when placed on the medium prior to transferring to soil or when growing in pots, followed by the application or absence of cooling...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051907/novel-r2r3-myb-transcription-factors-from-prunus-americana-regulate-differential-patterns-of-anthocyanin-accumulation-in-tobacco-and-citrus
#7
Kasturi Dasgupta, Roger Thilmony, Ed Stover, Maria Luiza Oliveira, James Thomson
The level of anthocyanins in plants vary widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies have reported that the expression of various MYBs regulate anthocyanin pigmentation during growth and development. Here we examine the activity of three novel R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) genes, PamMybA.1, PamMybA.3 and PamMybA.5 from Prunus americana. The anthocyanin accumulation patterns mediated by CaMV double35S promoter (db35Sp) controlled expression of the TFs in transgenic tobacco were compared to citrus-MoroMybA, Arabidopsis-AtMybA1 and grapevine-VvMybA1 transgenics during their entire growth cycles...
January 4, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050832/monitoring-vascular-regeneration-and-xylem-connectivity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Charles W Melnyk
Plants have a remarkable ability to regenerate vascular tissue after damage or wounding. A striking example of this phenomenon is the cutting and rejoining of plants during the process of grafting, which humans have used for millennia. Here, I describe how to graft Arabidopsis seedlings and how to monitor the vascular reconnection process during wound healing using fluorescent dyes and fluorescent proteins. Furthermore, I describe how to visualize xylem formation during graft healing. These techniques are useful for studying how the vascular system regenerates and for better understanding the process of plant grafting...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036095/directional-stabilizing-and-disruptive-trait-selection-as-alternative-mechanisms-for-plant-community-assembly
#9
Andrés G Rolhauser, Eduardo R Pucheta
How plant functional traits (e.g. seed mass) drive species abundance within communities remains an unsolved question. Borrowing concepts from natural selection theory, we propose that trait-abundance relationships can generally correspond to one of three modes of trait selection: directional (a rectilinear relationship, where species at one end of a trait axis are most abundant), stabilizing (an n-shaped relationship), and disruptive (a u-shaped relationship). Stabilizing selection (i.e. the functional convergence of abundant species) would result from positive density-dependent interactions (e...
December 30, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031958/life-as-an-early-career-researcher-interview-with-kavita-beri
#10
Kavita Beri
Kavita Beri speaks to Francesca Lake, Managing Editor. Kavita Beri is a board certified Internal Medicine physician in the United States, and is an active member of the American Society of Laser Medicine and Surgery. She is the medical director and owner of BE Skin & Laser Med Spa, an aesthetic medicine practice in NJ, USA. She holds a position as a Visiting Scientist at the Department of Biomaterials and Center for Dermal Research at Rutgers University (NJ, USA) and is an active staff member in the Department of Medicine at Jersey Shore University Medical Center (NJ, USA)...
June 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028480/changes-in-understory-species-occurrence-of-a-secondary-broadleaved-forest-after-mass-mortality-of-oak-trees-under-deer-foraging-pressure
#11
Hiroki Itô
The epidemic of mass mortality of oak trees by Japanese oak wilt has affected secondary deciduous broadleaved forests that have been used as coppices in Japan. The dieback of oak trees formed gaps in the crown that would be expected to enhance the regeneration of shade-intolerant pioneer species. However, foraging by sika deer Cervus nippon has also affected forest vegetation, and the compound effects of both on forest regeneration should be considered when they simultaneously occur. A field study was conducted in Kyôto City, Japan to investigate how these compound effects affected the vegetation of the understory layer of these forests...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026998/can-oak-powdery-mildew-severity-be-explained-by-indirect-effects-of-climate-on-the-composition-of-the-erysiphe-pathogenic-complex
#12
Benoit Marçais, Dominique Piou, Damien Dezette, Marie-Laure Desprez-Loustau
Coinfection by several pathogens is increasingly recognized as an important feature in the epidemiology and evolution of plant fungal pathogens. Oak mildew is induced by 2 closely related Erysiphe invasive species E. alphitoides and E. quercicola, which differ in their mode of overwintering. We investigated how climate influences the co-occurrence of the 2 species in oak young stands and whether this is important for the disease epidemiology We studied the frequency of flag-shoots (i.e. shoots developing from infected buds, usually associated with E...
December 27, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026825/transformation-of-medicinal-plants-using-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#13
Katarzyna Bandurska, Agnieszka Berdowska, Małgorzata Król
For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall). This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions...
