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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334286/differences-in-the-photosynthetic-plasticity-of-ferns-and-ginkgo-grown-in-experimentally-controlled-low-o2-co2-atmospheres-may-explain-their-contrasting-ecological-fate-across-the-triassic-jurassic-mass-extinction-boundary
#1
C Yiotis, C Evans-Fitz Gerald, J C McElwain
Background and Aims: Fluctuations in [CO 2 ] have been widely studied as a potential driver of plant evolution; however, the role of a fluctuating [O 2 ]:[CO 2 ] ratio is often overlooked. The present study aimed to investigate the inherent physiological plasticity of early diverging, extant species following acclimation to an atmosphere similar to that across the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction interval (TJB, approx. 200 Mya), a time of major ecological change. Methods: Mature plants from two angiosperm ( Drimys winteri and Chloranthus oldhamii ), two monilophyte ( Osmunda claytoniana and Cyathea australis ) and one gymnosperm ( Ginkgo biloba ) species were grown for 2 months in replicated walk-in Conviron BDW40 chambers running at TJB treatment conditions of 16 % [O 2 ]-1900 ppm [CO 2 ] and ambient conditions of 21 % [O 2 ]-400 ppm [CO 2 ], and their physiological plasticity was assessed using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence methods...
March 11, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332409/laboratory-and-pilot-scale-field-experiments-for-application-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-loaded-chitosan-composites-to-phosphate-removal-from-natural-water
#2
Jae-Hyun Kim, Song-Bae Kim, Sang-Hyup Lee, Jae-Woo Choi
The aim of this study was to apply iron oxide nanoparticle-chitosan (ION-chitosan) composites to phosphate removal from natural water collected from the Seoho Stream in Suwon, Republic of Korea. Laboratory batch experiments showed that phosphate removal by the ION-chitosan composites was not sensitive to pH changes between pH values of 5.0 and 9.0. During six cycles of adsorption-desorption, the composites could be successfully regenerated with 5 mM NaOH solution and reused for phosphate removal. Laboratory fixed-bed column experiments (column height = 10 and 20 cm, inner diameter = 2...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330243/micropropagation-and-validation-of-genetic-and-biochemical-fidelity-among-regenerants-of-nothapodytes-nimmoniana-graham-mabb-employing-issr-markers-and-hplc
#3
Lokesh Prakash, Sushil Kumar Middha, Sudipta Kumar Mohanty, Mallappa Kumara Swamy
An in vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Nothapodytes nimmoniana which is an important source of Camptothecin (CPT). Elite source was identified based on the chemical potency to accumulate the optimum level of CPT. Different types and concentrations of plant growth regulators were used to study their effect on inducing multiple shoots from the explants regenerated from embryos of N. nimmoniana. Of these, a combination of N6-benzyladenine (0.2 mg L(-1)) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330220/involvement-of-exogenous-polyamines-enhances-regeneration-and-agrobacterium-mediated-genetic-transformation-in-half-seeds-of-soybean
#4
Muthukrishnan Arun, Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Kondeti Subramanyam, Sivabalan Karthik, Ganeshan Sivanandhan, Jeevaraj Theboral, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Chang Kil Kim, Andy Ganapathi
The present work demonstrates the participation of polyamines (PAs) to improve direct regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in soybean half-seeds. The inclusion of PAs to culture medium along with optimal plant growth regulators (PGRs) enhanced shoot induction [98.3 %; 4.44 µM N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) and 103.27 µM spermidine] and elongation [90.0 %; 1.45 µM gibberellic acid (GA3) and 49.42 µM spermine]. The polyamine putrescine (62.08 µM) alone greatly enriched root induction (96...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330161/in-vitro-propagation-carotenoid-fatty-acid-and-tocopherol-content-of-ajuga-multiflora-bunge
#5
Iyyakkannu Sivanesan, Ramesh Kumar Saini, Rafi Noorzai, Ahmad Jawid Zamany, Doo Hwan Kim
The effect of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation from shoot tip explants of Ajuga multiflora was studied. The highest number of shoots (17.1) was observed when shoot tip explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 8.0 µM 6-Benzyladenine (BA) and 2.7 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The mean number of shoots per explant was increased 1.6-fold in liquid medium as compared with semi-solid medium. Maximum rooting (100 %) with an average of 7.2 roots per shoot was obtained on MS basal medium...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330158/a-simple-and-efficient-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-plant-transformation-of-brassica-rapa-ssp-pekinensis
#6
Venkidasamy Baskar, Baniekal H Gangadhar, Se Won Park, Shivraj Hariram Nile
The present study aims to investigate the numerous factors influencing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Factors affecting transformation efficiency, such as age of explants, Agrobacterium concentration, and effect of acetosyringone, pre-cultivation, infection and co-cultivation time of Agrobacterium were examined. The pre-cultured hypocotyls from young seedlings prior to exposure to Agrobacterium showed higher shoot regeneration. The plant transformation with the modest A...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330124/somaclonal-variations-and-their-applications-in-horticultural-crops-improvement
