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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102619/editorial-making-clinical-trials-smarter-and-more-interesting
#1
EDITORIAL
R M Pasco Fearon
At its heart, the field of child psychology and psychiatry is geared towards using science to develop interventions that promote children's healthy development and treat behavioural and emotional difficulties when they arise. While there have been some successes (e.g. stimulant medication for ADHD, parent training for child conduct problems, Fonagy et al., ) serious challenges lie ahead if we are to achieve reliable and lasting improvements for a larger number of children, and for a broader spectrum of problems...
February 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101650/speech-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-early-diagnostics-and-effects-of-medication-and-brain-stimulation
#2
REVIEW
L Brabenec, J Mekyska, Z Galaz, Irena Rektorova
Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) occurs in 90% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It manifests specifically in the areas of articulation, phonation, prosody, speech fluency, and faciokinesis. We aimed to systematically review papers on HD in PD with a special focus on (1) early PD diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression using acoustic voice and speech analysis, and (2) functional imaging studies exploring neural correlates of HD in PD, and (3) clinical studies using acoustic analysis to evaluate effects of dopaminergic medication and brain stimulation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101488/thyroid-function-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-cross-sectional-results-from-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil-effect-of-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#3
Érique José F Peixoto de Miranda, Márcio Sommer Bittencourt, Itamar S Santos, Paulo A Lotufo, Isabela M Benseñor
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, but little information is available about its association with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). OBJECTIVES: This study aims to analyze the association between SCH and hs-CRP using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). METHODS: The study has a cross-sectional design. We included subjects with normal thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH, 0...
December 2016: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101346/a-case-study-of-bofutsushosan-induced-pulmonary-injury-in-a-patient-case-report
#4
Kunihiko Miyazaki, Hiroaki Satoh, Hiroko Watanabe, Toshihiro Shiozawa, Tomohiro Tamura, Mio Kawaguchi, Nobuyuki Hizawa
Bofutsushosan, a herbal (traditional Kampo) medicine, is administered to obese patients in North-East Asia. Bofutsushosan has been reported to exert various anti-obesity effects by stimulating the adipose tissue. The present study describes the case of a patient who developed a severe pulmonary injury that was potentially associated with bofutsushosan therapy. A 52-year-old woman was admitted to Mito Medical Center, University of Tsukuba, Mito Kyodo General Hospital (Mito, Japan) due to progressive dyspnea...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099580/risk-factors-hyposalivation-and-impact-of-xerostomia-on-oral-health-related-quality-of-life
#5
Sven Niklander, Laura Veas, Cristina Barrera, Flavio Fuentes, Giuliana Chiappini, Maureen Marshall
To determine xerostomia-related frequency, factors, salivary flow rates and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of patients attending the Universidad Andrés Bello Dental School Clinic, in the city of Viña del Mar, Chile. The study involved 566 patients assessed with xerostomia, based on a single standardized questionnaire. The severity and impact of xerostomia on OHRQoL was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the short version of the Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-14sp), respectively...
January 16, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098766/single-electrode-deep-brain-stimulation-with-dual-targeting-at-dual-frequency-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Milo Hollingworth, Hugh P Sims-Williams, Anthony E Pickering, Neil Barua, Nikunj K Patel
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been used to target many deep brain structures for the treatment of chronic pain. The periaqueductal grey and periventricular grey (PAG/PVG) is an effective target but results are variable, sometimes short-lived or subject to tolerance. The centromedian intra-laminar parafascicular complex (CMPf) modulates medial pain pathways and CMPf DBS may address the affective aspects of pain perception. Stimulation of multiple deep brain targets may offer a strategy to optimize management of patients with complex pain symptomatology...
January 13, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098590/analgesia-and-sedation-requirements-in-mechanically-ventilated-trauma-patients-with-acute-preinjury-use-of-cocaine-and-or-amphetamines
#7
Bridgette Kram, Shawn J Kram, Michelle L Sharpe, Michael L James, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Mark L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanically ventilated trauma patients with a positive urine drug screen (UDS) for cocaine and/or amphetamines have different opioid analgesic and sedative requirements compared with similar patients with a negative drug screen for these stimulants. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center cohort study at a tertiary care, academic medical and level 1 trauma center in the United States included patients ≥16 years of age who were admitted to an adult intensive care unit with a diagnosis of trauma between 2009 and 2013 with a UDS documented within 24 hours of admission, and were mechanically ventilated for >24 hours...