December 20, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013279/inducible-transposition-of-a-heat-activated-retrotransposon-in-tissue-culture
#14
Yukari Masuta, Kosuke Nozawa, Hiroki Takagi, Hiroki Yaegashi, Keisuke Tanaka, Tasuku Ito, Hideyuki Saito, Hisato Kobayashi, Wataru Matsunaga, Seiji Masuda, Atsushi Kato, Hidetaka Ito
A transposition of a heat-activated retrotransposon named ONSEN required compromise of a small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation that includes RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) machinery after heat treatment. In the current study, we analyzed the transcriptional and transpositional activation of ONSEN to better understand the underlying molecular mechanism involved in the maintenance and/or induction of transposon activation in plant tissue culture. We found the transposition of heat-primed ONSEN during tissue culture independently of RdDM mutation...
December 23, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011999/transcriptome-response-and-developmental-implications-of-rnai-mediated-odc-knockdown-in-tobacco
#15
Ami Choubey, M V Rajam
Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitously present polycationic compounds that play a critical role in various growth and developmental processes including stress responses in plants. Yet, their specific functions and mode of action remain largely unknown. In the present study, we have targeted tobacco ornithine decarboxylase gene (ODC) by RNA interference to modulate cellular PA levels and study the effects at different developmental time points. Down-regulation of ODC resulted in significant physiological and morphological anomalies including reduced leaf size, reduced chlorophyll and carotene content, decreased abiotic stress tolerance, early onset of senescence, delayed flowering, partial male and female sterility, reduced seed setting, delayed seed germination, reduced seed viability, and poor in vitro regeneration response from leaf explants...
December 24, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011694/wind1-promotes-shoot-regeneration-through-transcriptional-activation-of-enhancer-of-shoot-regeneration1-in-arabidopsis
#16
Akira Iwase, Hirofumi Harashima, Momoko Ikeuchi, Bart Rymen, Mariko Ohnuma, Shinichiro Komaki, Kengo Morohashi, Tetsuya Kurata, Masaru Nakata, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Erich Grotewold, Keiko Sugimoto
Many plant species display remarkable developmental plasticity and regenerate new organs after injury. Local signals produced by wounding are thought to trigger organ regeneration but molecular mechanisms underlying this control remain largely unknown. We previously identified an AP2/ERF transcription factor WOUND INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION 1 (WIND1) as a central regulator of wound-induced cellular reprogramming in plants. In this study, we demonstrate that WIND1 promotes callus formation and shoot regeneration by up-regulating the expression of the ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 (ESR1) gene, which encodes another AP2/ERF transcription factor in Arabidopsis...
December 23, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002611/cryopreservation-of-schisandra-chinensis-turcz-baill-callus-and-subsequent-plant-regeneration
#17
D Sun, Y-F Yu, H-Y Qin, P-L Xu, Y Zhao, Y-X Liu, Z-X Wang, S-T Fan, Y-M Yang, J Ai
Cryopreservation has been proven significance as a technique for promising the long-term conservation of plant germplasms. This study aimed to establish a cryopreservation protocol for calli of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, and to explore the effects of different process parameters on callus viability. Effects of desiccation duration, cryoprotectants and cryopreservation methods, thawing temperature, and post-culture conditions on the viability of cryopreserved calli were assessed. Among different cryoprotectants and freezing procedures, the highest survival was recorded when the water content of callus after 30 min desiccation was 57...
December 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992516/do-david-and-goliath-play-the-same-game-explanation-of-the-abundance-of-rare-and-frequent-invasive-alien-plants-in-urban-woodlands-in-warsaw-poland
#18
Artur Obidziński, Piotr Mędrzycki, Ewa Kołaczkowska, Wojciech Ciurzycki, Katarzyna Marciszewska
Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991666/plant-grafting-how-genetic-exchange-promotes-vascular-reconnection
#19
Jing Wang, Libo Jiang, Rongling Wu
Grafting has been widely used to improve horticultural traits. It has also served increasingly as a tool to investigate the long-distance transport of molecules that is an essential part for key biological processes. Many studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms of graft-induced phenotypic variation in anatomy, morphology and production. Here, we review the phenomena and their underlying mechanisms by which macromolecules, including RNA, protein, and even DNA, are transported between scions and rootstocks via vascular tissues...
December 19, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990170/evaluation-of-wound-healing-properties-of-grape-seed-sesame-and-fenugreek-oils
#20
Dorsaf Moalla Rekik, Sameh Ben Khedir, Kamilia Ksouda Moalla, Naziha Grati Kammoun, Tarek Rebai, Zouheir Sahnoun
Background. Medicinal plants have proved at all times to be a powerful remedy for health care. Accordingly, grape seed, sesame, and fenugreek extracted oils with pharmacological properties are investigated as wound treatments. This study assesses the potential of our oils for healing wounds induced on rats. Methods. Phytochemical analyses of oils have involved: quality value, polyphenol, chlorophylls, carotene, and fatty acids. Antibacterial activity was carried out. Antioxidant activity was evaluated: the scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, the reducing power, and β-carotene discoloration...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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