#7
REVIEW
Hare Krishna, Mahdi Alizadeh, Dhurendra Singh, Udayvir Singh, Nitesh Chauhan, Maliheh Eftekhari, Radha Kishan Sadh
The advancements made in tissue culture techniques has made it possible to regenerate various horticultural species in vitro as micropropagation protocols for commercial scale multiplication are available for a wide range of crops. Clonal propagation and preservation of elite genotypes, selected for their superior characteristics, require high degree of genetic uniformity amongst the regenerated plants. However, plant tissue culture may generate genetic variability, i.e., somaclonal variations as a result of gene mutation or changes in epigenetic marks...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326314/case-study-of-somaclonal-variation-in-resistance-genes-mlo-and-pme3-in-flaxseed-linum-usitatissimum-l-induced-by-nanoparticles
#8
Inese Kokina, Ilona Mickeviča, Marija Jermaļonoka, Linda Bankovska, Vjačeslavs Gerbreders, Andrejs Ogurcovs, Inese Jahundoviča
Nanoparticles influence on genome is investigated worldwide. The appearance of somaclonal variation is a cause of great concern for any micropropagation system. Somaclonal variation describes the tissue-culture-induced phenotypic and genotypic variations. This paper shows the results of somaclonal variation in two resistance genes pectin methylesterase and Mlo-like protein in all tissue culture development stages, as donor plant, calluses, and regenerants of Linum usitatissimum induced by gold and silver nanoparticles...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326088/temperature-effects-on-biomass-and-regeneration-of-vegetation-in-a-geothermal-area
#9
Abdul Nishar, Martin K-F Bader, Eoin J O'Gorman, Jieyu Deng, Barbara Breen, Sebastian Leuzinger
Understanding the effects of increasing temperature is central in explaining the effects of climate change on vegetation. Here, we investigate how warming affects vegetation regeneration and root biomass and if there is an interactive effect of warming with other environmental variables. We also examine if geothermal warming effects on vegetation regeneration and root biomass can be used in climate change experiments. Monitoring plots were arranged in a grid across the study area to cover a range of soil temperatures...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316791/epigenetic-memory-and-cell-fate-reprogramming-in-plants
#10
REVIEW
Kenneth D Birnbaum, François Roudier
Plants have a high intrinsic capacity to regenerate from adult tissues, with the ability to reprogram adult cell fates. In contrast, epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to stabilize cell identity and maintain tissue organization. The question is whether epigenetic memory creates a barrier to reprogramming that needs to be erased or circumvented in plant regeneration. Early evidence suggests that, while chromatin dynamics impact gene expression in the meristem, a lasting constraint on cell fate is not established until late stages of plant cell differentiation...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316790/plant-grafting-insights-into-tissue-regeneration
#11
REVIEW
Charles W Melnyk
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plants together through a process known as grafting. The severed tissues adhere, the cells divide and the vasculature differentiates through a remarkable process of regeneration between two genetically distinct organisms as they become one. Grafting is becoming increasingly important in horticulture where it provides an efficient means for asexual propagation. Grafting also combines desirable roots and shoots to generate chimeras that are more vigorous, more pathogen resistant and more abiotic stress resistant...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315794/initiation-of-leaf-somatic-embryogenesis-involves-high-pectin-esterification-auxin-accumulation-and-dna-demethylation-in-quercus-alba
#12
Elena Corredoira, Vanesa Cano, Ivett Bárány, María-Teresa Solís, Héctor Rodríguez, Ana-María Vieitez, María C Risueño, Pilar S Testillano
Somatic embryogenesis is considered a convenient tool for investigating the regulating mechanisms of embryo formation; it is also a feasible system for in vitro regeneration procedures, with many advantages in woody species. Nevertheless, trees have shown recalcitrance to somatic embryogenesis, and its efficiency remains very low in many cases. Consequently, despite the clear potential of somatic embryogenesis in tree breeding programs, its application is limited since factors responsible for embryogenesis initiation have not yet been completely elucidated...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303393/effective-nut-dispersal-by-magpies-pica-pica-l-in-a-mediterranean-agroecosystem
#13
Jorge Castro, Mercedes Molina-Morales, Alexandro B Leverkus, Loreto Martínez-Baroja, Lorenzo Pérez-Camacho, Pedro Villar-Salvador, Salvador Rebollo, José M Rey-Benayas
Scatter-hoarding animals such as corvids play a crucial role in the dispersal of nut-producing tree species. This interaction is well known for some corvids, but remains elusive for other species such as the magpie (Pica pica), an abundant corvid in agroecosystems and open landscapes of the Palearctic region. In addition, the establishment of the individual dispersed seeds-a prerequisite for determining seed-dispersal effectiveness-has never before been documented for the interaction between corvids and nut-producing trees...