January 16, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096689/influence-of-exercise-on-visceral-pain-an-explorative-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#8
Laura Jgm van Weerdenburg, Christina Brock, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Harry van Goor, Marjan de Vries, Oliver Hg Wilder-Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Contradictory results have been found about the effect of different exercise modalities on pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the early effects of aerobic and isometric exercise on different types of experimental pain, including visceral pain, compared to an active control condition. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects (6 women, mean [standard deviation] age 25 [6.5] years) completed 3 interventions consisting of 20 minutes of aerobic cycling, 12 minutes of isometric knee extension and a deep breathing procedure as active control...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096688/extreme-leukocytosis-and-leukemoid-reaction-associated-with-the-lung-sarcomatoid-carcinoma-an-unusual-case-report
#9
Danyang Wang, Haiyan Zhang, Fengkuan Yu, Baijun Fang
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of extreme leukocytosis and leukemoid reaction associated with lung sarcomatoid carcinoma (LSC) and increase people's awareness of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 58-year-old male patient was diagnosed with LSC; however, after the end of the second course of chemotherapy, his white blood cells increased gradually without fever or use of medications such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and steroids. A bone marrow biopsy then confirmed it to be a leukemoid reaction...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096104/recent-developments-in-the-surgical-management-of-paediatric-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Vijay M Ravindra, Matthew T Sweney, Robert J Bollo
Among the 1% of children affected by epilepsy, failure of pharmacological therapy and early age of seizure onset can lead to worse long-term cognitive outcomes, mental health disorders and impaired functional status. Surgical management often improves functional and cognitive outcomes in children with medically refractory epilepsy, especially when seizure remission is achieved. However, surgery remains underused in children with drug-resistant epilepsy, creating a large treatment gap. Several recent innovations have led to considerable improvement in surgical technique, including the recent development of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques such as stereotactic EEG, transcranial magnetic stimulation, MRI-guided laser ablation, as well as novel paradigms of neurostimulation...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095885/symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-among-adult-eating-disorder-patients
#11
Nils Erik Svedlund, Claes Norring, Ylva Ginsberg, Yvonne von Hausswolff-Juhlin
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder and even less in other eating disorders. This knowledge gap is of clinical importance since stimulant treatment is proven effective in Binge Eating Disorder and discussed as a treatment possibility for Bulimia Nervosa. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and types of self-reported ADHD symptoms in an unselected group of eating disorder patients assessed in a specialized eating disorder clinic...
January 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094487/blood-doping-at-the-olympic-games
#12
Kenneth D Fitch
BACKGROUND: The objective of this paper was to review our knowledge of athletes who have, are believed to have or have attempted to engage in blood doping to enhance their performance at an Olympic Games. METHOD: The paper focused on the Games from Munich 1972 to London 2012 and the author had a medical role at each of the Olympics that is discussed. RESULTS: The study revealed that Olympic athletes have benefitted from manipulating their blood by re--infusion of autologous or infusion of homologous blood and by administering erythropoiesis stimulating agents, notably the three generations of erythropoietins...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093713/timing-of-future-remyelination-therapies-and-their-potential-to-stop-multiple-sclerosis-progression
#13
Burcu Zeydan, Moses Rodriguez, Orhun H Kantarci
Prior to the onset of demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), early oligodendrocyte injury, axonal degeneration and astroglial scarring occur. The irreversible progressive phase of MS begins when the axonal loss threshold is reached. Progressive disease onset has the highest impact on a poor prognosis in MS. Conversion to progressive disease is essentially an age-dependent process independent of disease duration and initial disease course. Although prevention of relapses has been the primary approach in the disease management, incomplete recovery from even the first relapse correlates with the long-term neurodegenerative phenotype of progressive MS onset...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092617/supplementation-of-pigs-diet-with-zinc-and-copper-as-alternative-to-conventional-antimicrobials
#14
B Dębski
Modern commercial pig farming systems inflict increased stress in animals, which often leads to various negative changes in the gastro-intestinal tract, especially in the case of piglets. Ban of antibiotics, used as growth promoters, has caused a need for alternatives to conventional antimicrobials in swine diets. Use of pre-/or probiotics, organic acids and plant extracts is often recommended, but it seems that zinc oxide and cooper salts, which were traditionally included in high doses to piglets diet, possess the highest efficacy...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091894/mechanisms-of-action-of-surgical-interventions-on-weight-related-diseases-the-potential-role-of-bile-acids
#15
REVIEW
Mohsen Mazidi, Pedro Paulo P de Caravatto, John R Speakman, Ricardo V Cohen
Surgical interventions for weight-related diseases (SWRD) may have substantial and sustainable effect on weight reduction, also leading to a higher remission rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus than any other medical treatment or lifestyle intervention. The resolution of T2D after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) typically occurs too quickly to be accounted for by weight loss alone, suggesting that these operations have a direct impact on glucose homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects however remain unclear...
