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Chromothripsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099951/complex-x-chromosomal-rearrangements-in-two-women-with-ovarian-dysfunction-implications-of-chromothripsis-chromoanasynthesis-dependent-and-independent-origins-of-complex-genomic-alterations
#1
Erina Suzuki, Hirohito Shima, Machiko Toki, Kunihiko Hanew, Keiko Matsubara, Hiroki Kurahashi, Satoshi Narumi, Tsutomu Ogata, Tsutomu Kamimaki, Maki Fukami
Our current understanding of the phenotypic consequences and the molecular basis of germline complex chromosomal rearrangements remains fragmentary. Here, we report the clinical and molecular characteristics of 2 women with germline complex X-chromosomal rearrangements. Patient 1 presented with nonsyndromic ovarian dysfunction and hyperthyroidism; patient 2 exhibited various Turner syndrome- associated symptoms including ovarian dysfunction, short stature, and autoimmune hypothyroidism. The genomic abnormalities of the patients were characterized by array-based comparative genomic hybridization, high-resolution karyotyping, microsatellite genotyping, X-inactivation analysis, and bisulfite sequencing...
January 19, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096526/telomeres-in-cancer-tumour-suppression-and-genome-instability
#2
John Maciejowski, Titia de Lange
The shortening of human telomeres has two opposing effects during cancer development. On the one hand, telomere shortening can exert a tumour-suppressive effect through the proliferation arrest induced by activating the kinases ATM and ATR at unprotected chromosome ends. On the other hand, loss of telomere protection can lead to telomere crisis, which is a state of extensive genome instability that can promote cancer progression. Recent data, reviewed here, provide new evidence for the telomere tumour suppressor pathway and has revealed that telomere crisis can induce numerous cancer-relevant changes, including chromothripsis, kataegis and tetraploidization...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056863/growth-progression-and-chromosome-instability-of-neuroblastoma-a-new-scenario-of-tumorigenesis
#3
Gian Paolo Tonini
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer with a low survival rate of patients with metastatic stage 4 disease. Tumor aggressiveness and progression have been associated with structural copy number variations (CNVs) that are observed in malignant cells. In contrast, localized Neuroblastomas, which are associated with a low number of structural CNVs but frequent numerical CNVs, are less aggressive, and patients have good outcomes. Finally, whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing of Neuroblastoma tissues have shown few damaging mutations in these tumors...
January 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045556/generalized-hultman-numbers-and-cycle-structures-of-breakpoint-graphs
#4
Nikita Alexeev, Anna Pologova, Max A Alekseyev
Genome rearrangements can be modeled as k-breaks, which break a genome at k positions and glue the resulting fragments in a new order. In particular, reversals, translocations, fusions, and fissions are modeled as 2-breaks, and transpositions are modeled as 3-breaks. Although k-break rearrangements for [Formula: see text] have not been observed in evolution, they are used in cancer genomics to model chromothripsis, a catastrophic event of multiple breakages happening simultaneously in a genome. It is known that the k-break distance between two genomes (i...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008180/y-chromothripsis
#5
Emily M Hatch
Micronucleation of missegregated chromatin can lead to substantial chromosome rearrangements via chromothripsis. However, the molecular details of micronucleus-based chromothripsis are still unclear. Now, an elegant system that specifically induces missegregation of the Y chromosome provides insight into this process, including a role for non-homologous end joining.
December 23, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918550/selective-y-centromere-inactivation-triggers-chromosome-shattering-in-micronuclei-and-repair-by-non-homologous-end-joining
#6
Peter Ly, Levi S Teitz, Dong H Kim, Ofer Shoshani, Helen Skaletsky, Daniele Fachinetti, David C Page, Don W Cleveland
Chromosome missegregation into a micronucleus can cause complex and localized genomic rearrangements known as chromothripsis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Here we developed an inducible Y centromere-selective inactivation strategy by exploiting a CENP-A/histone H3 chimaera to directly examine the fate of missegregated chromosomes in otherwise diploid human cells. Using this approach, we identified a temporal cascade of events that are initiated following centromere inactivation involving chromosome missegregation, fragmentation, and re-ligation that span three consecutive cell cycles...