March 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302485/novel-calcified-gum-arabic-porous-nano-composite-scaffold-for-bone-tissue-regeneration
#14
M Hadavi, S Hasannia, Sh Faghihi, F Mashayekhi, H H Zadeh, S B Mostofi
The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical and biological properties of a nanocomposite scaffold containing both mineral and polysaccharide constituents. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA) was synthesized from dead abra ovata shells using wet chemical methods and was used in different ratios in concert with gum Arabic, a branched plant polysaccharide. N-HA/gum nanocomposite was fabricated with freeze-drying process and characterized by FTIR and SEM for chemical structure and morphology. Porosity was estimated using liquid substitution method...
March 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301809/evaluation-of-drug-uptake-and-deactivation-in-plant-fate-of-albendazole-in-ribwort-plantain-plantago-laceolata-cells-and-regenerants
#15
Lucie Stuchlíková Raisová, Radka Podlipná, Barbora Szotáková, Eliška Syslová, Lenka Skálová
Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole anthelmintic widely used especially in veterinary medicine. Along with other drugs, anthelmintics have become one of a new class of micro-pollutants that disturb the environment but the information about their fate in plants remains limited. The present study was designed to test the uptake and biotransformation of ABZ in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lancelota), a common meadow plant, which can come into contact with this anthelmintic through the excrements of treated animals in pastures...
March 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286512/optimization-of-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-in-soybean
#16
Shuxuan Li, Yahui Cong, Yaping Liu, Tingting Wang, Qin Shuai, Nana Chen, Junyi Gai, Yan Li
High transformation efficiency is a prerequisite for study of gene function and molecular breeding. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a preferred method in many plants. However, the transformation efficiency in soybean is still low. The objective of this study is to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in soybean by improving the infection efficiency of Agrobacterium and regeneration efficiency of explants. Firstly, four factors affecting Agrobacterium infection efficiency were investigated by estimation of the rate of GUS transient expression in soybean cotyledonary explants, including Agrobacterium concentrations, soybean explants, Agrobacterium suspension medium, and co-cultivation time...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286319/establishment-of-crispr-cas9-in-alternaria-alternata
#17
Maximilian Wenderoth, Christoph Pinecker, Benjamin Voß, Reinhard Fischer
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata is a potent producer of many secondary metabolites, some of which like alternariol or alternariol-methyl ether are toxic and/or cancerogenic. Many Alternaria species do not only cause post-harvest losses of food and feed, but are aggressive plant pathogens. Despite the great economic importance and the large number of research groups working with the fungus, the molecular toolbox is rather underdeveloped. Gene deletions often result in heterokaryotic strains and therefore, gene-function analyses are rather tedious...
March 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278098/removal-of-ammonium-from-municipal-wastewater-with-powdered-and-granulated-metakaolin-geopolymer
#18
Tero Luukkonen, Kateřina Věžníková, Emma-Tuulia Tolonen, Hanna Runtti, Juho Yliniemi, Tao Hu, Kimmo Kemppainen, Ulla Lassi
Ammonium (NH4(+)) removal from municipal wastewater poses challenges with the commonly used biological processes. Especially at low wastewater temperatures, the process is frequently ineffective and difficult to control. One alternative is to use ion-exchange. In the present study, a novel NH4(+) ion-exchanger, metakaolin geopolymer (MK-GP), was prepared, characterized, and tested. Batch experiments with powdered MK-GP indicated that the maximum exchange capacities were 31.79, 28.77, and 17.75 mg/g in synthetic, screened, and pre-sedimented municipal wastewater, respectively, according to the Sips isotherm (R(2) ≥ 0...
March 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277078/the-use-of-phosphomannose-isomerase-selection-system-for-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-of-tobacco-and-flax-aimed-for-phytoremediation
#19
Jitka Hilgert, Martina Sura-De Jong, Jiří Fišer, Kateřina Tupá, Miroslava Vrbová, Miroslav Griga, Tomáš Macek, Jana Žiarovská
A plant selection system based on the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker is often used to avoid selection using antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, pmi gene is endogenous in several plant species and therefore difficult to use in such cases. Here we evaluated and compared Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Linum usitatissimum breeding line AGT-952 (without endogenous pmi gene) and Nicotiana tabacum var. WSC-38 (with endogenous pmi gene). Transformation was evaluated for vectors bearing transgenes that have the potential to be involved in improved phytoremediation of contaminated environment...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275885/development-of-polyspermic-zygote-and-possible-contribution-of-polyspermy-to-polyploid-formation-in-angiosperms
#20
Takashi Okamoto, Yukinosuke Ohnishi, Erika Toda
Fertilization is a general feature of eukaryotic uni- and multicellular organisms to restore a diploid genome from female and male gamete haploid genomes. In angiosperms, polyploidization is a common phenomenon, and polyploidy would have played a major role in the long-term diversification and evolutionary success of plants. As for the mechanism of formation of autotetraploid plants, the triploid-bridge pathway, crossing between triploid and diploid plants, is considered as a major pathway. For the emergence of triploid plants, fusion of an unreduced gamete with a reduced gamete is generally accepted...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
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