January 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091532/development-of-the-neuroimmune-modulator-ibudilast-for-the-treatment-of-alcoholism-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-human-laboratory-trial
#16
Lara A Ray, Spencer Bujarski, Steve Shoptaw, Daniel Jo Roche, Keith Heinzerling, Karen Miotto
Current directions in medication development for alcohol use disorder (AUD) emphasize the need to identify novel molecular targets and efficiently screen new compounds aimed at those targets. Ibudilast (IBUD) is a neuroimmune modulator that inhibits phosphodiesterases -4 and -10 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor and was recently found to reduce alcohol intake in rats by approximately 50%. To advance medications development for AUD, the present study consists of a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory study of IBUD in non-treatment seeking individuals with current (ie, past month) mild-to-severe AUD...
January 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088795/influence-of-intracranial-air-on-electrode-position-and-clinical-outcomes-following-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease
#17
J Nicole Bentley, Zhe Guan, Karen S Cummings, Kelvin L Chou, Parag G Patil
BACKGROUND: The introduction of intracranial air during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery is believed to negatively impact targeting accuracy and clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relationship between intracranial air (ICA) volumes, targeting accuracy, and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS for Parkinson's disease. METHODS: ICA in 73 consecutive STN DBS cases (146 leads) was measured by high-resolution CT and correlated with proximal lead bowing, electrode displacement, targeting accuracy, and clinical outcomes at 6 and 12 months...
January 14, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088740/associations-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-student-teacher-relationships-and-non-medical-use-of-prescription-medications-among-adolescents
#18
Myriam Forster, Amy L Gower, Iris W Borowsky, Barbara J McMorris
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and nonmedical use of prescription medication (NMUPM) in population-based samples of adolescents, and even fewer have examined whether promotive factors might buffer these effects. The present study assesses the direct effects of ACE and positive student-teacher relationships on NUMPD and whether positive student-teacher relationships moderate this association. DESIGN: Data were from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (MSS), an in-school survey administered every three years to students throughout Minnesota...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087972/lack-of-effect-of-oral-cabotegravir-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-a-levonorgestrel-ethinyl-estradiol-containing-oral-contraceptive-in-healthy-adult-females
#19
C Trezza, S L Ford, E Gould, Y Lou, C Huang, J M Ritter, A M Buchanan, W Spreen, P Patel
AIM(S): This study aimed to investigate whether cabotegravir (CAB), an integrase inhibitor in development for treatment and prevention of HIV-1, influences the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a levonorgestrel (LNG) and ethinyl estradiol (EE)-containing oral contraceptive (OC) in healthy women. METHODS: In this open-label, fixed-sequence crossover study, healthy female subjects received LNG 0.15 mg/EE 0.03 mg tablet once daily Days 1-10 alone and with oral CAB 30 mg once daily Days 11-21...
January 14, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087148/immunogenicity-differences-of-a-15-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-pcv15-based-on-vaccine-dose-route-of-immunization-and-mouse-strain
#20
REVIEW
Ivette Caro-Aguilar, Lani Indrawati, Robin M Kaufhold, Christine Gaunt, Yuhua Zhang, Denise K Nawrocki, Cecilia Giovarelli, Michael A Winters, William J Smith, Jon Heinrichs, Julie M Skinner
Pneumococcal disease continues to be a medical need even with very effective vaccines on the market. Globally, there are extensive research efforts to improve serotype coverage with novel vaccines; therefore, conducting preclinical studies in different animal models becomes essential. The work presented herein focuses on evaluating a 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15) in mice. Initially we evaluated several doses of PCV15 in Balb/c mice. The optimal vaccine dose was determined to be 0.4μg per pneumococcal polysaccharide (PS) (0...
January 10, 2017: Vaccine
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