January 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895713/coexistence-of-iamp21-and-etv6-runx1-fusion-in-an-adolescent-with-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-literature-review-of-six-additional-cases
#7
Jun Gu, Alexandra Reynolds, Lianghua Fang, Corrie DeGraffenreid, Kenneth Sterns, Keyur P Patel, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Pei Lin, Xinyan Lu
BACKGROUND: Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21) results from breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and chromothripsis is a distinct marker of a subgroup of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cases associated with a poor prognosis. iAMP21 accounts for 2% of pediatric B-ALL and occurs predominantly in older children or adolescents. ETV6-RUNX1 fusion, resulting from t(12;21)(p13;q22), is associated with an excellent outcome in younger children with B-ALL. Coexistence of iAMP21 with ETV6-RUNX1 fusion is extremely rare with limited clinical information available...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888607/catastrophic-cellular-events-leading-to-complex-chromosomal-rearrangements-in-the-germline
#8
REVIEW
Maki Fukami, Hitohito Shima, Erina Suzuki, Tsutomu Ogata, Keiko Matsubara, Tsutomu Kamimaki
Although complex chromosomal rearrangements were thought to reflect the accumulation of DNA damage over time, recent studies have shown that such rearrangements frequently arise from "all-at-once" catastrophic cellular events. These events, designated chromothripsis, chromoanasynthesis, and chromoanagenesis, were first documented in the cancer genome and subsequently observed in the germline. These events likely result from micronucleus-mediated chromosomal shattering and subsequent random reassembly of DNA fragments, although several other mechanisms have also been proposed...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880765/mechanisms-for-complex-chromosomal-insertions
#9
Shen Gu, Przemyslaw Szafranski, Zeynep Coban Akdemir, Bo Yuan, Mitchell L Cooper, Maria A Magriñá, Carlos A Bacino, Seema R Lalani, Amy M Breman, Janice L Smith, Ankita Patel, Rodger H Song, Weimin Bi, Sau Wai Cheung, Claudia M B Carvalho, Paweł Stankiewicz, James R Lupski
Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825145/constitutional-chromoanagenesis-of-distal-13q-in-a-young-adult-with-recurrent-strokes
#10
Rachel D Burnside, April Harris, Darrow Speyer, W Scott Burgin, David Z Rose, Amarilis Sanchez-Valle
Constitutional chromoanagenesis events, which include chromoanasynthesis and chromothripsis and result in highly complex rearrangements, have been reported for only a few individuals. While rare, these phenomena have likely been underestimated in a constitutional setting as technologies that can accurately detect such complexity are relatively new to the mature field of clinical cytogenetics. G-banding is not likely to accurately identify chromoanasynthesis or chromothripsis, since the banding patterns of chromosomes are likely to be misidentified or oversimplified due to a much lower resolution...
2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781423/malignant-glioma-with-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-like-component-mg-pnet-novel-microarray-findings-in-a-pediatric-patient
#11
Jinglan Liu, Matthew P Keisling, Ayman Samkari, Gregory Halligan, Judy M Pascasio, Christos D Katsetos
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors exhibiting dual features of malignant glioma (MG) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) are rare and diagnostically challenging. Previous studies have shown that MG-PNET carry MYCN or MYC gene amplifications within the PNET component concomitant with glioma-associated alterations, most commonly 10q loss, in both components [9]. Here we confirm and extend the profile of molecular genetic findings in a MG-PNET involving the left frontal lobe of a 12-year-old male. Histologically, the PNET-like component showed morphological features akin to anaplastic medulloblastoma highlighted by widespread immunoreactivity for βIII-tubulin (TUBB3) and nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein, and to a lesser degree, Neu-N, synaptophysin, and CD99, whereas the gliomatous component was demarcated by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) labeling...
November 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770003/genomic-analysis-of-pancreatic-cancers-reveals-punctuated-evolution
#12
(no author information available yet)
Most pancreatic tumors display complex rearrangements linked to mitotic errors and chromothripsis.
December 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741277/chromothripsis-is-a-recurrent-genomic-abnormality-in-high-risk-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#13
María Abáigar, Cristina Robledo, Rocío Benito, Fernando Ramos, María Díez-Campelo, Lourdes Hermosín, Javier Sánchez-Del-Real, Jose M Alonso, Rebeca Cuello, Marta Megido, Juan N Rodríguez, Guillermo Martín-Núñez, Carlos Aguilar, Manuel Vargas, Ana A Martín, Juan L García, Alexander Kohlmann, M Consuelo Del Cañizo, Jesús M Hernández-Rivas
To explore novel genetic abnormalities occurring in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) through an integrative study combining array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a series of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. 301 patients diagnosed with MDS (n = 240) or MDS/MPN (n = 61) were studied at the time of diagnosis. A genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number abnormalities was performed. In addition, a mutational analysis of DNMT3A, TET2, RUNX1, TP53 and BCOR genes was performed by NGS in selected cases...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636097/cancer-cells-that-survive-checkpoint-adaptation-contain-micronuclei-that-harbor-damaged-dna
#14
Cody W Lewis, Roy M Golsteyn
We have examined the relationship between checkpoint adaptation (mitosis with damaged DNA) and micronuclei. Micronuclei in cancer cells are linked to genomic change, and may induce chromothripsis (chromosome shattering). We measured the cytotoxicity of the cancer drug cisplatin in M059K (glioma fibroblasts, IC50 15 μM). Nearly 100% of M059K cells were positive for histone γH2AX staining after 48 h treatment with a cytotoxic concentration of cisplatin. The proportion of micronucleated cells, as confirmed by microscopy using DAPI and lamin A/C staining, increased from 24% to 48%, and the total micronuclei in surviving cells accumulated over time...
November 16, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560999/tumor-touch-imprints-as-source-for-whole-genome-analysis-of-neuroblastoma-tumors
#15
Clemens Brunner, Bettina Brunner-Herglotz, Andrea Ziegler, Christian Frech, Gabriele Amann, Ruth Ladenstein, Inge M Ambros, Peter F Ambros
INTRODUCTION: Tumor touch imprints (TTIs) are routinely used for the molecular diagnosis of neuroblastomas by interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization (I-FISH). However, in order to facilitate a comprehensive, up-to-date molecular diagnosis of neuroblastomas and to identify new markers to refine risk and therapy stratification methods, whole genome approaches are needed. We examined the applicability of an ultra-high density SNP array platform that identifies copy number changes of varying sizes down to a few exons for the detection of genomic changes in tumor DNA extracted from TTIs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542123/impaired-nuclear-functions-in-micronuclei-results-in-genome-instability-and-chromothripsis
#16
Mariona Terradas, Marta Martín, Anna Genescà
Micronuclei (MN) have generally been considered a consequence of DNA damage and, as such, have been used as markers of exposure to genotoxic agents. However, advances in DNA sequencing methods and the development of high-resolution microscopy with which to analyse chromosome dynamics in live cells have been fundamental in building a more refined view of the existing links between DNA damage and micronuclei. Here, we review recent progress indicating that defects of micronuclei affect basic nuclear functions, such as DNA repair and replication, generating massive damage in the chromatin of the MN...
November 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526110/systemic-chromosome-instability-in-shugoshin-1-mice-resulted-in-compromised-glutathione-pathway-activation-of-wnt-signaling-and-defects-in-immune-system-in-the-lung
#17
H Y Yamada, G Kumar, Y Zhang, E Rubin, S Lightfoot, W Dai, C V Rao
Mitotic error-mediated chromosome instability (CIN) can lead to aneuploidy, chromothripsis, DNA damage and/or whole chromosome gain/loss. CIN may prompt rapid accumulation of mutations and genomic alterations. Thus, CIN can promote carcinogenesis. This CIN process results from a mutation in certain genes or environmental challenge such as smoking, and is highly prevalent in various cancers, including lung cancer. A better understanding of the effects of CIN on carcinogenesis will lead to novel methods for cancer prevention and treatment...
August 15, 2016: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447440/concurrence-of-chromosome-6-chromothripsis-and-glioblastoma-metastasis
#18
Robert C Rennert, Reid R Hoshide, Jason W Signorelli, Deirdre Amaro, Jayson A Sack, Cameron W Brennan, Clark C Chen
The authors report an unusual case of a widely metastatic glioblastoma. DNA copy number microarray profile of the resected specimen revealed complex rearrangements found throughout chromosome 6, a phenomenon known as chromothripsis. Such chromothripsis pattern was not observed in 50 nonmetastatic glioblastoma specimens analyzed. Analysis of the 1000+ gliomas profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set revealed one case of chromosome 6 chromothripsis resembling the case described here. This TCGA patient died within 6 months of undergoing tumor resection...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441494/genetic-progression-of-barrett-s-oesophagus-to-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma
#19
Eleanor M Gregson, Jan Bornschein, Rebecca C Fitzgerald
Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is the premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Diagnostically, p53 immunohistochemistry remains the only biomarker recommended clinically to aid histopathological diagnosis. The emerging mutational profile of BE is one of highly heterogeneous lesions at the genomic level with many mutations already occurring in non-dysplastic tissue. As well as point mutations, larger scale copy-number changes appear to have a key role in the progression to OAC and clinically applicable assays for the reliable detection of aneuploidy will be important to incorporate into future clinical management of patients...
August 9, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426636/chromothripsis-in-two-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-case-series
#20
Jonathan C Gullett, Iya Y Znoyko, Daynna J Wolff, Cynthia A Schandl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
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